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Cbse History sample paper class 12 with solution

BoardCBSE
Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
SubjectsHistory
MediumEnglish
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper


Section A consists of 21 questions of 1 mark each

Cbse History sample paper class 12 with solution

1. Which among the following Satyagraha made Gandhi a truly national leader?

(a) Champaran Satyagraha

(b) Kheda Satyagraha

(c) Bardoli Satyagraha

(d) Rowlatt Satyagraha

Ans. (d) Rowlatt Satyagraha

2. Consider the following statements regarding the Magadha Empire and choose the correct option.

(i) Magadha was the most powerful Mahajanapada.

(ii) Agriculture was especially productive in Magadha.

(iii) Initially Pataliputra was the capital of Magadha.

(iv) The founder of the Magadha Empire was Bindusara.

Options

(a) Only (i) is correct

(b) Only (i) and (ii) are correct 

(c) Only (ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) Only (iii) and (iv) are correct

Ans. (b) Only (i) and (ii) are correct

3. The Harappan Terracotta models of plough have been found at which of the following sites situated in Pakistan?

(a) Lothal

(b) Banawali

(C) Kalibangan

(d) Shortughai

Ans. (b) Banawali

4. Identify the name of the person related to Amaravati Stupa with the help of the given information. 

  • He was the Commissioner of Guntur (Andhra Pradesh) and visited Amaravati in 1854.
  • He also discovered the remains of Western Gateway.

Options

(a) Colin Mackenzie

(b) Walter Elliot

(c) HH Cole

(d) James Fergusson

Ans. (b) Walter Elliot

5. The below silver coin depicts a Shaka ruler of the century CE. 

(a) Second

(b) Third

(c) Fourth

(d) Fifth

Ans. (c) Fourth

6. The foundation of the Mauryan Empire was laid by Chandragupta Maurya in the following year. 

(a) 78 BCE

(b) 78 AD

(c) 321 BCE

(d) 321 AD

Ans. (c) 321 BCE

7. Choose the correct option.

The three-member mission came to India in March 1946 to discuss framing the Constitution. 

(a) Cabinet Mission

(b) Cripps Mission

(c) Simon Commission

(d) Wavell Plan

Ans. (a) Cabinet Mission

8. Identify the school of thought.

I. The world is transient and constantly changing.

II. The world is soulless.

III. Sorrow is intrinsic to human existence.

IV. Righteous action is a means to escape from the cycle of rebirth.

(a) Buddhism

(b) Jainism

(c) Charvaka

(d) None of these

Ans.

(a) Buddhism

9. Choose the correct option from the following statements regarding Al-Birun Kitab-ul-Hind.

Options

(a) It is in the Persian language

(b) It is divided into 100 chapters

(c) It is divided into several subjects like religion, philosophy, festivals, etc.

(d) He used such language that was not easily understandable by others.

Ans.

(c) It is divided into several subjects like religion philosophy, festivals, etc.

10. Which one of the following dynasties built the ‘Hiriya Canal‘ in Vijayanagara? 

(a) Tuluva

(c) Aravidu

(b) Sangama

(d) Saluva

Ans.

(b) Sangama

11. Which of the following buildings of the Vijayanagara Empire was supposed to be a place where the King used to meet his advisors? 

(a) Hazara Rama Temple

(b) Lotus Mahal

(c) Virupaksha Temple

(d) Mahanavami Dibba

Arts.

(b) Lotus Maha

12. Read the following statements carefully and identify the name of the movement from the information given below. 

• It was launched after the failure of the Cripps mission.

• Many important leaders including Mahatma Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah were jailed.

(a) Quit India Movement

(b) Non-Cooperation Movement

(c) Civil Disobedience Movement

(d) Swadeshi Movement

Ans.

