CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download

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CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download, CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper 2024, CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download

CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper

Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper

CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper

CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download

Section A consists of 17 questions of 1 mark each

1. Out of the total population in India, what is the percentage of the population living in urban areas (2011)?

(a) 38%

(c) 31%

(b) 10.8%

(d) 31.5%

2. Match the following.

List I (Type)List II (Town)
A. Industrial town1. Pachmarhi
B. Satellite town2. Hugli
C. Tourist town3. Ujjain
D. Cultural town4. Ghaziabad


(a) 4 213

(b) 3 2 1 4

(c) 1 2 3 4

(d) 24 13

3. ‘Landing’ is the name of which of the following agricultural systems? 

(a) Plantation agriculture

(b) Primitive subsistence agriculture

(c) Mixed farming

(d) Dairy farming

4. National Waterway 1 (NW1) stretches from

(a) Sadiya-Dhubri

(b) Allahabad-Haldia

(c) Kottapuram-Kollam

(d) Kollam-Dhubri

5. Which of the following can be a consequence of very high population growth?

(a) Depletion of resources

(b) Rise in epidemics

(c) Shortage of food supply

(d) All of the above

6. In which of the following Five Year Plans, the Hill Area Development Programme was started? 

(a) Fifth Five-Year Plan

(b) Seventh Five-Year Plan

(c) Third Five-Year Plan

(d) Sixth Five-Year Plan

7. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched? 

(a) Hunting

(b) Gathering

(c) Nomadic herding

(d) Transhumance

8. Which of the following is not a pillar of human development? 

(a) Equity

(b) Equality

(c) Sustainability

(d) Empowerment

9. Which of these countries is in the first stage of Demographic transition? 

(a) Bangladesh

(b) India

(c) Bhutan

(d) Canada

10. Low latitude zone includes which of the following areas where the gathering is still practised

(a) Amazon Basin

(b) Tropical Africa

(c) Northern Fringe of Australia

(d) All of the above

11. Which of these has the highest percentage of rural population? 

(a) Himachal Pradesh

(b) Uttarakhand

(c) Bihar

(d) Arunachal Pradesh

12. Which of the states operate the Konkan Railway? 

(a) Maharashtra

(b) Goa

(d) All of these

(c) Karnataka

13. There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes given below. 

Assertion (A) Negative trade balance occurs when the value of imports is more than the value of exports.

Reason (R) A country’s economy is largely affected by the balance of payment.


(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is false, but R is true

(d) A is true, but R is false

14. Consider the following statements.

1. The North Atlantic Sea route is the busiest sea route in the world.

II. The North Atlantic sea route connects the USA with Europe.


(a) Only statement I is correct

(b) Only statement II is correct

(e) Both the statement are correct, and statement II correctly explain statement I

(d) Both statements are true, but not related to each other

15. What is the combined percentage of groundwater withdrawals by the industrial and domestic sectors?

(a) 3.6%

(b) 5%

(c) 8%

(d) 92%

16. What sector has the lowest contribution to groundwater withdrawals? D

(a) Agriculture

(b) Industrial

(c) Domestic

(d) None of these

17. Which sector has the highest contribution of 10 groundwater withdrawals? 

(a) Agriculture

(c) Industrial

(d) None of these

(b) Domestic

Section B consists of 2 Source based question 18. 

Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Nuclear energy has emerged as a viable source in recent times. Important minerals used for the generation of nuclear energy are uranium and thorium. Uranium deposits occur in the Dharwar rocks. 

Geographically, uranium ores are known to occur in several locations along the Singbhum Copper belt. It is also found in the Udaipur, Alwar and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, the Durg district of Chhattisgarh, the Bhandara district of Maharashtra and the Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. 

Thorium is mainly obtained from monazite and ilmenite in the beach sands along the coast of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The world’s richest monazite deposits occur in the Palakkad and Kollam districts of Kerala, near Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and the Mahanadi river delta in Odisha.

Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1948, but progress could be made only after the establishment of the Atomic Energy Institute at Trombay in 1954 which was renamed the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1967. 

The important nuclear power projects are Tarapur (Maharashtra), Rawatbhata near Kota (Rajasthan), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), Kaiga (Karnataka) and Kakrapar (Gujarat).

