CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download

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CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download, CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper, CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download

CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper 2024

Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper

CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper 2024

CBSE Board Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download

Section A consists of 17 questions of 1 mark each

1. Which approach of Human Geography was followed during the later Colonial period? 

(a) Areal differentiation

(b) Exploration and description

(c) Regional analysis

(d) Spatial organisation

2. Match the following.

List II (States)List II (Population facts)
A. Ratzel1. “Human geography is the systematic study of the relationship between human societies and Earth’s surface.”
B. Ellen C Semple2. “Human geography is the study of the changing relationship between the unresting man and the unstable Earth.”
C. Paul Vidal de la Blache3. “Conception resulting from a more synthetic knowledge of the physical laws governing our Earth and of the relations between the living beings which inhabit it.”
D. Griffith Taylor 4. Concept of Neo-determinism


(a) 1 2 3 4

(b) 2 3 4 1

(c) 3 214

(d) 1 2 4 3

3. Who proposed the concept of stop-and-go determinism in the interaction of human beings with the environment?

(a) Ellen C Semple

(b) Griffith Taylor

(c) Paul Vidal de la Blache

(d) Ratzel

4. In which rock system Uranium is found? 

(a) Dharwar

(b) Gondwana

(c) Cuddapah

(d) All of these

5. Which of the following is not a cause of air pollution? 

(a) Agricultural runoff

(b) Mining activities

(c) Industries

(d) Combustion of fossil fuels

6. A land left for five years comes under which category of land use? 

(a) Culturable wasteland

(b) Net sown area

(c) Season wasteland

(d) Follow land

7. Which of the following pairs is correctly matched? 

StatesPopulation facts
(a) KeralaHighest literacy Rate
(b) GoaHighest rural population
(c) Tamil Nadu State with highest urban population
(d) Gujarat Highest density of population

8. Arrange the states as per the decreasing order of their percentage of urban population. 

I. Delhi

II. Kerala

III. Maharashtra

IV. Assam


(a) I, II, III, IV

(b) IV, III, I, II

(c) II, I, III, IV

(d) IV, II, I, III

9. The headquarters of the Northern Railway Zone of India is located in 

(a) Delhi

(c) Kanpur

(b) Lucknow

(d) Chandigarh

10. The largest amount of water resources in India are used for which purpose? 

(a) Drinking and domestic purposes

(b) Generating hydroelectric power

(c) Irrigation

(d) Pisciculture

11. Respiratory diseases are mainly caused by pollution.

(a) land

(b) water

(d) noise

(c) air

12. Consider the following statements and choose the correct option from the given options.

I am. Nomadic herding is practised over vast horizontal as well as vertical distances.

II. Nomads migrate from plains to high-altitude pastures during winter seas and from high-altitude pastures to plains during the summer season.


(a) Only statement I is correct

(b) Only statement II is correct

(e) Both statements I and II are correct

(d) Both statements I and II are incorrect

13. There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes given below.

Assertion (A) The contribution of agriculture to the economy has declined over time.

Reason (R) People are decreasing in the agriculture sector in India.


(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

14. Consider the following statements and choose the correct option from the given options.

I. Water transport is the cheapest to transport.

II. India has 17,500 km of navigable waterways.


(a) Only statement I is correct

(b) Only statement II is correct

(c) Both the statements are correct and the statement correctly explains statement II

(d) Both statements are true, but not related to each other

15. Which sector alone accounts for most of the surface water utilisation?

(a) Domestic

(b) Agriculture

(c) Industrial

(d) None of these

16. What percentage of surface water withdrawals is attributed to the industrial sector?

(a) 9%

(b) 2%

(c) 89%

(d) 91%

17. If the total surface water withdrawals amount to 100 million cubic meters, how much water is withdrawn by the domestic sector? 

(a) 2 million cubic meters

(b) 9 million cubic meters

(c) 89 million cubic meters

(d) 91 million cubic meters

Section B consists of 2 Source based question

18. Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

India has traditionally been an agrarian economy and about two-thirds of its population has been dependent on agriculture. Hence, the development of irrigation to increase agricultural production has been assigned a very high priority in the Five Year Plans and multipurpose river valley projects like the Bhakra-Nangal, Hirakud, Damodar Valley, Nagarjuna Sagar, Indira Gandhi Canal Project, etc., have been taken up.

India’s water demand at present is dominated by irrigational needs. Agriculture accounts for most of the surface and groundwater utilisation, it accounts for 89 per cent of the surface water and 92 per cent of the groundwater utilisation. 

