CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download, CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions

CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024

Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper

CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions

CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download

Section A consists of 17 questions of 1 mark

1. Which of the following is the sub-field of Economic Geography? 

(a) Military Geography

(b) Historical Geography

(c) Medical Geography

(d) Geography of Marketing

Ans. (d) Geography of Marketing

2. Gujarat has the highest potential for the development of which kind of energy? 

(a) Nuclear

(b) Geothermal

(c) Hydel

(d) Solar

Ans. (d) Solar

3. Which of the following theories is given by Griffith Taylor?

(a) Behaviouralism

(b) New Modernism

(c) Environmentalism

(d) Neo-determinism

Ans. (d) Neo-determinism

4. In which among the following types of agriculture practices, do farmers only grow vegetables? 

(a) Mixed farming

(b) Subsistence agriculture

(c) Plantation agriculture

(d) Truck farming

Ans. (d) Truck farming

5. Which of the following pairs is correctly matched? 

List I (Type of Agriculture)List II (Features)
(a) Subsistence AgricultureProduction of citrus fruits
(b) Dairy FarmingMulching of animals Slash and burn agriculture
(c) Plantation AgricultureDominance of rice
(d) Mediterranean Agriculturecrop

Ans. (b) Dairy farming-Milching of animals

6. Nomadic herding is practised in which of the following regions?

(a) Mongolia

(b) Central China

(e) Island of Madagascar

(d) All of these

Arts. (d) All of these

7. On which of the following rivers is Paradwip Port located? 

(a) Ganga

(b) Mahanadi

(c) Godavari

(d) Krishna


(b) Mahanadi

8. Which State/UT has the lowest population density in India? 

(a) Himachal Pradesh 

(b) Jammu and Kashmir

(e) Arunachal Pradesh

(d) Assam

Aris. (c) Arunachal Pradesh

9. Identify the Union Territory with the highest population density as per the Census of 2011. 

(a) Lakshadweep

(b) Puducherry

(c) Chandigarh

(d) Delhi

Ans. (d) Delhi

10. Arrange the following in the correct sequence.

1. Air transport was provided by four major companies.

II. Air transport launch between Allahabad and Naini.

III. Air transport was nationalised.

IV. Indian Airlines merged with Air India.


(a), IV, II, I, III

(c) III, I, IV, II

Ans. (c) III, I, IV.II

(b) I, II, III, IV

(d) I, III, IV, II

11. Consider the following statements and choose the correct option from the given options. 

I. USA has a dense network of oil pipelines which runs from producing areas to the consuming areas.

Pipeline transport is available and

effective transportation of petrol

natural gas from one place to another


(a) Cols statement I am correct 10 Only statement II is correct

Both the statements are correct and state II explains statement I

(a) Both the statements are true, but not with each other

Ans. Both statements are correct and the explained statement

12. Consider the following and choose the correct answer with the help of codes

List 1 (Acts Pobey)List II (Years)
A Water (Prevention and Control Pollution) Act1. 1977
B. Environment Protection Act2. 1974
C The Water Cess Act3. 2002
D. National Water Policy4. 1986


(a) 4 123

(b) 3 124

(c)2 413

(d) 2 4 3 1

Ans. 2413

13. There are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes given below. Assertion (A) Plantation agriculture was introduced by Europeans. Reason (R) It is mainly a profit-oriented large-scale production system. Codes

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A 

(b) Both A and true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) R is true, but A is false

Arts. (a) Both A and Rare are true and R is the correct explanation

14. Consider the following statements a choose the correct option from the given options.

1. Regional analysis was used to study geography.

II. Elaborate descriptions of all aspects of the region were undertaken.


(a) Only statement I is true

(b) Only statement II is true

(c) Both the statements are true

(d) Both the statements are false

Ans. (c) Both the statements are true

15. As per the graph, the natural increase is 

(a) Birth Rate – Death Rate

(b) Birth Rate + Migration

(c) Death Rate – Birth Rate

(d) Growth Rate – Birth Rate

Ans. (a) Birth Rate – Death Rate

16. Transition from the high fluctuating stage to the low fluctuating stage indicates

(a) Migration from Urban to Rural areas

(b) Low Birth and Death Rate to High Birth and Death Rate

(c) Shift from Rural Agrarian economy to Urban Industrial economy

(d) Shift from Urban Industrial economy to Rural Agrarian economy


(c) Shift from Rural Agrarian economy to Urban Industrial economy

17. Which stage represents the expanding population growth?

(a) Stage I

(b) Stage II

(c) Stage III

(d) Post Stage III


(b) Stage II

Section B consists of 2 Source based question

18. Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

In agriculture, water is mainly used for irrigation. Irrigation is needed because of spatio-temporal variability in rainfall in the country. 