When the magma from the interior of Earth, comes out on the surface, tremendous heat is released. This heat energy can successfully be tapped and converted to electrical energy. 

Apart from this, the hot water that gushes out through the geyser wells is also used in the generation of thermal energy. It is popularly known as geothermal energy.

This energy is now considered to be one of the key energy sources that can be developed as an alternate source. Hot springs and geysers have been used since the Medieval period. In India, a geothermal energy plant has been commissioned at Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh.

(i) Thorium is obtained from which mineral? 

(ii) Which source of energy is renewable? 

(iii) In which region, the deposits of copper were found? 

19. Study the given map and answer the following questions.

India-Distribution of Cotton and Jute

(i) Identify and name the canal shown on the map. 

(ii) Mention any one characteristic of this canal. 

(iii) Which oceans are connected through this canal? 

Section C consists of 4 questions of 3 mark

20. Highlight the importance of medical tourism in India. 

Or “Outsourcing has resulted in opening up a large number of job opportunities in several countries”. Analyse the statement with three suitable examples. 

21. What is possibility? Describe with examples.

22. Explain distance as the most important factor in determining the location of industries.


What is the basis on which industries are classified? 

23. What are the major problems associated with road transport in the world? 

Section D consists of 5 questions with 5 marks

24. Discuss the religious composition in the population of India which shows the secular fabric of Indian society. 

The decadal and annual growth rates of the population in India are both very high and steadily increasing over time. “Substantiate the statement.

25. What are the major characteristics of subsistence agriculture? 

26. What are the characteristics of road transport in India? 

Or Which apex body develops the Border roads? Explain its importance. 

27. Noise pollution has become hazardous in big cities of India. Explain. 

28. Why does 90% of the world’s population live in about 10% of its total area, whereas 10% of the population resides in 90% of the land area? 

Or Briefly explain trends in population growth of the world with special reference to the help of science and technology. 

Section E consists of 2 Map based questions of 5

29. On the political map of India, locate and label any five of the following with appropriate symbols.

(i) A bauxite mine in Madhya Pradesh

(ii) A International Airport

(iii) A leading producer of jute

(iv) An oil refinery

(v) An iron ore mine in Chhattisgarh

(vi) A coal mine in Tamil Nadu

(vii) State with the highest population density

Identify  A major Airport in Europe

(4) An area onder nome commercial grain farming nomadic herding

(ii) An area (iv) An area of mixed farming

(1) West for Seinpo Station of Trans-Australian Railway

(vi) A major seaport (vii) A major seaport in South America


1. (c) 31%

2. (d) 2413

3. (b) Primitive subsistence agriculture

4. (b) Allahabad-Haldia

5. (d) All of the above

6. (a) Fifth Five-Year Plan

7. (d) Transhumance – Delhi

8: (b) Equality

9. (a) Bangladesh

10. (d) All of the above

11. (c) Bihar

12. (d) All of these

13. (b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

14. (c) Both the statements are correct and statement II correctly explain statement I

15. (c) 8%

16. (c) Domestic

17. (a) Agriculture

18. (1) Thorium is obtained from Monazite.

(ii) Geothermal energy is a form of renewable source of energy.

(iii) The deposits of copper found in the region of Singhbhum.

19. (i) This map shows the Panama Canal.

(ii) It is 72 km long and involves a very deep cutting for a length of 12 km.

(iii) It connects the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

20. India has emerged as the leading country for medical tourism in the world. World-class hospitals located in metropolitan cities cater to patients all over the world. Medical tourism brings abundant benefits to developing countries like India. These benefits are

• Medical tourism creates employment opportunities in India.

• It contributes to the GDP of the country by generating income.

• It helps in increasing the foreign exchange reserves by increasing foreign exchange earnings.

• It helps in developing medical infrastructure in the country.

It leads to innovation in healthcare services, • It also raises India’s image as a global leader healthcare industry.

India has nearly 18% of the global medical tourism market in the world.


Outsourcing has resulted in the opening number of call centres in India, China, Eastern Europe Israel, the Philippines and Costa Rica. It has created new jobs in these countries. Outsourcing is coming to those countries where cheap and skilled workers a available. These are also out-migrating countries. Kajo dn

This can be explained through these examples

The Knowledge Processing Outsourcing (KPO) industry involves highly skilled workers who are available in developing countries at lower wages • In developing countries, skilled IT staff is available with good communication skills at lower wages compared to developed countries.