While the share of the industrial sector is limited to 2 per cent of surface water utilisation and 5 per cent of groundwater, the share of the domestic sector is higher (9 per cent) in surface water utilisation as compared to groundwater. 

The share of the agricultural sector in total water utilisation is much higher than other sectors. However, in future with development, the shares of industrial and domestic sectors in the country are likely to increase.

(i) Majority of Indian population is engaged in which type of activity?

(ii) What is the need for irrigation facilities in India?

(iii) What are important ways to conserve groundwater?

19. Observe the given map and answer the following questions.

(i) Which railway line is shown on the map?

(ii) Name the Northern and Southernmost points of this railway line.

(iii) Why this railway line is considered the lifeline of Russia?

Section C consists of 4 questions with 3 marks

20. What are the various sources of noise pollution in urban areas? 


“Urban solid waste is a nuisance for metropolitan cities.” Explain briefly. 

21. The growth rate of the population in phase IV slowed down in India. Why?

22. Differentiate development. growth between and 


Discuss the importance of human development. 

23. Describe the development of medieval towns in India during the Mughal period. 

Section D consists of 5 questions with 5 marks

24. Why there is no uniformity in the distribution of roads in India?

25. What do you mean by Quinary activities? Discuss the new trends in Quinary services. 


What is medical tourism? Explain the scope of medical services in India for overseas patients. How does outsourcing of medical tests and data interpretation help in this?

26. State the global distribution of railways in the continents of the world.

27. What are three components of population 3 change in the world Analyse the impacts of population change. 


Explain, why the population growth has been rapid in the last few hundred years. 

28. What is commercial livestock rearing and how is it a specialised activity? 


What is pastoral nomadism? Name three regions where it is practised. Why is it declining? 

Section E consists of 2 Map based question

29. On the political map of India, locate and label any five of the following with appropriate symbols. 

(i) State with lowest population density.

(ii) An International airport

(iii) The leading producer state of rice in Eastern India

(iv) Shimoga Manganese mine

(v) Barauni oil refinery

(vi) Hyderabad International Airport

(vii) A coal mine in West Bengal

On the given political map of the world, the following seven features are shown. Identify any five of these features and write their correct names on the lines marked near each feature. 

(i) West Terminal Station of Trans-Canadian Railway

(ii) A Terminal Station of Trans-Continental Railway

(iii) An area of nomadic herding

(iv) An area of extensive commercial grain farming

(v) A major airport

(vi) A major seaport

(vii) An inland waterway


2. (a) 1234

1. (c) Regional analysis

4. (a) Dharwar

3. (b) Griffith Taylor

6. (8) Culturable wasteland

5. (a) Agricultural runoff

7. (a) Kerala-Highest literacy rate

9. (a) Delhi

8. (a) I, II, III, IV

11. (c) air

10. (c) Irrigation

12. (a) Only statement | is correct

13. (c) A is true, but R is false

14. (d) Both statements are true, but not related to each other

15. (b) Agriculture

16. (c) 89%

17. (a) 2 million cubic meters

18. (i) The majority of the Indian population is engaged in agricultural and allied activities. India has traditionally been an agrarian economy.

(ii) India needs better imitation because of uncertainty in rainfall, over-utilisation of groundwater and high agricultural production due to increasing population.

(i) Important ways to conserve groundwater are, disposing chemicals properly, limiting the amount of fertilisers used on plants and the use of water harvesting techniques.

19. (1) The Trans-Siberian railway line is shown on the map.

(ii) The Northernmost point of this railway line is St. Peterburg and the Southern point is Vladivostok.

(ii) This railway line is considered the lifeline of Russia because it joins most backward and cold regions, to the mainland of Russia. It runs through rural mountains and connects agro centres like Chita and Irkutsk.

20. Noise pollution is the state of unbearable and uncomfortable noise levels to human beings caused by different sources.

The main sources of noise pollution are

• Traffic Traffic of vehicles on the roads is the biggest source of noise pollution. Vehicles such as trucks, buses, and motorcycles cause varying levels of pollution of noise.

• Construction Construction and demolition activities require heavy machinery, which creates a large amount of noise in the residential areas.

• Industries Industries use a large number of moving parts, which leads to more noise pollution. These noises have a significant impact on the workers.

Community Activities Noise from community activities such as festival celebrations, programmes, and loudspeakers creates noise

• Transport Noise from the transport services such as railways, airways, trucks, etc cause noise pollution.


Urban areas generate a large amount of solid waste both from households as well as industries In the metropolitan areas where people live in congested places, the problem of solid waste is more serious. has created multiple problems in the metropolitan regions. These are

• Solid waste such as metal pieces, glassware, plastic containers, polythene bags, ashes, and floppies are dumped at many places that pollute the land in these areas.

