CBSE Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download

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CBSE Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download, Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download, CBSE Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download

CBSE Geography class 12 sample paper

Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper

CBSE Geography class 12 sample paper

CBSE Geography class 12 sample paper 2024 PDF Download

Section A consists of 17 questions of 1 Each

1. Which of the following best signifies the nature of Human Geography?

(a) It covers all the elements created by men only.

(b) It covers all the elements created by nature only.

(c) It covers all the elements created by nature as well as men.

(d) None of the above

2. Concerning Malthusian theory, what preventive check for population control? 

(a) Famine

(b) Disease

(c) War

(d) Late marriage

3. Which of the following states has a high demand for groundwater?

(a) Arunachal Pradesh

(b) Punjab

(c) Gujarat

(d) Kerala

4. Which of the following is not a feature of plantation agriculture?

(a) Large estates

(b) Crop specialisation

(c) Heavy capital investment

(d) Highly skilled labour

5. Human beings interact with the physical environment with which of the following? 

(a) Tools

(b) Technology

(c) Skills

(d) None of these

6. Match the following.

List I (Phase of Population growth)List II (Characteristics)
A. Phase I1. Steady population growth
B. Phase II2. Population explosion
C. Phase III3. Negative growth rate


(a) 3 2 1

(b) 3 1 2

(c) 1 3 2

(d) 1 2 3

7. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer with the help of given codes. 

I. The Tibeto-Himalayan group of languages is mainly spoken in Sikkim.

II. Indo-Aryan is the largest linguistic group in India.


(a) Both the statements are true

(b) Only statement I is true

(c) Only statement II is true

(d) Both the statements are false

8. Which of the following is the best example of tertiary activities? 

(a) Trade and Commerce

(c) Communication

(b) Transport

(d) All of these

9. The important mineral available in the North-Eastern plateau region mineral belt is 

(a) Iron-ore

(b) Coal

(c) Manganese

(d) All of these

10. Arrange the following features of Human Geography as per their period of origin. 

(1) I. Emergence of three new schools of

thought. II. Use of sophisticated statistical tools.

III. Universal theories to explain human conditions were questioned.

IV. Elaborate descriptions of all aspects of a region were undertaken.


(a) I, II, III, IV

(c) IV, II, I, III

(b) II, III, IV, 1

(d) 1, IV, II, III

11. Match the following.

List 1List 1I
A. Population DensityBI/P ×100
B Crude Birth RateD/P ×100
C Crude Death RatePopulation/Area


(a) 3 12

(b) 2 1 3

(c) 3 2 1

(d) 1 2 3

12. Consider the following statements and choose the correct options given below

I. Road transport is a cheap and faster mode of transport.

II. It is highly preferred for long-distance trade of goods.


(a) Only statement I is correct

(b) Only statement II is correct

(c) Both the statements are correct and statement II correctly explains statement I

(d) Both statements are true, but not related to each other

13. There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes given below. (1) Assertion (A) Many industries benefit from

nearness to a leader Industry. Reason (R) Linkages between industries increase savings and profits for all the industries.


(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of А (c) A is false, but R is true

(d) A is true, but R is false

14. Which of the following has a very high-density of population in the world? 

(a) North-East USA

(b) Norway

(c) Arabian Desert

(d) Amazon Basin

15. The difference between the exports and imports of a country is known as

(a) Balance of Trade

(b) Balance of Payment

(c) Composition of Trade

(d) Terms of Trade

16. In which year did both exports and imports start declining?

(a) 2013-14

(b) 2014-15

(c) 2015-16

(d) 2012-13

17. Which year represents the maximum difference between import and export?

(a) 2012-13

(b) 2013-14

(c) 2014-15

(d) 2015-16

Section B consists of 2 Source

18. Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore. It has the largest reserve of iron ore in Asia. The two main types of ore found in our country are haematite and magnetite. It has great demand in the international market due to its superior quality. 

The iron-ore mines occur near the coal fields in the North-Eastern plateau region of the country which adds to their advantage. About 95 per cent of the total reserves of iron ore are located in the States of Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. In Odisha, iron ore occurs in a series of hill ranges in Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj and Jhar.

The important mines are Gurumahisani, Sulaipet, Badampahar (Mayurbhaj), and Kiruburu (Kendujhar) (Sundergarh). Similar and Bonai bill ranges, Jharkhand has some of the oldest iron-ore mines and most of the iron and steel plants are located around them.

Most of the important mines such as Noamundi and Gua are located in Poorbi and Pashchimi Singhbhum districts. This belt further extends to Durg, Dantewara and Bailadila. 