The large tracts of the country are deficient in rainfall and are drought-prone. North-Western India and the Deccan plateau constitute such areas. Winter and summer seasons are more or less dry in most of the country.

Hence, it is difficult to practice agriculture without assured irrigation during dry seasons. Even in areas of ample rainfall like West Bengal and Bihar, breaks in monsoon or its failure create dry spells detrimental to agriculture. The water need of certain crops also makes irrigation necessary.

For instance, the water requirement of rice, sugarcane, jute, etc is very high which can be met only through irrigation. The provision of irrigation makes multiple cropping possible.

It has also been found that irrigated lands have higher agricultural productivity than unirrigated land. Further, the high-yielding varieties of crops need a regular moisture supply, which is made possible only by developed irrigation systems.

This is why the Green Revolution strategy of agriculture development in the country has largely been successful in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.

(i) What makes irrigation important for a country like India?

(ii) Which states come under the Deccan plateau?

(iii) Which crop is most water-intensive? 

Ans. (i) The geographical location of India and its huge demand for food by the high population of the country makes irrigation important for the country.

(ii) Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka come under the Deccan plateau.

(iii) Rice is the most water-intensive crop.

19. Observe the given map and answer the following questions.

(i) Which inland waterway is shown on the map?

(ii) This waterway connects industrial areas in Europe.

(iii) State any two characteristics of this waterway.

(ii) It connects the industrial areas of Switzerland, Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands.

Ans (i) The Rhine inland waterway is shown on the map.

(iii) The two characteristics of this waterway are as follows

(a) The Rhine River flows through a rich coalfield making the whole basin a prosperous manufacturing area.

(b) This waterway is the world’s most heavily used, e.g. more than 20,000 ocean-going vessels and 2,00,000 inlet vessels exchange their cargoes each year.

Section C consists of 4 questions of 3 marks each

20. What do you understand by the term ‘outsourcing’? Why are the IT-related services outsourced to the less developed regions of the world? 

Ans. Outsourcing is the practice of hiring an outside company to improve efficiency and reduce costs. It is also known as offshoring when the work of a company is transferred to international locations. Business activities that can be outsourced include information technology, human resources, and customer and call centre services.

The IT related services can be carried out in the less developed countries of the world because

• In these countries, IT-skilled staff is easily available with good communication skills and at lower wages as compared to the developed countries.

The overhead costs are also low, which makes the business profitable. Outsourcing results in increasing the efficiency of the businesses and reduces the risks associated with the business activities.

21. Describe the development of plantation agriculture in the world. 

Or What are the specialised activities practised in the industrial regions of Europe and America? Describe anyone. 

Ats. Development of plantation agriculture in the world took place in the following ways

• The European colonialists introduced plantation agriculture in the world, mainly in their colonies situated in the tropics.

The French colonialists established cocoa and coffee plantations in West Africa

The British established large tea gardens in India and Sri Lanka, rubber plantations in Malaysia and sugarcane, and banana plantations in West Indies.

Spanish and Americans invested in the coconut and sugarcane plantations in the Phillippines,

The Dutch colonialists established sugarcane plantations in Indonesia.

After these colonies gained independence, the majority of the plantations passed on to the governments of the independent countries.

Market gardening and truck farming are the two specialised activities that are well-developed in the industrial regions of Europe and America.

Truck Farming and Factory Farming

Truck farming is practised in the peripheral areas of metropolitan cities where vegetables and milk are brought daily to the cities by trucks by travelling overnight. This farming requires a well-developed network of roads connected with fields. In truck farming, farmers only grow vegetables that are sold in the urban markets.

In factory farming, livestock is reared in stalls and pens The livestock reared includes poultry and cattle, which produce products such as milk, eggs, butter, etc.

Manufactured feedstuffs feed the livestock and it is carefully protected from diseases which is done by veterinary services. Scientific methods of breeding are used in the selection of the best-quality breeds of livestock.

It requires heavy capital investment in terms of building, machinery and various other operations carried out on farms. It is practised in the USA, the UK and the developed countries of Western Europe.

22. What are the two key factors influencing India’s population growth? Describe each component’s key characteristics. 


Explain India’s stagnant growth in Phase I (1901-1921) of Demographic Transition Theory. 

Ans. The two main components of population growth in India are

(1) Natural Growth refers to the growth in population which is caused by the birth rate and death rate. It is estimated by the difference between birth rate and death rate.

Features of natural growth in India are as follows In India, it is more influential in population growth.

This high growth rate shows the medical, technological and social advancement of Indian society.

(ii) Induced Growth refers to the growth in population caused by migration. It is measured by the difference between in-migrants and

out-migrants. Features of induced growth rate are as follows In India, it was more influential in population growth during the partition in 1947 and

Bangladesh War of 1971 This type of growth is caused by the economic advancement of a society that attracts migrants from other areas.

The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stagnant or stationary phase of growth of India’s population.

The following causes are responsible for stagnant growth

  • High birth rate and high death rate resulted in stationary growth,
  • Due to the lack of medical, health and sanitation facilities, the death rate was high.
  • The improper public distribution system resulted in hunger and famine.
  • The low level of economic development and the occurrence of the First World War were also responsible for the decrease in population growth.
  • Illiteracy, lack of family planning lack of social awareness, etc were the factors for the stagnant growth rate in India.

23. Describe any three physical factors that led to different types of rural settlement in India. 

Ans. Physical factors that are responsible for different types of rural settlements in India are

Water Supply People need water to survive. That is why settlements are concentrated near the source of water. For example, in Rajasthan, scarcity of water has forced people to live in compact villages for maximum utilisation of available water resources.

• Climate People usually prefer areas that have favourable climatic conditions. Harsh climates like very hot and cold regions have fewer or no settlements. For example, coastal players have favourable climates thus, are densely populated regions.

• Nature of Terrain It plays an important role in determining the shape and size of rural settlements. For example, plain areas have compact and larger settlements with dense populations, whereas mountainous areas have scattered and hamleted

rural settlements. eg Meghalaya, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh have scattered types of rural settlements.

Section D consists of 5 questions with 5 marks

24. India has had a long list of its import commodities for many decades. Discuss the changing pattern of the composition of India’s imports


Discuss the changing patterns of the composition of India’s exports.

Ans. India has had a long list of its import commodities for many decades. Here is a brief description of its changing pattern

• During the 1950s and 1960s, India had to import many items like foodgrains, capital goods, machinery and equipment. Because of this, the Balance of Payment was unfavourable as imports were more than exports despite all the efforts of import substitution.

• After 1970, the success of the Green Revolution led to the discontinuation of food grain imports.

• In 1973, the energy crisis in India led to an increase in the prices of petroleum. So, petroleum imports were increased

• Foodgrain import was replaced by fertilisers and petroleum. Other commodities in the import list of India are machines and equipment, special steel, edible oil and chemicals, etc.

Petroleum products have shown an increase in the imports of India. This is because of its varied uses like fuel as well as an industrial raw material in industries. This indicates a rise in industrialisation and a high living standard for people. Another factor contributing to the sharp increase in import value is a timely price increase in the global market.

Capital goods, e.g. non-electrical machinery. transport equipment, manufactures of metals and machine tools show a steady increase in the import list of India. This is due to rising demand in the export-oriented industrial and domestic sectors.

• There has been a fall in the import of edible oils and the import of food and allied products.


If we talk about the changing patterns the share of agricultural and allied products declined in India’s exports whereas the share of o and petroleum products have increased in India’s en

Among agricultural products, there is a decline export of traditional items like coffee, cashews, etc floricultural products, fresh fruits, marine products sugar have increased. The decline in competitional

has been due to high international competition. The share of ore minerals and manufactured go 900 have largely remained constant from 2009-10 2010-11 and 2015-16 to 2016-17.

The manufacturing sector alone accounted for 73.6% of India’s total exports in 2016-17. Engineering goo has shown a significant growth in the exports. Ge and jewellery still contribute a large share in Indi exports. Main competitors of India include China a other East Asian countries.

25. Explain important types of international trade and also define the negative impacts of free trade in the world.


“Today international trade has become the basis of the world’s economy”. Define the t statement with an example.

Ans. International trade is the exchange of capital, goods and services across international borders or territories There are two types of international trade

(i) Bilateral Trade refers to the trade between two countries. The two countries specialised in certain commodities and hence, they agreed to trade specified commodities between them.

(ii) Multilateral Trade is conducted with maltrading countries. The same country can trade with a large number of other countries.

The status of the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) can be granted by such a country to some of the trading partners.

The possible negative impacts of free trade in the world are as follows

It does not provide a level playing field by imposing unfavourable conditions hence, retard the growth of trade for developing countries

Cheaper goods from foreign countries may harm domestic producers.

The phenomena of dumping may be visible in the markets of developing countries


The given statement is correct that in today’s time, international trade has become the basis of the world’s economy

International trade is the basis of the world economy in modern times because of the following

Reduces Economic Differences Different countries of the world have differences in their resource base This leads to uneven economic development International trade helps in reducing uneven economic development.