(a) Quit India Movement

13. Fill in the blanks from the given options. 

The practice of women having several husbands is known as

(a) Exogamy

(b) Polyandry

(c) Polygamy

(d) Endogamy

Ans. (b) Polyandry

14. Tantric form of worship is related to which among the following? 

(a) Goddess

(b) Vishnu

(c) Shiva

(d) Indra

Ans. (a) Goddess

15. Identify the names of the famous personalities from the information given below.

I. He was famous for his literary skills.

II. He composed Amuktamalyada in Telugu.

III. He belonged to the Saluva dynasty.

IV. He was characterised by expansion and consolidation.

Options

(a) Krishnadeva Raya

(b) Harihara

(c) Bukka

(d) Rama Raya

Ans. (a) Krishnadeva Raya

16. Match the following.

List I List II
A. 19151. Mahatma Gandhiji returns from South Africa
B. 19172. Champaran Movement
C. 19193. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre movement
D. 1942.4. Quit Indian Movement begins

Codes

(a) A-1, B-2,C-3, D-4

(b) A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1

(c) A-3, B-4, C-1, D-2

(d) A-2, B-1, C-4, D3

Ans. (a) A-1, B-2,C-3, D-4

17. The Nalayira Divya Prabandham was compiled by described as the Tamil Veda. which is also 

(a) Alvars

(c) Lingayats

(b) Nayanars

(d) Nirguna

Ans. (a) Alvars

18. Below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R). 

Assertion (A) Ibn Battuta travelled to far-off places and different countries.

Reason (R) He considered experience gained through travels to be a more important source of knowledge than books. Codes

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

Ans. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

19. On which of the following dates, the crucial Objective Resolution was introduced in the Constituent Assembly?

(a) 15th December, 1947

(b) 13th December, 1946

(c) 23rd November, 1946

(d) 13th November, 1946

Ans. (b) 13th December, 1946

20. Who represented ‘Tribals’ in the Constituent Assembly? 

(a) Jaipal Singh

(b) Buddhu Bhagat

(c) BR Ambedkar

(d) NG Ranga

Ans. (a) Jaipal Singh

21. Identify the British policy in India from the information given below. 

• It was introduced by Wellesley in 1798.

It was imposed on Awadh in 1801.

According to this alliance, the Ally would have to provide the resources for maintaining this contingent.

(a) Ryotwari System

(b) Subsidiary Alliance

(c) Permanent Settlement

(d) Doctrine of Lapse

Ans. (b) Subsidiary Alliance

Section B consists of 6 questions of 3 mark

22. Write a note on the condition of the Vijayanagara Empire during the rule of Krishnadeva Raya. 

Ans. Krishnadeva Raya’s rule was characterised by expansion and consolidation. This was the time when the land between the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers (the Raichur doab) was acquired (1512), the rulers of Orissa were subdued (1514) and severe defeats were inflicted on the Sultan of Bijapur (1520).

Although the kingdom remained in a constant state of military preparedness, it flourished under conditions of unparalleled peace and prosperity, Krishnadeva Raya is credited with building some fine temples and adding Impressive Gopurams to many important South Indian temples. 

He also founded a suburban township near Vijayanagara called Nagalapuram after his mother. Some of the most detailed descriptions of Vijayanagara come from his time or just after.

23. The Subsidiary Alliance System played a significant role in extending British control over India. Explain the terms and conditions of the Subsidiary Alliance System. 

Ans. The Subsidiary Alliance System, devised by Lord Wellesley in 1798 was utilised by East India Company to extend its suzerainty over different parts of India. Many Independent kingdoms such as Mysore and Hyderabad were annexed under this system.

The terms and conditions of the Subsidiary Alliance System were 

Britishers took the responsibility of protecting their ally from both internal as well as external threats.

  • instead of payment, a British armed contingent was stationed in the territory of the ally.
  • The Allies were not allowed to enter into agreements with other European powers or engage in warfare without the permission of the Britishers.
  • In case of failure of payments, the allies of Britishers had to cede some parts of their territories.
  • Thus, through the Subsidiary Alliance System, the native rulers were first made dependent and later their territories were gradually incorporated into the British Empire.

24. Explain through examples, how the 8th and 9th centuries saw the integration of various cults in the Brahmanical religion.

Ans. In the 8th and 9th centuries, many gods and goddesses were worshipped in India, as evidenced by the rise in several sculptures and religious texts. Further major deities Vishnu, Shiva and goddess Laxmi and Parvati were visualised and worshipped in many forms.