Dalli and Rajhara in Durg are the important mines of iron-ore in the country In Karnataka, iron-ore deposits occur in the Sandur-Hospet area of Ballari district, Baba Budan hills and Kudremukh in Chikkamagaluru district and parts of S Shivamogga, Chitradurg and Tumakuru districts. The districts of Chandrapur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Karimnagar and Warangal districts of Telangana, Kurnool, Cuddapah and Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh, Salem and Nilgiris districts of Tamil Nadu are other iron mining regions. Goa has also emerged as an important producer of iron ore.

(i) Which areas are sources of iron or mineral?

(ii) Which mineral is found in Dharwar rocks? 

(iii) Where is Baba Budan hills are located? 

19. Observe the given map of the Suez Canal and answer the following questions.

(1) From which country is the given canal passing?

(ii) Which sea is connected by this Cana?

(iii) Why is this canal considered a Gateway of Europe to the Indian Ocean?

Section C consists of 4 questions of 3 marks each

20. How is the service sector important for the economy of a country?


“Transport and communication services are important for a country’s development”. Describe.

21. What are the key features of semi-clustered rural settlements of India?

22. Satellites and computers have brought revolutionary changes in the present life of people. Elaborate the statement with three suitable examples. 


Evaluate the role and importance of roads in the economic development of India.

23. Discuss how growth in population influences economic development.

Section D consists of 5 questions with 5 marks

24. What is commercial livestock rearing? What are its major characteristics? 

25. Explain how water quality has deteriorated in India over the past few decades. 


The problem of water pollution has become peculiar in India. What steps can be taken to improve the deteriorating quality of water? 

26. What is noise pollution? Describe major sources and consequences of noise pollution. 


The disposal of urban waste has become a serious concern for the local authorities. Analyse the statement with suitable examples. 

27. What are the merits and demerits of road transport in the world?

28. How do countries are classified into different categories under the HDI?


Explain the three main areas of measuring human development.

Section E consists of 2 Map based question

29. On the given political map of India, locate and label any five of the following with appropriate symbols. 

(i) A major seaport in Odisha

(ii) A copper mine in Gujarat

(iii) Leading producer of cotton

(iv) An iron ore mine in Odisha

(v) Leading producer of jute

(vi) An international airport in Tamil Nadu

(vii) A bauxite mine in Madhya Pradesh

30. On the given political map of the world, the following seven features are shown. Identify any five of these features and write the correct names of the lines marked near each feature. 

(i) Area of subsistence gathering

(ii) An area of nomadic herding

(iii) An inland waterway

(iv) An area of mixed farming in Australia

(v) A major seaport

(V) A major airport

(vii) Eastern Terminal Station of Trans-Siberian.


1. (c) It covers all the elements created by nature as well as men.

2. (d) Late Marriage

3. (b) Punjab

4. (d) Highly skilled labour

5. (b) Technology

6. (b) 312

7. (a) Both the statement are true

8. (d) All of these

9. (d) All of these

10. (c) (iv), (ii), (i), (iii)

11. (a) 3 12

12. (a) Only statement I is correct

13. (b) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

14. (a) North-East USA

15. (a) Balance of Trade

16. (b) 2014-15

17. (a) 2012-13

18. (i) Mayurbhanj Hills, Sundergarh and Jhar hills are sources of iron-ore minerals.

(ii) Manganese is found in Dharwar rocks.

(iii) Baba Budan Hills is located in the state of Karnataka.

19. (1) This canal passes through Egypt.

(ii) This canal connectsthe Mediterranean Sea andthe Red Sea.

(iii) This canal is considered as a Gateway of Europe to the Indian Ocean because the canal cut short the thousands of miles of distance if the trade happened from Europe to the Indian Ocean countries via the Suez Canal.

20. The growth of the service sector has been an important source of prosperity for the economy of various countries.

It is important for the economy of a country in the following ways

• Creation of Infrastructure Service sector growth has resulted in the creation of infrastructure such as IT and Telecommunications, transport lines, and communication lines, which provides a strong base for the economy to grow further.

More Employment Opportunities The Service sector has contributed to the growth of more employment opportunities for the people. The service sector has employed people from Tier-ll and Tier-Ill towns who used to migrate to large urban centres in search of job opportunities.

Skilling of PeopleThe Growth of the service sector has led to the skilling of more people. The levels of education have also increased as now there are more teachers, doctors, lawyers, physicians, etc

Source of Foreign Income Service sector is also the source of foreign income for the economy as more services are now outsourced to other countries.


Transport and communication services are important for the development of a country. It can be seen with the following points

The transport and communication lines connect one region of a country with the other. It results in the transfer of ideas and resources from one region to another.

Means of communication help in linking various traders across the country and providing essential products to the population of the country. Transport links manufacturing centres and industries with the markets.

Means of transportation also carry people from one place to another and help in fulfilling their basic needs of commuting leisure, etc.