Data processing is another IT-related service that employs a large number of people in Asian countries

21. The concept of possibilism states that there are no necessities, but possibilities everywhere and man is referred to as a master of these possibilities. He/she is not influenced by the constraints imposed by the natural environment. Man can adapt, adjust and modify the forces of his physical environment with his strength and Innovation. His imprints could be seen everywhere. For instance

Health resorts on highlands

Huge urban sprawls

Agricultural fields

• Orchards and pastures in plains and rolling hills

Ports on the coasts

Oceanic routes on the oceanic surface

• Satellites in the space

22. Distance is the most important factor in determining the location of industries because:

(1) Access to the market for the products of the industry depends upon the distance between the location of the industry and the nearby market.

(ii) Distance between the site of raw material and Industry influences the location of industry.

(iii) Heavy industries depend upon power sources Hence, they are located close to the sources of power

(iv) Efficient transportation system, which can travel large distances in a short time is essential for the development of industries.

Industries are classified on various basis. These are: Based on Size based on size, Industries

are classified as cottage or household industries. scale industries and large The size is determined by capital, number of workers and volume of production.

(1) On the Bates are puts/Raw Materials On this basis, industries are agro-based industries, chemicals-based industries, mineral-based industries, etc. The nature of input determines their operations

(ii) Industries Based on Output/Product On this basis, industries are classified as basic industries and consumer goods/non-basic industries

(v) based on Ownership On this basis, industries are classified into public sector, private sector and joint sector industries.

23. Road transportation is considered the most efficient and cost-effective way of transportation for short distances Although it is gaining prominence in recent days, there are certain problems associated with it as well. These problems are as follows

• During rainy days, the unmetalled roads are damaged seriously. Even unmetalled roads are washed away by floods, which results in breaking up the road network.

The road transport system records heavy traffic. When roads cannot cope with the demands of traffic on the road, they are heavily congested. Huge amounts of money are required for the construction and maintenance of roads which affects the quality of roads, mainly in developing countries.

24. The spatial distribution of religious communities in the country shows that certain states and districts have a large numerical strength of one religion. India is the land of multiple religions. It is a place of origin of various religions like Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism but there are large numbers of Christians, Muslims and Zoroastrians.

The distribution of religious communities shows the statistical facts which prove the above argument:

Hindus They range from 70-90 per cent and are found in the majority in various states except for Jammu and Kashmir and in some North-East states.

Muslims are the largest minority religious group and cover 14.23% of the total population. They are concentrated in Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Lakshadweep and are in majority in Jammu and Kashmir and Lakshadweep.

Christians They are 2.30% of the total population and are concentrated along the Western coast of Goa, Kerala, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Chota Nagpur plateau and the hills of Manipur.

The Sikhs Population of the Sikh community is 1.72% but they are the most prosperous religious community. They are concentrated in a small areas of the country, particularly in Punjab, Haryana and Delhi,

Jains and Buddhists They are the smallest religious groups, Jains are concentrated in the Western part of India in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra. Buddhists are concentrated in Maharashtra, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Ladakh.

Zoroastrians These are the natives of Iran and are concentrated in Mumbai Goa and Gujarat. This community is very progressive in business and trade


Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points in time. The decadal and annual growth of the population in India is very high and steadily increasing over time. In India, the annual and decadal growth rate of population is more than the other developed countries

In the decades of 1951-81, the mortality rate declined rapidly but the fertility rate of the population was high in the country. This resulted in a high decadal and annual growth rate. The developmental activities and Improvement in socio-economic conditions further increased the growth rate. But after the year 1981, the decadal and annual growth rate started declining. The annual growth of India’s population is 1.64% (2011). Still, the growth rate of the population in India is high as compared to the developed countries

25. Subsistence agriculture refers to the type of agriculture where nearly all of the production is consumed by the producers or the local people themselves. In this type of agriculture, the producers themselves become consumers. Subsistence agriculture is divided into primitive subsistence agriculture and intensive subsistence agriculture.

Characteristics of primitive subsistence agriculture are Here, the vegetation is usually cleared by fire and the ashes produced improve the fertility of the soil.