The given examples highlight the integration of various cults into the Brahmanical religion

  • • Brahmanas started accepting and reworking the beliefs and practices of other social categories. This led to the acceptance of many tribal and local deities as a form of Vishnu and other gods.
  • There was continuous interaction between ‘great Sanskritic-Puranic traditions and little tradition which led to the integration of many cults such as Jagannatha as a form of Vishnu in Orissa.
  • The local deities were incorporated within the Puranic framework by providing them with the identity as a wife of the principal male deities,

25. Discuss how archaeologists reconstruct the past.

Ans. To reconstruct the Harappan life, archaeologists were not only dependent on the Harappan script, but it consisted d material evidence too. The material evidence could be pottery, tools, ornaments, etc. 

But the organic materials such as cloth, leather, and wood, generally decompose Archaeologists classified the finds in terms of materials and functions. The term materials were stone, clay metal, bone, ivory, etc. 

But the second one was more complicated. It was difficult to decide whether the artefact was a tool or an ornament.

To reconstruct religious practices was also a problematic issue for archaeologists. Every archaeologist thought that certain objects that seemed unusual or unfamiliar they have had religious significance. 

These include terracotta figurines of women, heavily jewelled with headdresses Thus, the archaeologists reconstruct the past with the help of various artefacts, signs, symbols and many other things that they find through excavations.

26. How was the Permanent Settlement different from the Ryotwari Settlement? 

Or

Explain two reasons for the failure of the Permanent Settlement of the land revenue introduced by the British in Bengal. 

Ans. Differences between Permanent and Ryotwar Settlement were as follows;-

Permanent SettlementRyotwari Settlement
The Permanent Settlement was introduced in 1793 in Bengal under the Governor-General of Lord CornwallisThe Ryotwari Settlement was introduced in the Bombay Deccan.
In the Permanent Settlement, the Taluqdars were the owners of the land. They paid a fixed rent to the company. Under the Ryotwarl, Settlement, the government received tax from the peasants directly. 
In Permanent Settlement, land was distributed among the peasants. They earned the desired interests. in Ryotwari Settlement, the government estimated the average income from different types of soil. 
The state was unable to claim its share in the enhanced income of the farmers as per Permanent Settlement. In the Ryotwari Settlement, a proportional share was fixed as a share of the state.

Or 

The reasons for the failure of the Permanent Settlement of the land revenue introduced by the British in Bengal are as follows

(1) The early revenue demands fixed by the company were very high. Under Permanent Settlement, the state revenue demand was fixed in perpetuity. It meant that the company was not claiming an additional share of increased income from land with rising prices and expanding cultivation. Therefore, the company wanted huge revenue for high demand to minimise this anticipated loss.

(ii) High demand for land revenue was fixed in the 1790s. The price of agricultural produce was depressed during this period, Consequently, it became difficult for the ryots to pay their dues to the

Section C consists of 3 questions with 8 marks

28. The Constitution, as it stands today, is a result of various historical forces that acted together to give it its present form. Give an elaboration of those forces. 

Or “Within the Constituent Assembly of India, the language issue was intensely debated.” Examine the views put forward by members of the Assembly on this issue. 

Ans. Many historical forces contributed to giving the Constitution its present shape.

These can be studied in the following points

Constituent Assembly First and foremost is the influence of the Constituent Assembly in shaping the Constitution. It was elected in October 1946 under the Cabinet Mission Plan, Its members were chosen based on the provincial elections of 1946. The members sent by the Princely States were also included in the Constituent Assembly.

Diverse Views The members of the Constituent Assembly differed much in their views. Their different zamindars. Thus, the zamindars could not collect the rent and were unable to pay their fixed amount to the company

27. Write three views on the decline of Harappan Civilisation. 

Or Write any three characteristics of the bricks used in the Harappan Settlements. 

Ans. The three views about the decline of the Harappan Civilisation are

(1) The decline was due to natural calamities such as floods, earthquakes, droughts or epidemics.

(ii) Another view suggests that Aryans were responsible for the decline of the Harappan Civilisation.

(iii) Another view is the change in the course of the river Indus transformed it into a tract of sand and affected the soil’s fertility. This led to the decline of the Harappan Civilisation

Or 

Following were the three characteristics of the bricks used in Harappan settlements

(1) Bricks that were used during Harappan Settlements were either sun-dried or baked in the kilns

(ii) Harappan bricks had a standardised ratio and uniformity throughout all the Harappan sites.

(iii) The standard ratio of the bricks with their length was four times greater than their height and the breadth was twice their height. 