• The waste from households and industries is disposed of on private lands or collected and disposed of by the municipal facilities in landfill areas, It creates a foul smell in these regions.

Ashes and debris from industries, thermal powerhouses and construction of buildings pose serious consequences for public health.

Solid waste acts as carriers of diseases because flies, rodents, etc live upon the solid waste which spreads diseases such as typhoid, diphtheria, malaria cholera, etc.

21. The decades after 1981 marked the slow growth rate of the population due to low birth rates and low death rates. The reasons which are responsible for the slow growth rate of the population in phase IV are as follows

The fall in the crude birth rate due to family planning is responsible for such slow population growth.

• The progressive social development and increased economic progress helped to reduce the growth rate of the population.

22. Difference between growth and development are as follows

Growth is quantitative and value-neutral.Development is a qualitative approach and it is always value positive.
It can be positive or negative.Development cannot take place unless there is an increment in existing conditions. Hence, it is always valued positively.
For example, if the population of a city grows from one lakh to two lakh over some time, we can say that the city has grown. For example, despite the Increase in population, facilities like housing, provision of basic services and other characteristics remain the same. then this growth has not been accompanied by development


The importance of human development can be understood by the following points

It improves the quality of life of individuals. It provides an individual with various choices.

• It ensures the minimum investment to enhance the economic productivity of human beings

It makes people aware of their abilities.

It enhances the conditions of the physical environment It provides a stable political system to a country.

It shows the limitations of the existing system.

• It works for a long and reasonable healthy human life.

23. Medieval towns were developed as headquarters of principalities and kingdoms during the Mughal period. The growth of towns happened at a faster pace in the 16th, and 17th centuries which continued up to the middle of the 18th century. These were developed as fort towns and came up on the remains of the ancient fort towns:

The basic feature of a town was the presence of a market. The quota is defined as a village with a market. There was a hierarchy of towns from the qasba to the district headquarters, to the provincial towns like Agra, Delhi, etc. Examples of these towns are Hyderabad, Jaipur, Lucknow, Nagpur and so on.

24. The distribution of roads is not uniform in India because: of the following reasons

The nature of the terrain and level of economic development affect the density of roads in various regions of India.

Construction of roads in plains is easy and cheap in comparison to hilly areas and mountainous regions. Gangetic plains have high-density roads as

compared to the North-East region Sandy soil in Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat is not

suitable for the construction of roads. Thus, these regions have less density of roads, Regions that are economically developed have high road density, e.g. Karnataka plateau and Maharashtra have high road density due to high Industrialisation and economic development.

• High density of road network is also found in regions of Punjab, and Haryana because they are agriculturally well developed and there is a high level of Industrialisation and urbanisation.

The regions where there is high rainfall and thick forests have less density of roads. For example, in the Meghalaya region, there is very little road density.

25. Quinary activities are services that focus on the creation, re-arrangement and interpretation of new and existing ideas, data interpretation and the use and evaluation of new technologies

Often referred to as gold collar professionals, they represent a sub-division of the tertiary sector representing special and highly paid skills of senior business executives, government officials, research scientists, and financial and legal consultants, Their importance in the structure of advanced economies far outweighs their numbers.

New Trends in Quinary Services New trends in Quinary services include Knowledge Processing Outsourcing (KPO) and home shoring. which is an alternative to outsourcing

Knowledge Process Outsourcing refers to the service Industry where there are highly skilled workers. It can also be termed as information-driven knowledge outsourcing. It enables the companies to create additional business opportunities. 

The examples of KPO industry are research and development services, intellectual property research, the banking sector and the legal profession Homeshoring is an operational model in various organisations in which the employees work and perform all official tasks from a home or external office.

 The companies hire employees, who work from their domestic location but are connected to the company via the Internet. Homeshoring enables a company to reduce the infrastructure and maintenance costs of a physical office.


When medical treatment is combined with international tourism activity, it is known as medical tourism

Scope of Medical Tourism in India

The growing medical facilities have made India a favourable destination for overseas medical tourists. The medical infrastructure in India has developed because of the emergence of a large number of hospitals, and tertiary care clinics which provide highly specialised services at cheaper costs as compared to the developed countries.

The development of advanced transport and communication facilities has also facilitated the flow of tourists for medical purposes. They can now easily visit places that were earlier inaccessible to them due to social, cultural and transport infrastructural issues. Affordable international fares have contributed to the development of this industry in India.