The cultivated land is very small in area and it is cultivated by primitive tools like sticks and hoes The land is cultivated for 3 to 5 years after which the soil loses its fertility. The farmer shifts to another patch of land and clears it for cultivation.

• Farmers return to the earlier patch of land when that land regains its fertility.

• It is practised in tropical regions such as Africa, South and Central America and South East Asia.

Intensive subsistence agriculture is divided into two categories, One is subsistence agriculture dominated by paddy and another which is dominated by crops other than paddy.

26. Characteristics of road transport in India are as follows:

(i) With a total length of 54.8 lakh km of roads, India has placed itself among the countries that have a large road network.

(ii) Road transport carries about 85% of passenger and 70% of freight traffic every year. It is preferred for short-distance travel as it provides door-to-door service.

(iii) Roads are mainly concentrated around urban areas, rural and remote areas are least connected by the roads.

(iv) Distribution of roads is not even throughout the country. Road density is highest in Kerala and lowest In Jammu and Kashmir. Most of the Northern and Southern states have a highly dense network of roads

as compared to the Northeast and Himalayan regions. (v) In India, roads are classified based on the purpose of construction and maintenance in National Highways (NH), State Highways (SH), major district

roads and rural roads. (vi) Apart from the above roads, there are border roads which are constructed for defence purposes and international roads which are constructed to link and connect with neighbouring countries. They are also used for strategic purposes.


The apex organisation for developing border roads in India the Border Road Organisation (BRO). The organisation was established in May 1960 to accelerate economic development and strengthen defence preparedness through rapid and coordinated Improvement of strategic roads along the Northern and North Eastern borders. The importance of border roads for India is:

(1) These are meant to promote harmonious relationships with the neighbouring countries of India by providing effective links and routes.

(ii) These roads are suitable for carrying out international trade with the bordering countries of India which leads to economic development.

(iii) They are most suitable during foreign attacks as troops and defence materials can be easily transported to border posts with the use of these roads.

(iv) These roads are used to provide essential items to inaccessible areas such as mountain regions in the states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh etc.

(v) These roads integrate the far-off areas of India with the Indian mainland helping in National integration and unity.

27. Noise pollution has become hazardous in many big cities of India such as Delhi and Mumbai due to the following factors

(1) With the increase in population, the volume of traffic and passengers has increased. This has led to more noise pollution due to vehicular noise.

(ii) More people have become prosperous in the cities. As a result of this, the number of private vehicles such as cars has increased significantly. This has led to traffic jams during peak hours i.e. in the morning and in the evening when people go to and come from their workplaces. This has increased noise pollution on the roads.

(1) Rapid industrialisation in and around the resident colonies has also increased noise pollution during the operation of machinery, Small and cottage operations are operated in the areas near the market. 

(v) Construction activities have accommodated the ever-increasing population in the big cities, These activities generate too much 

(V) Religious activities, social functions, rallies, and create noise pollution, particularly in the late hours of the day. 

28. The population around the world is unevenly distributed. About 90% lived in 10% of the total area and 10% resided in 90% of the area. Almost 60% of the world’s population lives in 10 countries. 

Many factors influence this form of uneven distribution d population. But, most important among them are Cultural Factors Traditions and culture of a place influence the distribution of population. People like to migrate to areas where common traditions and cultures are found.

Physical Factors Relief, climate, soil and minerals are the physical factors that determine the population of any place. Tibet is a region with a very small population, whereas the Indo-Gangetic Plain is over


Means of Transport Regions with better facilities of means of transport lead to better economic conditions. 

This leads to the high density of population Mumbai-Pune industrial region is the best example of Economic Conditions Industry and agricultural regions of the world are thickly populated due to the presence of huge employment opportunities and favourable living conditions. For example, industrial regions of India, the USA, Japan and the UK.


During the last few hundred years population has increased at an alarming rate. Technological advancement has helped in the reduction of the death rate and provided a stage for accelerated population growth.

After the evolution and introduction of agriculture about 12,000 to 8,000 years ago, the size of the population was small – roughly 8 million.

In the first century A.D. it was below 300 million. The expanding world trade during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries set the stage for rapid population growth.

Around 1750, with the beginning of the Industria Revolution, the world population was 550 million in 2020 world population reached 7.8 billion.

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