Representation of Different Interests and Groups Some members of the Constituent Assembly were socialists in their views, whereas some others were supporters of the rights of ‘Zamindars’.

Representation of different religions and castes was also given. Similarly, independent members and women were also nominated. All these members played their part in shaping the Constitution.

Views of Legal Experts particular attention was given to ensure that some legal experts were also Included in the 

28. Constituent Assembly Dr BR Ambedkar, who was a renowned lawyer was one of the most influential members. 

Ans: He was also the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution, KM Munshi and Alladi Krishnaswamy Lyer were other legal experts in the Assembly.

Public Opinion Suggestions from the public were also welcomed. It had the effect of creating a sense of collective participation and had a considerable

Influence on the discussions of the Constituent Assembly

Press The analysis and criticism of the resolutions in the press contributed significantly to shaping the nature of the consensus that was ultimately on specific issues.

Intense Deliberations Some specimens of the hundreds of suggestions received by the Constituent Assembly make it clear that our lawmakers concluded conflicting issues only after intense discussions.

Linguistic and Religious Minorities Linguistic minorities demanded ‘freedom of speech in their mother tongue and the ‘redistribution of provinces on a linguistic basis. In the same way, religious minorities demanded special safeguards.

Thus, the present Constitution of India is the by-product of many historical forces that played a constructive role in making it a living document.

Or 

The language issue was Intensely debated in the Constituent Assembly. RV Dhulekar, Shrimati G Durgabai, Shri Shankarrao Deo and TA Ramalingam Chettiar were prominent members of the Constituent Assembly who gave their remarkable views on language.

View of RV Dhulekar

RV Dhulekar, a Congressman from the United Provinces, made a strong plea that Hindi must be used as the language of the Constitution making. According to him, those people who do not understand Hindustani, should not participate in the making of the Constitution. Many members of the assembly became agitated and the language controversy continued over the next three years.

View of Shrimati G Durgabal

Shrimati G Durgabal from Madras expressed her worry that this controversy made the non-Hindi speaking people think that other powerful languages of India would be neglected and it was an obstacle to the composite culture of our nation, She informed the house that the opposition in the South against Hindi was very strong. She along with many others had obeyed the call of Mahatma Gandhi and carried on Hindi propaganda in the South.

She accepted Hindustani as the language of the people. But its character was changed, as it took many Urdu words and regional vocabulary. Durgabai believed that this composite character of Hindustani was bound to create anxieties and fears among different language groups.

View of Shri Shankarrao Deo

He was a member of the Constituent Assembly from Bombay. He stated that as a congressman and a follower of Mahatma Gandhi, he had accepted Hindustani as the language of the nation. However, he cautioned the Assembly not to raise fear and suspicion of linguistic minorities

View of TA Ramalingam Chettiar

He was a member of the Constituent Assembly from Madra he emphasised that whatever was done had to be done with caution. He further argued that there should be mutual adjustments and no question of forcing things on people

Thus, after intense debate and discussion on questions of the National language for three years, the language committee of the Constituent Assembly produced its report. It gave a compromise formula to resolve the deadlock between those who advocated Hindi as the National language and those who opposed it. The committee suggested Hindi in the Devanagari script would be the official language along with English.

29. Which evidence suggests that Brahmanical prescriptions about kinship and marriage were not universally followed? 

Or 

How did historians explain the language content and period of the Mahabharata Cite examples.

Ans. To understand the social institutions of kinship and marriage in their historical context, we rely on textual information provided by Sanskrit and non-Sanskrit texts of Pali, Prakrit and Tamil.

The following description shows how the rules laid down by the Brahmanical order were not universal in their application

Rules of Kinship In the sphere of kinship, the Brahmanical tradition prescribed the institution d patriliny. This system of patrimony, that is tracing descent from father to son, grandson and so on was followed by most ruling dynasties from the 6th century BCE onwards.

But there were also variations in practice like when there were no sons, in some situations brothers succeeded one another, sometimes other kinsmen claimed the throne and in exceptional circumstances, women such as Prabhavati Gupta exercised power This ideal of patrilineal set-up also affected the Institution of marriage and position of women in Brahmanical set-up. This idea was followed by wealthy men and those who claimed high status in society, including Brahamanas.

