CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download, CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024

CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024

Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper

CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024

CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download

Section A consists of 17 questions of 1 no each

1. Name the serious problem due to increasing population.

(a) Increased epidemics

(b) Decreased resources

(c) Shortage of education institutions

(d) Shortage of opportunities for employment

2. Match the following.

List I (Industrial Region)List II (Location)
A. Great Lakes region1. Ukraine
B. Krivoy Rog2. China
C. Shanghai3. North America


(a) 3 2 1

(b) 3 1 2

(c) 2 1 3

(d) 1 2 3

3. Which one of the following towns has developed as an ‘administrative headquarters’ after Independence?

(b) Chandigarh

(a) New Delhi

(c) Prayagraj

(d) Madurai

4. Which of the following is not a characteristic of commercial livestock rearing?

(a) It is highly organised and capital intensive.

(b) It is practised in coastal areas so that livestock can be easily exported.

(c) Pastures are fenced to regulate grazing.

(d) The number of animals in a pasture is kept according to the capacity of the pasture.

5. The natural growth of the population can be calculated as

(a) Death rate-Birth rate

(b) Birth rate-In-migration

(c) In-migration-death rate

(d) Birth rate-Death rate

6. Which of the following techniques can bring a balance between natural resources and societal needs?

(a) Watershed management

(b) Rainwater harvesting

(c) Resource Recycling 

(d) All of the above

7. Which among the following is a correctly matched pair? 

StatesPopulation related facts
Bihar(a) State having the highest density of population
Tripura(b) State with highest literacy
West Bengal(c) State with highest rural population
Mizoram(d) State with highest urban population

8. Name the concept related to the Naturalisation of Humans. 

(a) Possibilism

(b) Neo-determinisın

(c) Humanism

(d) Environment determinism

9. Ghaziabad, Rohtak, and Gurugram are examples of. 

(a) port towns 

(b) Garrison towns

(c) satellite towns

(d) transport towns

10. Among the given options, which is the major component of population change?

(a) Migration

(b) Industrialisation

(c) Density of population

(d) Urbanisation

11. ‘India’ was merged with Air India to form a single airline in which of the following years? 

(a) 2009

(b) 2011

(c) 1981

(d) 2010

12. Consider the following statements and choose the correct option. 

1. In India Ganga, Brahmaputra, Barak and Indus rivers have large catchment areas.

II. Due to high precipitation in the catchment areas of these rivers, they have around 60% of total surface water resources.


(a) Only statement I is correct

(b) Both statements are correct

(c) Only statement II is correct

(d) Both statements are correct

13. There are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes given below.

Assertion (A) The Contribution of the tertiary sector is increasing in the world’s GDP.

Reason (R) People are shifting from agriculture to the service sector.

Codes (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

14. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer with the help of the given options.

I. An uneducated child cannot choose to be a doctor.

II. His/her choice has been limited by her lack of education.


(a) Only statement I is correct

(b) Only statement II is correct

(c) Both the statements are correct, and statement Il correctly explains statement 1

(d) Both statements are true, but not related to each other

Directions Read the following map and answer the following question no. 15 to 17.

15. National Waterway-3 (NW1) stretches from 

(a) Allahabad-Haldia

(b) Sadiya Dhubri

(c) Kottapuram – Kollam

(d) Data-Allahabad

16. In which state is the Kollam-Kottapuram stretch of the West canal located? 

(a) Gujarat

(b) Maharashtra

(c) Kerala

(d) Andhra Pradesh

17. National Waterway-3 in India is also known as

(a) East-West Canal

(b) North-South Canal

(c) West Coast Canal

(d) East Coast Canal

Section B consists of 2 Source based question

18. Read the given passage carefully and answer the following questions.

The idea of human development is supported by the concepts of equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment. 

Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste. Yet this is very often not the case and happens in almost every society. 

In India, a large number of women and persons belonging to socially and economically backward groups drop out of school.

Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities. To have sustainable human development, each generation must have the same- opportunities. 

All environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the future.

Misuse of any of these resources will lead to fewer opportunities for future generations. Productivity means human labour productivity or productivity in terms of human work. 

Such productivity must be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people. Ultimately, it is people who are the real wealth of nations.

Empowerment means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and capability. Good

governance and people-oriented policies are required to empower people. The empowerment of socially and economically disadvantaged groups is of special importance.

(i) According to the passage, what is the real wealth of a county?

(ii) What can lead to the empowerment of people?

(iii) After reading this passage, what do you understand about sustainable development? 

19. Observe the given figure and answer the following questions.

(i) Which of the mining techniques is the cheapest? 

(ii) Which type of mining is used for the extraction of ore deep inside the surface? 

(iii) Which of the methods given in the picture is more prone to accidents?

Section C consists of 4 questions of 3 mark

20. Neo-determinism presents an alternative approach between the two streams of environmental determinism and possibilism. Explain how it shows that human beings can live in harmony with their environment. 

21. Describe any four important characteristics of horticulture and market gardening practised in the world. 

Or Differentiate between possibilism and determinism. 

22. What are the merits and demerits of air transport? 

23. What are the major problems associated with water in India? 

Or Describe major features of India’s National Water Policy, 2002. 

Section D consists of 5 questions with 5 marks

24. Where is intensive subsistence agriculture practised in the world? What are its two types? Describe any two characteristics of each type. 

Or Explain any five features of nomadic herding in the world. 

25. Name some sources of population data in India. Explain the distribution of population in India. 

Or State the important steps which have been taken by the government of India to solve the problem of adolescence. 

26. What are the sources of water pollution in India? Describe five such sources. 

27. “Trans-Canadian railway line is the economic artery of Canada.” Discuss. 

28. What are non-conventional sources of energy? Discuss their availability and potential in India. 

Nuclear energy is replacing the conventional sources of energy in India. Do you think it a variable source of energy in future? 

Section E consists of 2 Map based questions

29. On the political map of India, locate and label any five of the following with appropriate symbols. 

(i) The state with the lowest level of population density 

(ii) The leading producer state of coffee in India

(iii) Hazaribagh copper mine

(iv) An international airport

(v) A manganese mine in Karnataka

(vi) An oil refinery in Uttar Pradesh

(vii) A major seaport

30. On the given political map of the world, the following seven features are shown. Identify any five of these features and write their correct names on the lines marked near each feature.

(i) An inland waterway

(ii) A major area of nomadic herding

(iii) A major airport in Japan

(iv) A major area of subsistence agriculture

(v) A country in South America where commercial livestock rearing is practised

(vi) A major airport

(vii) A major seaport in Europe


1. (b) Decreased resources

2. (b) 312

3. (b) Chandigarh

4. (b) It is practised in coastal areas so that livestock can be easily exported.

5. (d) Birth rate-Death rate

6. (d) All of the above

7. (b) State having the highest density of population in Bihar.

8. (d) Environment determinism

9. (c) satellite towns

10. (a) Migration

11. (b) 2011

12. (c) Both statements are correct

13. (c) A is true, but R is false

14. (c) Both the statements are correct and statement II correctly explains statement I

15. (c) Kottapuram – Kolla

16. (c) Kerala

17. (c) West Coast Canal

18. (1) According to the passage, the people of a country are the real wealth of that country.

(ii) Good governance and people-oriented policies lead to the empowerment of people.

(iii) Sustainable development is using the resources in such a way that even future generations could use these resources for their welfare.


(1) Open-cast mining is the cheapest mining technique

(ii) The shaft mining method is used for the extraction of ore deep inside the surface:

(iii) Shaft mining is more prone to accidents like underground fires, leakage of poisonous gases, flooding, etc.

20. The following points make it clear that neo-determinism believes in harmony between human beings and their environment

The concept of neo-determinism shows that neither is there a situation of absolute necessity (environmental determinism) nor is there a condition of absolute freedom (possibilism). It means that human beings can conquer nature by obeying it

• They can proceed in their pursuits of development when nature permits the modifications. It means possibilities can be created within the limits which do not damage the environment.

The neo-determinism conceptually attempts to be a balance nullifying the ‘either” “or” dichotomy.In a way, it attempts to enable human beings to harmony with their environment by adopting adjustments to and modification of the environment

21. Horticulture and market gardening are special agricultural activities in which high-value crops such as vegetables, fruits, flowers, etc are grown.

Characteristics of horticulture and market gardening There are small farms but they are connected to urban centres by well-developed transport and communication links.

Diverse types of crops are grown in this type: of agriculture which includes food crops, beverage flowers, etc having high demand in urban areas The products of this type of agricultural activity are in the urban markets where income group: customers are located

This type of agriculture is both capital-intensive as well as labour-intensive as it emphasizes on uses extensive irrigation, yielding a variety of seed fertilisers, Insecticides, greenhouses for artificial heating, etc.


The difference between possibility and determinist are

Possibilism refers to the idea that humans can modify nature through the possibilities provided by it.Determinism refers to the state of being where human beings are greatly influenced by natural forces and they adapt to the dictates of nature
In this situation, humans understand their environment and create possibilities for their development with resources obtained from nature. Human activities are dependent upon the natural environment Humans consider nature as ‘Mother’
There is more social and cultural development, which leads to more efficient technology Humans are dictated by natural forces
Examples of this approach are agricultural advancement, the Industrial Revolution, etc.Examples of this approach are primitive tribal societies, Eskimos, etc

22. The merits of air transport are

  • It has reduced distances by minimising the travel time.
  • It is very much essential for a vast country like India, where distances are large and the terrain and climatic conditions are diverse.
  • The demerits of air transport are
  • It is a very costly mode of transportation that is not affordable for everyone
  • It is not suitable for carrying heavy and bulky commodities
  • The air transport is not much in use in the international trade due to its high cost.

