CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download, CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download

CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024

Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper

CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024

CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions Free PDF Download

Section A consists of 17 questions of 1 mark 

1. Which of the following constitutes the maximum length of roads in India?

(a) State Highways

(b) National Highways

(c) Rural Roads

(d) District Roads

Ans. (c) Rural Roads

2. Match the following.

List I (Sub-fields of Human Geography)List II (Sister disciplines)
A. Behavioural Geography1. Anthropology
B. Geography of Leisure2. Business Geography
C. Cultural Geography3. Sociology
D. Geography of Marketing4. Psychology


(a) 4 3 1 2

(b) 3124

(c) 4 1 2 3

(d) 3 2 4 1

Ans. (a) 4312

3. Identify which of the following approaches was formulated during the early colonial period in Human Geography.

(a) Regional analysis

(b) Exploration and description

(c) Areal differentiation

(d) Spatial organisation

Ans. (b) Exploration and description

4. In which phase of population growth in demographic transition both birth and death rates were high? 

(a) Phase I

(b) Phase II

(c) Phase III

(d) Phase IV


(a) Phase

5. Which of the following programmes is launched by the present Union Government for the cleaning of river Ganga?

(a) Ganga Cleaning Mission

(b) Namami Ganga

(c) Ganga Namami Action Plan

(d) Ganga Action Plan


(b) Namami Ganga

6. Which of these is an Inland port? 

(a) Haldia

(b) Ennore port 

(c) Kochchi port

(d) Kolkata port

Ans. (c) Kochchi port

7. Which of the following pairs is incorrectly matched? 

Important Sea RoutesConnecting Regions
(a) North Atlantic Sea RouteNorth-East USA to North-West Europe
(b) North Pacific Sea RouteWest Coast of North America to Asia
(c) Cape of Good Hope Sea RouteConnect Western Europe to South Africa Countries
(d) South Atlantic Sea RouteConnects China to the Middle East Region.


(d) South Atlantic Sea Route Connects China to the Middle East Region.

8. Which port has lost its significance as an account of the diversion export to Visakhapatnam, Paradip and Haldia ports?

(a) Kolkata Port

(b) Ennore Port

(c) Kochchi Port

(d) Tuticorin Port


(a) Kolkata Port

9. Which of the following is the benefit of outsourcing? 

(a) Lower overhead costs

(b) Efficiency in work

(c) More profit

(d) All of the above

Ans. (d) All of the above

10. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer with the help of the given option. 

1. Understanding friction and heat helped humans discover fire.

II. Technology enables humans to overcome the limitations imposed by nature.

(a) Both the statements are true

(b) Only statement I is true 

(C) Only statement II is true

(d) Both the statements are false

Ans. (a) Both the statements are true

11. Arrange the following National waterways of India in a correct sentence, according to their length in descending order. 

1. Sadiya-Dhubri Stretch

II. Kottapuram-Kallom Stretch

III. Allahabad-Haldia Stretch

IV. Delta Channel of Mahanadi and Godavari


(a) 1. II, III, IV

(c) IV, II, I, III

(b) III, 1, IV, 11

ANS. (b) I, N

(d) III, II, I, IV

12. Consider the following statements and choose the correct option from the given options.

1. The main sources of air pollution are combustion of fossil fuels, mining and industries.

II. With the increasing use of a variety of fuels as a source of energy, there is a marked increase in the emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere.


(a) Only statement I is correct

(b) Both the statements are correct, and statement II correctly explains statement I

(c) Only statement II is correct

(d) Both statements are true, but not related to each other

Ans. (b) Both the statements are correct, and statement II correctly explains statement I

13. The National Waterway II lies on the river 

(a) Ganga

(b) Brahmaputra

(c) Yamuna

(d) Kaveri

Ans. (b) Brahmaputra

14. There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R), 

Mark your answer as per the codes given below. Assertion (A) In India, the work participation rate tends to be higher in areas of lower levels of economic development.

Reason (R) A large number of manual workers are needed to perform subsistence activities. Codes

(a) Both A and Rare are true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

Arts. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

Directions Read the graph and answer question no. 15 to 17.