• Rules of Marriage Sons were important for the continuity of the patrilineage, daughters were viewed differently in the same framework. Daughters had no claims to the resources of their family. They were not viewed as important for the continuity of the patrilineage and marrying them into families outside the kin (exogamy) was considered desirable. It was done to ensure that they were married at the ‘right’ time and to the ‘right’ person. Kanyadan was regarded as an important religious duty of the father

Brahmanical order assigned a specific place to women in matrimony. Terms of gotra also differed from the general practice. One Brahmanical practice was to classify people in terms of gotras. Two Important rules about gotra were that women were expected to give up their father’s gotra and adopt that of their husband on marriage and members of the same gotra could not marry.

Evidence of Deviation from Brahmanical Tradition The Brihadaranayka Upanishad, one of the earliest Upanishads, contains a list of successive generations of teachers and students, many of whom were designated by metronymic (names derived from that of the mother). 

Satvahana rulers, who ruled over parts of Western India and the Deccan in the 2nd century CE were also identified through metronymic and many of the women who married Satvahana rulers retained their father’s gotras after marriage

Even some of these women belonged to the same gotra. This contradicted the ideal of exogamy recommended in the Brahmanical texts. Such marriages among kinfolk, e.g. cousins ensured a close-knit community.

The historian’s explanation of the language, content and period of Mahabharata is discussed below

Language Historians found that the Mahabharata originally was written in Sanskrit. But, the Sanskrit used in it is simpler than that of the Vedas or the Prashastis. There were versions in other Indian languages also. The growth of the Mahabharata did not stop with the Sanskrit version. 

Over the centuries, the epic was written in a variety of languages through an ongoing process of dialogue between peoples, communities and those who wrote the texts. Several stories that originated in specific regions also found their way into the epic. 

At the same time, the central story was often retold in different ways in different regions with the help of different languages.

Content Historians classified the contents of the epic under two broad heads, sections that contain stories, designated as the narrative and sections that

contain prescriptions about social norms, designated as didactic. This division is by no means watertight or strictly followed. 

The didactic sections often include stories and the narrative contains a social message.

Historians believe that the Mahabharata had a dramatic, moving story, in which the didactic portions were added later. Some historians think that the memory of an actual conflict amongst kinfolk was preserved in the narrative, Other historians point out that there is no other corroborative evidence of the battle

The Mahabharata, like any major epic, contains vivid descriptions of battles, forests, palaces and settlements. One of the most challenging episodes in the Mahabharata is Draupadi’s marriage with the Pandavas, an instance of polyandry, historians suggest that a polyandrous union indicates that polyandry may have been prevalent amongst ruling elites at some point in time. 

Some historians suggest that polyandry was prevalent in the Himalayan region. Others think that there may have been a shortage of women during times of warfare which led to polyandry.

• Period The original story of the Mahabharata was probably composed by Charioteer-bards known as Sutas who accompanied the Kshatriya warriors to the battlefield and composed poems celebrating their victories. These compositions are circulated orally. Then from the 5th century BCE, Brahamanas took over the story and began to commit it to writing.

There was another phase in the composition of the text between C 200 BCE and C 200 CE. This was the period when the concept of Vishnu and Krishna grew. Between 200 and 400 CE, large didactic sections resembling the Manusmirti were added. With these additions, a text which had less than 10,000 verses grew to comprise about 100,000 verses. This composition is traditionally attributed to Vyasadeva

30. Discuss about thinking of Alvars, Nayanars and Virashaivas. How do these thinkers bring changes in society? 

Or Describe the relations between the State and the Bhakti and Sufi traditions 

Ans. The Alvars, Nayanars and Virashaivas were different schools of Bhakti tradition prevalent in Southern India. Their basic thinking is given below

• Alvars This tradition was started in the sixth century C.E. In areas adjoining present-day Tamil Nadu. They were devoted to the worship of Vishnu. They started a movement to protest against the caste system and the dominance of Brahamanas. It can be supported

by the fact that devotees or Bhaktas come from different social backgrounds. For instance, an Alvar named Thondaradippodi, who was Brahmana, in his writing find no difference between Chaturvedin (Brahmana) and the outcastes.

Nayanars They were also a group of Bhakti Saints who worshipped and composed devotional prayers for Shiva. