CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download, CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download

Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024

Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper

CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024

CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download

Section A consists of 17 questions of 1 

1. A sub-field of Political Geography is 

(a) Geography of Resources

(b) Electoral Geography

(c) Geography of Industries 

(d) Geography of Marketing

Ans. (b) Electoral Geography

2. According to which approach of Human Geography does nature get humanised? 

(a) Environmental determinism

(b) Possibilism

(c) Neo-determinism

(d) None of the above

Ans. (b) Possibilism

3. Where is the headquarters of the Northern Railway Zone in India?

(a) Chandigarh

(b) New Delhi

(c) Kanpur

(d) Lucknow

Ans. (b) New Delhi

4. Olives and figs grow in which type of climate?

(a) Mediterranean Agriculture

(b) Subtropical Agriculture

(c) Extensive Commercial Gram Agriculture

(d) Tropical Climate

Ans. (a) Mediterranean Agriculture

5. In most of the developed countries of the world, the population in the higher age group increased due to 

(a) increase in the life expectancy rate

(b) decline in the birth rate

(c) decline in the death rate

(d) Both (a) and (b)

Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b)

6. Which among the following crops is not grown during the Zaid season in India? 

(a) Rice

(b) Fruits

(d) Brinjal

(c) Groundnut

Ans. (c) Groundnut

7. Which of the following pairs is correctly matched? 

(a) Colonial PeriodBehavioural School
(b) 1950s 1960sPost Modernism
(c) 1990sSpatial Organisation
(d) 1970sRegional Analysis

Ans. (0) 1970s-Regional Analysis

8. Identify the region where primitive subsistence agriculture is known as ‘Milpa’

(a) North-Eastern States of India

(b) Central America 

(c) Indonesia

(d) Malaysia

Ans. (b) Central America

9. Arrange the following religious groups of people according to their percentage in the total population of India. 

(a) Christians, Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs

(b) Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs

(c) Muslims, Christians, Hindus, Sikhs

(d) Sikhs, Muslims, Christians, Hindus

Ans. (b) Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs

10. Which states operate the Konkan Railway in India?

I. Karnataka

II. Maharashtra

III. Goa

IV. Tamil Nadu


(a) I, II, III

(b) I, II, IV

(c) II, III, IV

(d) I and IV

Ans. (a) I, II, III

11. Match the following and choose the correct option. 

List IList II
A. Health1. Purchasing power parity
B. Access to resources2. Life expectancy
C. Education3. Adult literacy rate


(a) 2 1 3

(b) 3 2 1

(c) 132

(d) 2 3 1

Ans. (a) 213

12. Consider the following statements and choose the correct option. 

1. In mixed farming agriculture, crops are cultivated and animal husbandry is practiced simultaneously.

II. Mixed farming reduces the insecurity associated with crop failure.


(a) Only statement I is correct

(b) Only statement II is correct

(c) Both the statements are correct and statement II correctly explains statement I

(d) Both statements are true, but not related to each other

Ans. (c) Both the statements are correct and the statement correctly explains statement I

13. Identify the state having the highest population density in India as per the Census, 2011. 

(a) Assam

(b) Bihar

(c) West Bengal

(d) Uttar Pradesh

Ans. (b) Bihar

14. There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes given below.

Assertion (A) Degradation of agricultural land in India has increased.

Reason (R) Faulty strategy of irrigation and excessive use of fertilisers degrades the fertility of the land. (1)


(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

Ans. (b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

15. Which product accounted for the lowest proportion of exports in 2005?

(a) Fuel products

(c) Manufactured products

(d) None of the above

Ans. (b) Agricultural products

16. Which product accounted for the highest proportion of exports in 2015? 

(a) Manufactured products

(b) Agricultural products

(c) Fuel products

(d) None of the above

Ans. (c) Manufactured products

17. When the value of imports is more than the value of exports of a country, it is known as 

(a) favourable balance of trade.

(b) a fair balance of trade.

(c) negative balance of trade.

(d) equal balance of trade.

Ans. (c) negative balance of trade.

Section B consists of 2 Source based question

18. Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Rivers, canals, lakes and coastal areas have been important waterways since time immemorial. Boats and steamers are used as means of transport for cargo and passengers. The development of inland waterways is dependent on the navigability width and depth of the channel, continuity in the water flow, and transport technology in use. 

Rivers are the only means of transport in dense forests. Very heavy cargo like coal, cement, timber and metallic ores can be transported through inland waterways. In ancient times, riverways were the main highways of transportation as in the case of India. However, they lost importance because of competition from railways, lack of water due to diversion for irrigation, and their poor maintenance. 

The significance of rivers as inland waterways for domestic and international transport and trade has been recognised throughout the developed world. Despite inherent limitations, many rivers have been modified to enhance their navigability by dredging, stabilising river banks and building dams and barrages to regulate the flow of water.

The following river waterways are some of the world’s important highways of commerce. The Rhine flows through Germany and the Netherlands. It is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam, at its mouth in the Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland. 

Ocean-going vessels can reach up to Cologne. The Ruhr River joins the Rhine from the East. It flows through a rich coalfield and the whole basin has become a prosperous manufacturing area. Dusseldorf is the Rhine port for this region.

(i) What is the result of the lack of navigable waters and the development of other means of transport? 

(ii) How can we improve waterway navigability?

(iii) What is the navigable length of the Volga waterway for transport?

Ans. (i) The lack of navigable waters and the development of other means of transport results in a decrease in waterway transport.

(ii) We can improve waterway navigability through desolation by dredging, stabilising water banks and raising the water levels by damming.

(iii) The navigable length of the Volga water way for transport is 11,200 km.

(a) Name the most populous country.

(b) Which continent has the largest number of most populous countries? 

(c) Name the countries that are more populous as compared to Indonesia. 


(a) China is the most populous country.

(b) Asia has the largest number of most populous countries according to the graph.

(c) The USA, India and China are more populous countries than Indonesia.

Section C consists of 4 questions with 3 marks

20. What are the features of clustered settlements in India?


What is ‘dispersed settlement’? Explain the reason for their development. 

Ans. Clustered or compact settlements are generally found in the fertile alluvial plains.

The important features of these settlements are as follows:

(i) In this type of rural settlement, space between the houses is less or they have no space.

The houses in this type of settlement are closely built up, often they share walls with other houses.

(ii) People live in a distinct area of settlement. This living place is surrounded by farms, barns or pastures. In compact settlements, many settlement patterns form such as rectangular, linear, triangular, radial, etc.

(iii) This type of settlement generally develops in riverine fertile plains and northeastern states.


Dispersed settlements in India appear in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on small hills with farms or pastures on the slopes.

There are multiple reasons/factors responsible for the formation of dispersed settlements.

The two main reasons are as follows

• The most dominating factor for the formation of dispersed settlements is rugged and difficult terrain. Because of this reason, they are mainly found in Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, etc.

• Such settlements are also found in densely forested areas and in other areas which have very few resource bases. Uttarakhand also depicts such a settlement type.

21. What were the major causes for the stagnant growth of India’s population from 1901 to 1921? 

Ans. The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stagnant or stationary phase of growth of India’s population.

The following causes are responsible for stagnant growth

  • High birth rate and high death rate resulted in stationary growth.
  • Due to the lack of medical, health and sanitation facilities, the death rate was high.
  • The improper public distribution resulted in hunger and famine.
  • The low level of economic development and the occurrence of the First World War were also responsible for the decrease in population growth.
  • Illiteracy, lack of family planning and lack of social awareness, etc were the factors for the stagnant growth rate in India.

22. What are the ways of recycling and reuse of water? 


What are the salient features of National Water Policy, 2002? 

Ans. Recycling or reuse of water is the simple and the best way to conserve fresh water and make it available to all.

Lesser quality water and reclaimed wastewater can be used for cooling by the industries. It can be used for firefighting to reduce their water cost.

In urban areas, water after bathing and washing utensils and vehicles can be used for gardening. It would conserve better-quality water for drinking purposes.

Recycling of water has immense potential for water conservation. However, there is enormous scope for replenishing water through recycling.


The National Water Policy, of 2002 stimulates water allocation priorities in the following order-drinking water, irrigation, hydro-power, navigation, industrial and other uses. The policy gives progressive new approaches to water management.

Its key features are

• Irrigation and multi-purpose projects should include drinking water components, wherever there is no source of drinking water.

• Providing drinking water to humans and animals should be the priority.

• Measures should be taken to limit and regulate the exploitation of groundwater.

• Both surface and groundwater should be regularly monitored for quality. Programmes should be undertaken to improve water quality.

• Efficiency of utilisation of water in all the uses should be improved.

• People should be made aware of water as a scarce resource.

• Consciousness should be promoted for conservation through education, regulation, incentives and disincentives.

23. What is the Human Poverty Index? Mention the four indicators used to measure this index. 

Ans. The Human Poverty Index is used by UNDP to measure the limitations in human development. It is related to the Human Development Index. This index is an indication of the poverty in a community of a country. It is a non-income measure and was first reported as a part of the Human Deprivation Report, in 1997.

The HPI concentrates on the deprivation of three essential elements in human lives-longevity of life, knowledge and a decent standard of living.

To show the limitations in human development in any region, the following four indicators are used

• Probability of not surviving till the age of 40.

• The adult literacy rate.

• Number of people who do not have access to clean water.

• Number of underweight children.

Section D consists of 5 questions of 5 marks each

24. What is subsistence agriculture? Describe two types of intensive subsistence agriculture practised in the world.


Discuss any five important characteristics of the economic activities of hunting and gathering practised in the world.

Ans. Subsistence agriculture is the type of agriculture in which the producer or farming region consumes all the products that have been grown locally. It is of two types i.e. primitive subsistence agriculture, practiced by tribes and intensive subsistence agriculture.

Intensive subsistence agriculture is mainly found in the densely populated regions of monsoon areas. It is of two types

(1) Intensive subsistence agriculture dominated by wet paddy. The characteristics of this type of agriculture are

• In this type of agriculture paddy crop (rice) is grown.

• Landholdings are small due to the high density of the population.

• Farmers work with the help of family labour and the use of machines is very less.

• The yield per unit area is high but labour productivity is low

(ii) Intensive subsistence agriculture dominated by crops other than paddy. The characteristics of this type of agriculture are

• Here crops such as wheat, soybean, barley and sorghum are grown.

• It is practised in Northern China, Manchuria, North Korea and North Japan.

• In Indian plains wheat is most prominent in the Western region whereas millets are grown in dry parts of India.

• In this type of agriculture, irrigation is often used.


Gathering and hunting are well-known earliest economic activities. Important characteristics of hunting and gathering practised in the world are

(i) Gathering is practiced in regions having harsh climatic conditions by primitive societies who extract both plants as well animals for their needs.

(ii) It requires a small amount of capital investment and a very low level of technology. The yield per person is also low and very little or even no surplus is produced.

(iii) These activities are prominent in high-latitude zones which include Northern Canada, Northern Eurasia and South Chile. Some areas are also prominent in low latitude zones such as the Amazon Basin, tropical African region, Australia and interior parts of South East Asia.

(iv) The early man used stone tools or twigs to hunt animals. But now due to illegal hunting (poaching). many species have become endangered so hunting activity has become very limited.

(v) In gathering, the gatherers also collect valuable plants such as leaves, barks of trees and medicinal plants and after simple processing, they sell the products in the market

(Vi) Gathering activity now produces a diverse range of products such as beverages, drugs, cosmetics, fibres, thatch, fabrics, oil, rubber, gum resins, etc.

25. How is the use of plastic bags harmful to environmental degradation? Evaluate it by citing suitable reasons. 

Ans. The use of plastic bags is harmful to environmental degradation in the following ways

The major impact of plastic bags on the environment is that it takes many years to decompose

Waste from plastic bags poses a serious environmental danger to human and animal health. If plastic bags are not properly disposed of, they can impact the environment by causing littering and stormwater drain blockages

Animals often confuse plastic bags for food and consume them, therefore blocking their digestive processes.

Plastic buried deep in landfills can drain harmful chemicals that spread into groundwater.

If plastic bags are burned, they release a toxic substance into the air causing ambient air pollution.

26. ‘Sea ports are Gateway of International Trade. Ex Explain the statement and mention 10 the steps taken by India in the development of ports. 


Name the important ports in India and elaborate on their features. 

Ans. ‘Sea ports are Gateways of International Trade, which means that it is not possible to think of international trade

without the use of ports. They play a very significant role in carrying the cargo and facilitating the trade, Handling imports and exports, Trans-shipment hubs, Logistics, etc. The ports in India have been in use since ancient times. They were developed when the British colonised India. The British used the ports as suction points by extracting resources from their hinterlands.

The extension of railways towards the interior resulted in the linking of local markets to regional markets and regional to national markets. The ports linked national markets to the international markets.

This trend continued till 1947. It was expected that after independence, there would be rapid development of ports.

But the partition snatched away Karachi port which went to Pakistan and Chittagong port which went to East Pakistan (Bangladesh). Despite these setbacks, Indian ports continued to grow after Independence

To compensate for the loss, many new ports were developed. These included Kandia on the West and Diamond Harbour near Kolkata on the river Hughli on the East. Now, Indian ports are handling large volumes of domestic as well as international trade. These are equipped with modem facilities.

Earlier the development of ports was the responsibility of government agencies. But now private entrepreneurs have been Invitied to modernise these ports as there is an increase in functions of these ports and they have to be brought at par with the international ports


Some of the important Indian ports along with their features are discussed below

Kandla Port

This port is situated at the head of the Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat

The main purpose of this port is to fulfil the needs of Western and North-Western parts of the country and also to ease the pressure at Mumbai port

Mumbai Port

This port is a natural harbour and the biggest port in India. This port was developed by the British. The port is located closer to the general routes from the countries of the Middle East, and Mediterranean countries. North Africa, North America and Europe where most of the country’s overseas trade is carried out.

This port is 20 km long and 6-10 km wide with 54 berths and has the country’s largest oil terminal.

The main hinterlands of this port are Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.

Marmagao Port

This is a natural harbour in Goa which is located at the entrance of the Zuari estuary. Its importance increased after its remodelling in 1961 to handle iron ore exports to Japan.

Its hinterland extended with the construction ofthe Konkan railway Karnataka, Goa, and Southern Maharashtra, are its hinterlands.

27. What factors influence the industrial location in the world?


Explain features of small-scale manufacturing,

Ans. The factors influencing the industrial location in the world are as follows

(1) Access to Market Market is a place where people, who have demand for goods and the ability to purchase, buy from the sellers, selling their goods at that place. Market affects the location of an industry. A manufacturing unit is established near the market area. Areas having more population are big markets for manufactured goods, as compared to areas having less population. Apart from this, areas have a population with more purchasing power form big markets.

(ii) Access to Raw Material Industries that use heavy, bulky and weight-losing raw materials are established near the source of raw material. For example, in sugar industries, sugarcane is a perishable and weight-losing raw material. To reduce the transport cost, industries are located near the source of raw materials.

(iii) Access to Sources of Energy Industries using more power and energy are established near the source of energy. For example, the aluminium industry.

(iv) Access to Transportation and Communication Industries are located in areas that have efficient transport networks to get raw materials from various regions and supply manufactured goods to market. A communication network is also needed to communicate ideas. Thus, transport and communication are important factors that affect the location of an industry.

(v) Government Policies Favourable government policies that promote industrialisation are also important in deciding the location of an industry.


Manufacturing refers to the conversion of raw materials into finished goods through the application of power. Manufacturing can be modern, which includes modern forms of power and machinery or it can be primitive.

Four features of small-scale manufacturing are

(i) Small-scale manufacturing units are characterised by production at a smaller scale such as in a workshop outside the home/cottage of the producer.

(ii) These industries use raw materials that a obtained from local sources. Production takes place with the help of simple power-drive machines and semi-skilled labour.

(ii) They do not require large capital investments to set up and operate. The level of technology used is very low and the production is meant for local regional markets. 

(v) These industries are mainly located in the

developing countries where they provide local employment and raise the purchasing power of people.

28. What are conventional sources of energy and why are they essential for the development of India?

Ans. Conventional sources of energy have been used for a long time. These resources cannot be renewed or replenished. They are exhaustible. For example, all fossil fuels like coal petroleum and natural gas. They play a major role in fulfilling the energy requirements around the world. Conservation of minerals resources is essential for the development of India for the following Ar reasons

• In India, mineral resources are unevenly distributed throughout the country, if these resources become extinct, then it will be a huge challenge to fulfil domestic requirements.

• Its conservation is important as a large number of industries are dependent completely on mineral resources.

• If mineral resources are not conserved, then we have to import them from other countries which will put huge economic pressure.

• The formation of minerals takes a number of years. Moreover, they are finite and non-renewable. Once finished, they take millions of years for their replenishment.

• Every country has a moral responsibility to conserve resources for the future generation, so that, they can also use them for their development. Hence, efficient and judicious minerals are the demand of time, if we want to ensure the development of India.

Section E consists of 2 Map based questions of 5 marks each

29. On the political map of India, locate and label any five of the following with appropriate symbols. 

(i) State having the highest population density

(ii) Singhbhum copper mine

(iii) Leading producer of wheat

(iv) Mathura oil refinery

(v) An area in Madhya Pradesh fam the Manganese mineral

(vi) An oil refinery in Gujarat

(vii) Leading producer of coffee.

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