• Transport and communication services also play an important role in the defence and security of a country The lines of communication are vital to quickly send an army, navy, etc in case of any calamity

21. The characteristics of semi-clustered rural settlements in India are as follows

(i) These are developed by the concentration of houses in a restricted area of a dispersed settlement. These settlements are also developed due to the fragmentation of a large compact village.

(ii) In the case of fragmentation, a particular group is forced to live far from the centre or main village. In this condition, the dominant community or land-owning community captures the most important part of the main village and may force people of lower strata (level) to live away.

(ii) In India, these types of settlements are mostly found in the plains of Gujarat and Rajasthan

22. Satellites and computers have brought revolutionary changes in the present life of people. It can be elaborated with the help of the following examples

(1) Satellites are a part of human lives in many ways. Every time we use a cell phone to call a friend, send

SMS or watch a popular programme on cate television, we are using satellite communication

(1) Today weather forecasting through television helps save the loss of life and property it is possible through artificial satellites which in successfully installed in the Earth’s orbit and can connect even the remote corners of the globe with limited on-site verification.

(i) As many people use the internet via computer each year, cyberspace will expand contemoporary economic and social space for humans through e-mail, e-commerce, e-learning and e-governance.


The importance and role of roadways in economic development in India are

Roads provide better connectivity between nuts and urban areas, and hence advancement of nursing in India occurs

Road connectivity is very Important in linking Intra-state urban areas and Inter-states for better transportation of various goods and services, and hence for overall development in terms of saving time, money, etc and reduction in pollution and CO emission levels

The rural economy would be connected with the urban economy through a dense road network.

• A good road network helps to improve import and export in the country

23. The growth in population influences economic development in the following ways

Rapid growth of population creates pressure on available resources and hence it causes loss d foreign currency due to import of food and other products.

• Population growth leads to poor conditions for people in over-populated areas due to low per capita Income.

• A high percentage of the dependent population puts pressure on the economy.

24. Commercial livestock rearing is a specialised activity which only one type of animal is reared for products such as meat, oil, and hides, which are processed packed and exported.

The major characteristics of commercial livestock rearing are as follows Commercial livestock rearing is more organised and

capital Intensive. Commercial livestock roaring is practised permanent ranches. These ranches are of large sizes and are divided into parcels that are fenced to regulate grazing. When one parcel is grazed, the animals are moved to another parcel. All animals are kept according to the carrying capacity of the pasture

• Only one type of animal reared in commercial livestock rearing. Some important animals are sheep, goats, horses, etc. They produce meat and wool. hides and skin. These products are processed and packed scientifically and exported to different world markets.

Ranches are managed scientifically and they emphasise breeding, genetic improvement, disease control and health care of the livestock.

USA, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia and Uruguay are important countries where commercial livestock rearing is practised.

25. Water quality has deteriorated over the past few decades in India. The causes of degradation in water quality in India are

• Rapid Urbanisation Rapid urbanisation in India during the recent decades has given rise to several environmental problems such as water supply waste water generation, and collection and disposal of waste. The wastewater discharged from households is untreated and contains harmful elements that cause surface water pollution.

• Industries Many freshwater bodies are polluted by industrial wastes or effluents. These are toxic wastes that destroy the natural life forms living in water bodies. It seriously affects the quality of water and increases the level of pollution. Large-scale as well as small-scale industries contribute to the pollution of water

Agricultural Runoff Fertilisers and pesticides are carried over by agricultural runoff due to monsoon rainfall or means of irrigation. These harmful chemicals are washed away into the river and pollute the river water. This polluted river water is consumed by the people and used in agricultural fields again.

Overexploitation of Water Overexploitation of water in the form of irrigation, canals, household use groundwater extraction has resulted in shortage of water in many urban areas and has led to increasing concentrations of harmful elements such as fluorides and arsenic

Social and Cultural Practices Social and cultural practices such as mass bathing, idol immersion, etc. have, also led to declining quality of river water that is used for drinking, and household activities.


The quality of water has been deteriorating at a very fast pace in India. Many large water bodies have deteriorated and their water has become unfit for human use Following steps can be taken to improve the quality of water Treatment Plants Water treatment plants and sewage treatment plants should be established near the industries so that polluted water is not discharged

into the water bodies without treating it properly. This will reduce the harmful level of pollutants present in water and improve its quality

Waste Reduction and Recycling Instead of generating large quantities of wastewater from households as well as industries, waste generated can be reduced by recycling and reusing the waste material into useful energy or other things Plastic pollution needs to be stopped at an urgent pace because plastics can be easily recycled and reused without discharging them into the water bodies.

Safe Agricultura Practices Safe and green agricultural practices should be started so that crops that do not pollute water bodies can be grown. There is a need to use organic fertilisers instead of harmful chemical fertilisers so that pollution of water can be prevented

Watershed Management Watershed management can be used to conserve groundwater and surface water resources. It involves preventing the runoff of water and recharging groundwater bodies through percolation tanks, recharge wells, etc. It also involves conservation and access to types of resources along with water resources.

Rainwater Harvesting Rainwater harvesting is used to capture and store rainwater for various purposes, water is stored in pits, walls, and storage tanks. It increases water availability and improves the groundwater quality,


Noise pollution is the harmful level of noise that creates an unbearable and uncomfortable state of sound. It is growing as a major problem in urban localities. With the increase in technology and transportation, noise pollution is also increasing

Major sources of noise pollution are various factories, mechanised construction and demolition works, automobiles, aircraft, etc. Besides these, there are also some periodic but polluting sources of noise like sirens, loudspeakers, etc which are used in various festivals, and programmes associated with community activities. The level of noise is measured by sound level expressed in terms of decibels (dB). The biggest nuisance of noise pollution is the noise produced by traffic.

The intensity and nature of noise produced by traffic depend upon factors such as the type of aircraft, vehicles, trains, etc. In the case of automobiles, it depends upon the quality and condition of the road and the automobile. In sea traffic, the noise pollution is confined to the harbour due to loading and unloading activities,

The intensity of noise pollution from industries depends upon the type of industry. Noise pollution is location-specific and its intensity declines with an increase in distance from the source of pollution that is industrial areas, arteries of transportation, airports, etc.

Consequences of noise pollution are off the wide spectrum. Noise pollution is hazardous in many big cities and metropolitan regions in India. An increase in environmental noise pollution can cause hearing Impairment, hypertension, annoyance, mental problems or disorders, sleep disturbance, etc.


The disposal of urban waste has become a serious concern for the local authorities in the following ways Tons of waste come out daily in metropolitan cities and are burnt. The smoke released from the waste pollutes the air

Lack of sewers or other means to dispose of human excretes safely and the inadequacy of garbage collection sources adds to water pollution

The concentration of industrial units in and around urban centres gives rise to a series of environmental problems

Dumping of industrial waste into rivers is the major cause of water pollution. Solid waste generation continues to increase in both absolute and per capita in cities.

The improper disposal of solid waste attracts rodents and flies which spread diseases. The thermal plants release a lot of smoke and ash into the air. For example, a plant producing 500 MW of electricity releases 2000 tons of ash which is difficult to manage

27. Merits of road transport are

Economical Road transport is the cheapest and most economical mode of transport for short distance travel and freight movement

Connectivity Road transport offers the best connectivity among all the means of transport as it offers door-to-door services,

Transporting Perishable Goods Perishable goods such as milk, vegetables, etc are transported by road transport. It is best suited for transporting these items.

Trade and Commerce Road transport plays an important role in promoting trade and commerce in the country. It also promotes tourism and other economic activities.

• Flexible Road transport is flexible as multiple routes can be travelled to reach a particular place

Dernernts of road transport are

Heavy Expenditures The construction and maintenance of roads require heavy expenditures.

This affects road quality.

Traffic Road transport is severely affected by traffic and congestion. When roads are not able to cope with the demands of the traffic, then congestion occurs

Not Sustainable for All Seasons During the rain period, the unmetalled roads are damaged. Ever the metalled roads are washed away during floods Difficulty in Construction Roads are difficult to construct in various areas such as mountains. Here specialised agencies are required to construct roads.

28. According to the human development scores earned by countries, these are classified into four categories

(1) Countries with very High HDI These are the countries that have a score of more than 0.800 according to the Human Development Ripon 2018 This group includes 54 countries according to HDR, 2018.

(ii) Countries with High HDI These are the countries that have a score between 0.701 and 0.799. These countries Invest, a lot in social sectors like education, health, etc. They are characterised by good governance and the welfare of the people. These include 53 countries according to HDR, 2018.

(iii) Countries with Moderate HDI These countries have a score between 0.550 and 0.700. Many of these countries are trying to improve their human development score by adopting more people oriented policies and reducing social discrimination.

These countries have higher social diversity and have faced political instability and social uprisings in recent parts. They include 39 countries according to HDR, 2018.

(iv) Countries with Low HDI These countries have social below 0.549. These countries face political turmoil, social instability, civil war famines, wars and high incidence of diseases. These include 35 countries according to HDR, 2018.


The key areas of human development are health education and access to resources. They are explained as follows

(1) Health Indicator of health is measured through life expectancy at birth. It shows whether people have longer and healthier lives.

(1) Education Level of education is measured through gross enrollment ratio and adult literacy rate that represent access to knowledge.

(iii) Access to Resources The indicator of access to resources is purchasing power in terms of US dollars. Building people’s capabilities in areas of health, education and access to resources is important in enlarging their choices.

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