23. The three major problems related to water in India are as follows

(1) Insufficient Amount of Freshwater in India, there is an insufficient amount of freshwater available to meet the growing demand. The increasing population is also shrinking the per capita availability of water.

(ii) Water Pollution has increased rapidly after industrialisation and urbanisation. They have contributed the most to water pollution in India.

(iii) Uneven Distribution of Water Resources Water resources in India are very unevenly distributed. Some regions are facing scarcity of water whereas other areas are facing floods.


The National Water Policy, 2002 explains allocation priorities in the following order i.e. drinking water, Irrigation, hydropower, navigation, industrial and other uses

The three features of India’s National Water Policy, 2002 are

(i) When there is no source of drinking water, irrigation and multi-purpose projects or dams should Invariably include drinking water components.

(ii) Provide potable water for human beings and animals.

(iii) Exploitation of groundwater should be regulated and limited by adopting suitable measures.

24. Intensive subsistence agriculture is largely practised in densely populated regions of monsoon Asia. There are two types of intensive subsistence agriculture which are given below

(i) Intensive subsistence agriculture is dominated by wet paddy cultivation This type of agriculture is characterised by the dominance of the rice crop.

Landholdings are very small due to the high density of the population. Farmers work with the help of family labour leading to intensive use of land.

Use of machinery is limited and most of the agricultural operations are done by manual labour. Farmyard manure is used to maintain the fertility of the soil. In this type of agriculture, the yield per unit area is high but labour productivity is low.

(ii) Intensive subsistence agriculture dominated by crops other than paddy Due to the difference in relief, climate, soil and some other geographical factors, it is not practical to grow paddy in many parts of monsoon Asia.

Wheat, soybean, barley and sorghum are grown in Northern China, Manchuria, North Korea and North Japan.

Most of the characteristics of this type of agriculture are similar to those dominated by wet paddy except that irrigation is often used.


Features of nomadic herding in the world are as follows

(1) Nomadic herding is also called pastoral nomadism. It is a primitive subsistence activity in which herders depend upon animals for food, clothing, shelter, tools and transport.

(ii) Herders move from one place to another with their livestock based on the availability and quality of pastures as well as water. Each nomadic community occupies a well-identified territory as a matter of tradition.

(iii) The variety of animals reared varies from region to region. For instance, in tropical Africa, cattle are the most commonly used livestock, whereas, in the hilly areas of Tibet and the Andes mountains, the yak and llama are used.

(iv) Movement in search of pastures is undertaken either over vast grasslands or hilly regions, depending on the season. In the hilly areas, during the winter season, the movement is from highlands to lowlands and in the summer season, the movement is

from lowlands to highlands. (v) Currently, the number of pastoral nomads has reduced considerably due to the imposition of political boundaries of nations and states as well as new settlement plans by various governments.

25. In India, population data is collected through Census which is held every 10 years in our country. The recent Census was conducted in 2011.

In India, the spatial pattern of population distribution is very uneven some areas are sparsely populated, whereas others are dense. These states can be categorised into three categories.

States with High Population Uttar Pradesh (highest population), Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu together account for 76% of the population

(States with Moderate Population Assem Haryana, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, Punjab and Goa have a moderate population

(i)States with Low Population Hilly and tribal areas like Jammu and Kashmir (now UT), Uttarakhand, all North-Eastern states (except Assam) and Union Territories excluding Delhi and Chandigarh have low population

Population is mainly affected by climate, terrain and availability of water. For example, the North Indian Plains, deltas and coastal plains are densely populated, whereas the mountainous areas and interior areas of Central and Southern India have relatively low population

Besides these, the evolution of settled agriculture and urbanisation are the socioeconomic and historical factors of the distribution of the population


The government of India has undertaken certain policies in this regard to impart proper education to the adolescent group so that their talent is better channelised and properly utilised. These are

• programme like SABLA for adolescent girls and SAKSHAM for adolescent boys are being executed by the government to improve the nutrition level and provide skills to youth

Various efforts are being taken by central and state governments to empower the youth and to achieve their full potential under the National Youth Policy

In National Youth Policy 2014, the government defined youth of age group 15-29 years and proposed to empower the youth of the country to achieve their full potential

Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY) is a redesigned version of the already existing Adolescent Girls (AG) Scheme. The objectives of this scheme are to improve the nutritional health and development status of adolescent girls, promote awareness of health and hygiene, nutrition and family care, help them gain a better understanding of their social environment and take initiatives to become productive members of the society