15. Which state has a higher proportion of cultivators as compared to others?

(a) Himachal Pradesh

(b) Goa

(c) Tamil Nadu

(d) Rajasthan

Ans: (a) Himachal Pradesh

16. In which of the following Union Territory, there is a very high percentage of agricultural labourers?

(a) NCT of Delhi

(c) Puducherry

(b) Chandigarh

(C) Puducherry

17. Which state has a higher proportion of other workers?

(a) Bihar

(b) Goa

(c) Madhya Pradesh

(d) Lakshadweep

Ans. (b) Goa

Section B consists of 2 Source-based questions of 3 marks each 18.

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Indiscriminate use of water by increasing population and industrial expansion has led degradation of the quality of water considerably. Surface water available from rivers, canals, lakes, etc. is never pure. It contains small quantities of suspended particles, organic and inorganic substances. When the concentration of these substances increases, the water becomes polluted, and hence becomes unfit for use. In such a situation, the self-purifying capacity of water is unable to purify the water.

Though water pollutants are also created

from natural sources (erosion, landslides, decay and decomposition of plants and animals, etc.) pollutants from human activities are the real causes of concern. Human beings pollute the water through industrial, agricultural and cultural activities. 

Among these activities, industry is the most significant contributor. Industries produce several undesirable products including industrial wastes, polluted wastewater, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust, smoke, etc. 

Most of the industrial wastes are disposed of in running water or lakes. Consequently, poisonous elements reach the reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies, which destroy the bio-system of these waters,

Major water-polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles and chemicals. Various types of chemicals used in modern agriculture such as inorganic fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides are also pollution-generating components. These chemicals are washed down to rivers, lakes and tanks. These chemicals also infiltrate the soil to reach the groundwater.

Fertiliser induces an increase in the nitrate content of surface waters. Cultural activities such as pilgrimage, religious fairs, tourism, etc. also cause water pollution. In India, almost all surface water sources are contaminated and unfit for human consumption. Water pollution is a source of various water-borne diseases. The diseases commonly caused by contaminated water are diarrhoea, and intestinal worms—hepatitis, etc.

(i) What has led degradation of water quality? 

(ii) Which chemical pollutes water?

(iii) Name a few polluting industries.

Ans. (1) Indiscriminate use of water by increasing population and industrial expansion has led degradation of the quality of water.

(ii) Concentration of suspended particles, organic and inorganic substances make water polluted arc hence unfit for use.

(iii) The leather industry, pulp and paper industry and chemical industry are a few examples of polluting Industries.

19. Observe the given map and answer the following questions.

(i) Name the railway line shown in the map

(ii) Name the station marked as ‘A’.

(iii) Name the port located on the coast of Spencer Gulf through which this railway line passes.

Ans. (1) The railway line shown on the map is Australis. 

Ans: 2 Trans-Continental railway line.

(ii) The station marked as ‘A’ is ‘Sydney. (iii) Port Augusta and Port Pirie are two ports located o

the coast of Spencer Gulf through which the railway line passes quantity. 

Ans3 . Pastoral Nomadism is a primitive subsistence activity in which the herders rely on animals for food, clothing shelter, tools and transport. The main characteristics of pastoral nomadism are given below

(1) Each nomadic community occupies a we-identified territory as a matter of tradition

Section C consists of 4 questions of 3 marks each

20. What is pastoral nomadism? State its characteristics.


“Gathering has little chance to become important at the global level.” Analyse the statement by giving three reasons.

(1) They move from one place to another along with their livestock, depending on the amount and quality of pastures and water

(i) Movement in the season of pastures is undertaken by other

over vast horizontal distances or vertically from one elevation to another in the mountainous regular

(iv) It is mainly confined to dry areas where shan grasses are found Gathering has little chance of becoming important at the global level because

(It involves low-level primitive technology and the products made from gathering cannot compute with products made from hi-tech machines

Synthetic products of better quality end et lower prices have replaced many toms supplied by gatherers in tropical regions

(The yield per person is very low in the gaming activity due to which very little or no surplus is produced to be sold in the world markets

Common Mistake

Students often make mistakes in this type of question and write about features of gathering, However, here limitations of the gathering are to be written.

21. How is growth different from development in modern society? Explain in brief

Ans. Both growth and development refer to changes over some time. However, there are some differences.

They are as follows Growth is quantitative and value-neutral. It may have a positive or a negative sign, whereas development means a qualitative change which is always value positive

Development occurs when positive growth takes place. Yet, positive growth does not always lead to development. Development occurs only when there is a positive change in quality.

When the population of a city grows from one lakh to Two lakhs over some time, we say the city has grown. However, if facilities like housing, provision of basic services and other characteristics remain the same, then this growth has not been accompanied by development

22. Distinguish between Rural Settlements and Urban Settlements in India. 


Differentiate between Clustered Rural Settlement and Dispersed Rural Settlement. 

Alts. The differences between rural and urban settlements are as follows

Rural Settlements

Urban Settlements

The major economic activities in rural areas are agriculture and other primary activities

Urban settlements pre-specialised in industries and

They are dependent on natural resources, mainly land for their income:

They provide various types of services like transport and communication, etc

Agricultural and other productions in rural areas support industries in urban areas. Rural areas provide raw materials to industries

Cilles provide manufactured goods to rural areas and also to the people of Ellies

Social bonds in rural areas are stronger and life is simple

Social bonds in urban areas are formal and lite is complex, fast and surrounded by Various problems

The differences between clustered and dispersed rural settlements in India are as follows

Clustered Rural Settlements

The space between the houses is less. They are closely built up

The space between the houses is more. They are scattered in areas:

These settlements are usually seen in the Northern Plains of India

These settlements can be seen in remote hilly and mountainous areas or within the forests

In clustered settlements, different types of settlement patterns emerge like rectangular, linear, radial and circular

Dispersed Rural Settlements.

in dispersed settlements, no pattern emerges because of the scattering of houses Houses are scattered over large area

23. Describe a few benefits of satellite communication in India.

Aris The benefits of satellite communication in India are as follows

(1) Satellites provide a continuous and overall view of a larger area which is very vital for the country due to economic and strategic reasons.

(ii) Telecommunication, meteorological observation and other data and programmes for India can be obtained through satellite systems. Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) is a multipurpose satellite system used for this purpose.

(iii) The Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System (IRS) is very useful in the management of natural resources, monitoring of natural calamities, and surveillance of borders, etc in India.

Section D consists of 5 questions with 5 marks

24. “Population in a region is affected by its geography”. Explain.

Or Explain the economic and social factors that affect the distribution of population in a region. Give examples.

Ans. The population in a region is affected by its geography. Various geographical factors affect the presence and distribution in a region. These factors include availability of water resources, suitable land, climate and soil availability

These factors are described below

• Availability of Water Resources Water is most important for life. People prefer to live in those areas where freshwater resources are easily available in abundant quantities. This is the reason that the population is concentrated in river valleys and fertile plains through which rivers and streams flow

Suitable Landforms People prefer to live on flat plains and gentler slopes, Such regions are favourable for crop production and building infrastructure such as roads and industries. 

The regions such as mountains and hilly areas hinder the development of infrastructure and agriculture. This is the reason why the Ganga plains are the most populated region in the world whereas the Himalayas are densely populated and thinly populated

Climatic Factors The population is concentrated in those regions where the climate is moderate and comfortable and there is little seasonal variation. 

On the other hand, harsh climates such as very hot or very cold climates or areas with very heavy rainfall tend to be uncomfortable to the people living in Mediterranean regions that have been inhabited from early periods in history due to pleasant climates.

Soil Resources Regions where there is availability of fertile soil are most populated because agriculture and allied activities are carried out with the help of fertile soil. These areas support intensive agriculture and the concentration of more people in the region.

Thus, the geography of a region influences the population of that region.


Ans: The population distribution in a region is influenced by economic as well as the social and cultural factors prevailing in a region.

These factors are described below Economic Factors Economic factors such as mineral availability, industrialisation and urbanisation affect the population concentration in a region. These factors are described below

• Availability of Minerals Areas that have huge mineral deposits attract people to work in Industries. Mining and Industrial activities generate employment due to which the Shield Sami stumbled workforce moves to these areas example, 

the Katanga Zambia copper belt in Al Urbanisation and Industrialisation Urban offers better opportunities for employment, OU medical facilities, good means of transport communication For example, Mega Achilles world such as New York, 

Mumbai attracts several people and is highly densely populated Industrial belts such as Kobe and Osaka Moon Japan are thickly populated as there is a presence large number of industries. These industries provide job opportunities to factory workers, transport operators, doctors, teachers, etc

Social Factors Social factors also play an important role in influencing population distribution. These faces are described below

Places of Religious Significance Places which he high religious as well as cultural significance altis more number of people to those regions. 

The regions may receive more pece seasonally or throughout the year Places of h historical significance also attract a large number of people from other regions. For example, Varanasi in India, Jerusalem in Israel, etc

Places of Conflict and Wars The regions which a characterised by frequent social and political conflicts and wars are thinly populated. The regions tend to push away people from other areas that offer safety security peace and stability to the people. For example, people move to Western countries to enjoy their nights in democratic countries.

25. Explain the distribution of any two types of energy resources in India.

Non-conventional energy resources wi

prove more sustainable in the long term Describe any two non-conventional energy resources found in India.

Ats. Energy resources are those resources that we require to generate power to be used by agriculture, Indus transport and other sectors of the economy. These resources include mineral fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas, nuclear, minerals, etc

Distribution of Coal in India

Coal is used in the generation of thermal power in India and is mainly found in Gondwana and Tertiary depos Gondwana coal constitutes 80% of coal deposits in India. The most important Gondwana coal fields in India are located in the Damodar valley, which lies Jharkhand-Bengal coal belt: Important coal fields Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Gindin, Karanpura

Gondwana coal is also found in river valleys of Godavari, Mahanadi and Son. Important coal mining centres include Singrauli in Madhya Pradesh, Korba in Chhattisgarh, Talcher in Odisha, Pandur in Andhra Pradesh

Tertiary coal fields are present in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland Important mining centres include Cherrapunji, Maolong in Meghalaya, Makum, Jaipur and Nazira in upper Assam and Namchik-Namphuk in Arunachal Pradesh

Distribution of Petroleum in India

Crude petroleum is an important source of energy for all internal combustion engines. It is mainly distributed in the sedimentary rocks of the tertiary period. Till the year 1956, oil was mainly extracted from the oil field of Digboi in Assam. Later on, new deposits of petroleum were found along the Eastern and Western parts of the country.

In the Western part, oil is found mainly in Ankleshwor, Kalol, Mehsana, Nawagam, Kosamba and Lunej in Gujarat and Mumbai High Regi in the Arabian Sea. In the East, Digboi, Naharkatiya, and Moran are important sites in Assam. It is also found in the Krishna Godavari basin and Kaveri River basin


The non-conventional energy resources are more clean and equitably distributed over the surface of the earth. They provide more sustained and eco-friendly energy and hence they will be sustainable in the long run.

Two non-conventional energy resources found in India are

(1) Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy has emerged as an important resource for energy production in India. It is produced from Uranium and Thorium Uranium deposits that occur in the Singhbhum copper belt. It is also found in Udaipur, Alwar and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, Bhandara district of Maharashtra and Kullu in Himachal Pradesh.

Thorium deposits occur in monazite and ilmenite in the beach sands along Kerala and Tamil Nadu, The richest monazite deposits occur in Palakkad and Kollam districts of Kerala, near Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and the Mahanadi river delta in Orissa

(ii) Solar Energy Sun’s energy can be tapped in photovoltaic cells to be converted into solar energy Solar energy can be used by two processes- Thermal energy and photovoltaic energy. Solar energy is cost-competitive, environment-friendly and very easy to construct.

Solar power plants have been constructed in the states of Karnataka, Telangana, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Rewa solar power plant has been recently constructed in the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is India’s first single-site solar power plant.

26. Elucidate the concept of ‘trading’ in the tertiary sector of the economy. 

Ans. Trading is essentially the buying and selling of items produced elsewhere and specifically intended for profit. The towns and cities where all these works take place are known as trading centres.

The rise of trading from barter at the local level to money exchange on an international scale has produced many centres and institutions such as trading centres or collection and distribution points.

The types of trading are

• Retail Trading This is the business activity concerned with the sale of goods directly to the consumers. Most of the retail trading takes place in fixed establishments or stores solely devoted to selling. Street peddling, handcarts, trucks, door-to-door, mail-order, telephone, automatic vending machines and the internet are examples of non-store retail trading.

• Wholesale Trading It constitutes bulk business through numerous intermediary merchants and supply houses and not through retail stores: Some large stores including chain stores can buy directly from the manufacturers. However, most retail stores procure supplies from an intermediary source. Wholesalers often extend credit to retail stores to such an extent that the retailer operates very largely on the wholesaler’s capital.

27. How can you say that different marketing centres try to provide services by targeting different markets? 

Ans. There are three types, of trading centres or marketing centres that provide different services to target their markets. These try to provide services by targeting different markets in the following ways

(i) Rural Marketing Centres These centres cater to nearby settlements. These are quasi-urban centres. Here, personal and professional services are not well-developed.

These are in the form of local collecting and distribution centres. Most of these have mandis (wholesale markets) and also retailing areas. They are significant centres for making available goods and services which are most frequently demanded by rural folk

(1) Periodic Markets These markets are found where there are no regular markets and local periodic markets are organised at different temporal intervals. These may be weekly, or bi-weekly markets from where people from the surrounding areas meet their temporally accumulated demand. These markets are held on specific days and move from one place to another. The shopkeepers thus, remain busy on all days while a large area is served by them

(1) Urban Marketing Centres These have more widely specialised urban services They provide ordinary goods and services as well as many of the specialised goods and services required by people. Urban centres, therefore, offer manufactured goods, as well as many specialised markets develop For example, markets for labour, housing and semi or finished products. Different services are also available in these markets like services of educational institutions such as teachers, lawyers, and consultants. physicians, dentists, veterinary doctors, etc

28. Explain any two methods that can be used to conserve the depleting resources of water in India.


Mention some of the problems in the development of water resources in the country. 

Ans. Two methods used to conserve the depleting resources of water in the country include Watershed Management Watershed management refers to the efficient management and conservation of surface and groundwater resources. It involves the prevention of runoff water and storage and recharge of groundwater by the use of percolation tanks, recharge wells, etc

Watershed management Includes conservation regeneration and judicious use of all resources including land resources, plants, animals, etc.

It involves community participation and the support of both central and state governments. Some of these programmes have also been implemented by

Programmes such as Haryall and Neeru-Meeru have been successful in conserving water for drinking Irrigation, fishers, etc.

Rainwater Harvesting

Rainwater harvesting is a method to capture and store rainwater for various uses. It is a low-cost and eco-friendly technique for preserving every drop of water. Rainwater harvesting is practised by digging wells, recharge pits, etc

It increases water availability, checks the declining groundwater level and improves the quality of groundwater by diluting contaminants like fluoride and nitrates.

Traditional rainwater harvesting in rural areas is done by using surface storage bodies like lakes, ponds, irrigation tanks etc. In Rajasthan, rainwater harvesting structures are known as kund or tanka

• Rainwater can also be conserved by harvesting rainwater on rooftops and open spaces which also bridges the demand-supply gap in water and conserve water for future uses.


The major problems in the development of water resources in the country are as follows

• Insufficient Availability of Water The Total available water resource in India has been estimated to be around 1869 cubic km, Out of this, only 1140 cubic km of water potential is available for utilisation. Availability of water in ratio of population is low and per capita availability is decreasing day by day.

Uneven Distribution of Water The Distribution of water resources in India is very uneven. Some areas are facing scarcity while some have a surplus. Hence, It creates difficulty in improperly managing the resources Over Utilisation of Water Due to the over-utilisation of this valuable resource, it is difficult to provide water to all regions. Oversupply of water in urban areas results in a lack of water supply

in other areas. Deteriorating Quality of Water Despite having access to water supply, there is a major issue of quality of water. Poor quality water and polluted water resources cause various waterborne diseases such as diarrhoea.

Section E consists of 2 Map based questions of 5 marks each

29. On the given political map of India, locate and label any five of the following with appropriate

(iii) A coal mine in Jharkhand

(ii) An oil refinery in Uttar Pradesh

(iv) An International Airport in Kerala 

(vi) Leading producer of cotton

The state has the lowest density of population

(v) A manganese mine in Karnataka

(vii) An International seaport.

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