Specialist doctors, nurses and paramedical staff have also emerged in India. They provide quality healthcare to overseas medical tourists by combining traditional techniques and modern methods. Thus, medical tourism can emerge as a huge industry in India.

Role of Outsouring of Medical Tests and Data Interpretation Outsouring of medical tests and data interpretation can

help in improving the quality of healthcare for overseas medical tourists. It results in higher levels of specialised healthcare because the reading of medical tests such as radiology images, ultrasound tests and MRIs becomes more accurate, which leads to better diagnosis and gives the utmost quality healthcare to the people of the overseas countries.

26. The global distribution of railways in the world are

Europe has one of the most dense rail networks in the world. There are about 4,40,000 km of railways, most of which are double or multiple-tracked. The important rail heads are London, Paris, Brussels, Milan, Berin and Warsaw: Passenger transport is more important than freight in many of these countries

In Russia, railways account for about 90 per cent of the country’s total transport with a very dense network West of the Urals Moscow is the most important railhead with major lines radiating to different parts of the country’s vast geographical

North America has one of the most extensive rail networks accounting for nearly 40 per cent of the world’s total The railways are used more for long-distance bulky freight like cres, grains, timber and machinery than for passengers. The most dense rail network is found in the highly industrialised and urbanised region of East Central USA and adjoining Canada

Australia has about 40.000 km of railways, of which 25 per cent are found in New South Wales alone. The West-East Australian National Railway line runs across the country from Perth to Sydney N Zealand’s railways are mainly in the North Island to serve the farming areas

In South America, the rail network is the most dense in two regions, namely, the Pampas of Argentina and the coffee-growing region of Brazil which together account for 40 per cent of South America’s total route length

Only Chile, among the remaining countries, has a considerable route length linking coastal centres with the mining sites in the interior

27. The three components of population change in the world are Crude Birth Rate (CBR), Crude Death Rate (CDR) and Migration

(i) Crude Birth Rate is referred to as several live births in a year per thousand of the population. It is calculated as

CBR= bi/p-x1000

Here, the CBR Crude Birth Rate

Bi-Live births during the year

P= Mid-year population of the year

(II)Crude Death Rate is referred to as the number of deaths in a particular year per thousand of the population in a particular region. It is calculated as:

CDR= D/P ×1000

Here, CDR Crude Death Rate

D Number of deaths

P Estimated mid-year population of that year

(III) Migration is the displacement of people from their origin to their place of destination. In migra Increases the population and out migra decreases the population of the region Impacts of population change are as follows If the population change results in high population growth, then it puts pressure on the resour leading to scarcity and other problems. Population change results in the decline of the popul

which shows that the available resources are sufficient to maintain the population.


The last few hundred years witnessed population growth due to the following reasons Life-saving drugs are one of the reasons for population growth.

Improvement in medical facilities and saint

changed global population dynamics

Immunisateliminationst epidemics and communicable diseases, suppression or elimination of any disease vectors

• Expansion in international trade in sixteenth seventeenth centuries set the stage for a population growth

Scientific and technological advances improved the quality of life. A series of dramatic technological changes rapidly expanded the resource base and provided a foundation for accelerated population growth

28. Commercial Iivestock rearing is a modern agricultural primary activity where only one type of animal is used to get products such as meat, wool, and hides, which a processed, packed and exported. It is a specialised activity because

• It is an organised and capital-intensive activity example, it involves constructing large ranches that require huge capital

To improve production, animals are kept on ranches which are divided into parcels. These ranches are fenced in a systematic way which Improves overall efficiency. For example, when one parcel in ranches is grazed, animals are moved to another parcel

The products of this type of activity are scientifical packed and processed. They are also exported to world markets. For example, wool, hides, and skin, are exported to international markets.

The ranches in this type of activity are managed scientific basis. For example, special emphasis is la on breeding, genetic improvement, disease control and health care of livestock.

This type of activity involves processing units that a involved in processing the obtained products and diversifying the production For example, the processing of milk is done to make curd, cream, cheese, etc


Pastoral nomadism or nomadic herding is a primitive subsistence activity in which the herders rely on animals for food, clothing, shelter, tools and transport. They move from one place to another along with their livestock, depending on the amount of quality of pastures and water.

Pastoral nomadism is associated with three regions

• Region extending from the Atlantic shores of North Africa Eastwards across the Arabian Peninsula into Mongolia and Central China.

• Tundra region in Eurasia

• The region in the Southern Hemisphere in South West Africa and the Island of Madagascar.

Pastoral nomadism is declining in the world because the number of pastoral nomads has been decreasing and areas operated by them are declining because of • Imposition of political boundaries by countries.

• New settlement plans by different countries.

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