26. The sources of water pollution in India are

(1) Natural Sources Water pollution is caused by natural sources such as land erosion, land decay decomposition of dead plants animals, etc. Though naturally water gets poli most importantly, it is the man-made source that pollutes the water severely

(ii) Urbanisation Rapid urbanisation in the world has become an important polluter of water. Wi household sewage is dumped into the water bo it causes the quality of water to decline. The tom that is present at the banks of the rivers pollutes rivers, lakes, streams and even the groundwater of detergents also contributes to water pollution

(iii) Industrialisation Industries located along the river release toxic wastes into these waters which cause pollution. The life forms in the river water die as the river’s water becomes unfit for human use. Bot smaller as well as large-scale industries cause water pollution due to the use of harmful chemicals and toxic effluents.

(iv) Agricultural Practices Modern agriculture practices require large-scale use of chemicals such as insecticides and pesticides. The harmful chemicals reach the rivers, ponds, and lakes duet Irrigation. During rainfall, agricultural runoff causes the water in the fields to diffuse into river basins. Due to waterlogging, groundwater is also polluted: because the harmful chemicals seep through the soil to reach the groundwater.

(v) Cultural Activities Religious and cultural activities such as idol immersion, pilgrimage, throwing garlands, animal sacrifice, bathing and drinking, make the river water polluted. Pilgrimage, religious fairs and tourism activities also cause pollution in the water bodies.

27. The longest trans-continental railway line in North America is the Trans-Canadian railway line. It covers a distance of 7050 km, running from Halifax in East Vancouver on the Pacific Coast.

The Trans-Canadian railway line is considered the economic artery of Canada due to its following Importance

• It connects the important industrial cities of Montreal Ottawa, Winnipeg and Calgary, Goods and people can be easily transported to and from these economic centres with the railways

• It connects the Quebec-Montreal industrial region with the wheat of the Prairie region. Thus, raw materials and finished products are transported by the railways

• The line also connects the Coniferous forest region in the North to the Quebec Montreal and the Prairies All these regions have become complementary to each other and they support economic activities

• A loop line from Winnipeg to Thunderbay (Lake Superior) connects this rail line with one of the most important waterways in the world. This is used for exporting various products

28. Non-conventional sources of energy such as solar and wind energy are renewable sources. They are equitably distributed and environment friendly as there are no carbon or pollution emissions upon their use. They are not exhaustible as they do not have fixed deposits or reserves

These sources can provide sustained, cheap and environment-friendly energy and hence, they are considered a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels Some of the commonly used non-conventional sources of energy in India are

Solar Energy Sun rays tapped in photovoltaic cells can be converted into energy, known as solar energy The two effective processes considered to be very effective to tap solar energy are photovoltaics and solar thermal technology. The Western part of India has greater potential for the development of solar energy in Gujarat and Rajasthan.

Wind Energy This form of energy is a pollution-free, inexhaustible source of energy. The kinetic energy of wind, through turbines, is converted into electrical energy,

Permanent wind systems such as the trade winds, westerlies and seasonal winds like monsoons have been used as sources of energy. Besides these, local winds, land and sea breezes can also be used to produce electricity, In Rajasthan, Gujarat Maharashtra and Karnataka, favourable conditions for wind energy exist.

Tidal and Wave Energy Ocean currents are the storehouses of Infinite energy. Large tidal waves are known to occur along the West Coast of India Hence, India has great potential for the development of tidal energy along the coasts but so far these have not yet been utilised.

Geothermal Energy When the magma from the Interior of Earth, comes out on the surface. tremendous heat is released. This heat energy can successfully be tapped and converted to electrical energy. Apart from this, the hot water that gushes out

through the geyser wells is also used in the generation of thermal energy. It is popularly known as geothermal energy. In India, a geothermal energy plant has been commissioned at Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh


Nuclear energy is replacing the conventional sources of energy in India. Now, nuclear power plants are being constructed to replace thermal power plants in a phase-wise manner. Nuclear energy has multiple benefits over other conventional sources. A country like India, which is deficient in energy resources is promoting nuclear energy to fulfil their demand

Yes, nuclear energy is a viable source of energy for the future keeping in view the availability of nuclear minerals in India. This is due to the following reasons

• In nuclear power plants, uranium and thorium are used to generate energy

In India, uranium deposits are found in the Dharwar rock system. Its main reserves are in Singhbum (Jharkhand), Udaipur, Alwar Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan), etc.

India has very rich deposits of thorium in the world, which is the biggest reason for the viability of nuclear energy in India.

Thorium is mainly obtained from monazite and

ilmenite in the beach sands of India. The states which have rich monazite deposits are Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.

Institutions such as the Atomic Energy Commission and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre are working. consistently to extract thorium from monazite in an efficient manner, so that, India’s dependence on conventional sources can be reduced.

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