Provides Foreign Exchange With international trade, developing and underdeveloped countries earn foreign exchange. With the help of foreign exchange, these countries can invest in their economic development

Provides Boost to Industries As international trade flourishes, the domestic industry gets a boost as it produces more to fulfil the demands of International markets. Eg.

 international trade has boosted China’s domestic industry, leading to rapid economic growth, job creation and the establishment of a globally competitive manufacturing sector Technology Transfer Along with international trade, new technologies and new ideas are also transferred between countries. With the help of this. countries innovate make better products and provide better services

Employment Increase in international trade results in increasing employment generation as new industries are set up to fulfil the demands of exports Improve Standard of Living Along with the economy, international trade also results in an improved standard of living because of the increasing levels of economic and social developments in the country

26. What causes environmental degradation? Evaluate it by citing suitable reasons. 

Ans. The use of plastic bags is the cause of environmental degradation in the following ways 

• The major impact of plastic bags on the environment is that it takes many years to decompose.

Waste from plastic bags poses a serious environmental danger to human and animal health. If plastic bags are not properly disposed of, they can impact the environment by causing littering and stormwater drain blockages.

Animals often confuse plastic bags for food and consume them, therefore blocking their digestive processes

Plastic buried deep in landfills can drain harmful chemicals that spread into groundwater

If plastic bags are burned they release a toxic substance into the air causing ambient air pollution

27. Explain how HDI is calculated to measure the human development of countries. 

Ans. The human development of countries is represented in terms of the Human Development Index. Countries are ranked based on their HDI score, based on the performance of health, education and access to resources.

 Life expectancy is used as a health indicator, literacy rate is used as a knowledge education indicator and per capita purchasing power is used as accessibility to resources All three indicators are given 0.333 points each and their total value is 1.

All the countries of the world are given a score out of 1 based on their progress in human development Indicators. 

A score closer to 1 indicates high Human Development while a score close to zero indicates low Human Development. For example, a country having an HDI of 0.799 has higher human development than a country having an HDI of 0.533. All the countries are given ranks based on their HDI value.

28. Today nuclear energy and its use are expanding. Explain why is it a viable source of energy for India in future, considering the reliability of the mineral required. 


Deline any three features of solar, tidal and geothermal energy.

Ans. Energy is replacing the conventional sources of energy, in India. Now, nuclear power plants are being constructed to replace thermal power plants in a phase-wise manner. Nuclear energy has multiple benefits over other conventional sources: Countries like India, which are deficient in energy resources are promoting nuclear energy to fulfil its demand.

Yes, nuclear energy is a viable source of energy for the future keeping in view the availability of nuclear minerals in India. This is due to the following reasons

In nuclear power plants, uranium and thorium are used to generate energy.

In India, noses found in the Dharwar rock system reserves are in Singhbum (Jharkhand), Udaipur, Alwar and Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan), etc.

• India has very posits of thorium in the world, which is the test reason for the viability of nuclear energy Inula Thorium may be obtained from monazite and ilmenite in the beach sands of India. The states which have rich monazite deposits are Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha

Institutions such as the Atomic Energy Commission and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre are working consistently to extract thorium from monazite in an efficient manner, so that, India’s dependence on conventional sources can be reduced.


Solar energy, tidal energy and geothermal energy are renewable energy sources. Important features of these resources are as follows

Features of Solar Energy

• It is the most readily available source of energy. It can be trapped by two methods i.e. photovoltaic cells and solar thermal technology.

• It is environmentally friendly and is easy to construct.

• It is generally used in appliances like heaters, crop dryers, cookers, etc.

Features of Tidal Energy

• Tidal energy refers to energy generated by the infinite energy present in ocean currents.

• Tides are more predictable than wind and solar energy. Thus, energy from this can be harnessed more than the other renewable energy sources.

• India has a long coastline and thus has a great potential for the development of tidal energy.

Features of Geothermal Energy

• It refers to energy generated by the magma, hot springs, hot geysers, etc that come over the earth’s surface. The heat energy from these sources can be converted into electrical energy by tapping it.

• Geothermal energy is gaining importance and can be used as an alternative to conventional energy sources.

• In Manikaran (Himachal Pradesh), a geotherm energy plant has been commissioned by India.

Section E consists of 2 Map based question

29. On the political map of India, locate and label any five of the following with appropriate symbols. 

(i) State having the highest population density

(ii) Leading producer of tea

(iii) An International Airport in Kerala

(iv) State having the lowest population density

(v) Major seaport in Gujarat

(vi) A bauxite mine in Madhya Pradesh

(vii) A coal mine in West Bengal


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30. On the given political map of the world, the following seven features are shown. Identify any five of these features and write their correct names on the lines marked near each feature.

(ii) Area of subsistence gathering

(iv) A major seaport in Paksitan

(vi) An inland waterway

(i) An area of commercial livestock rearing

(iii) A major seaport in China

(v) Major area of mixed farming

(vii) Major airport in Europe

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Geography Notes In English

MCQs Geography In English

Geography Notes In Hindi

MCQs Geography In Hindi

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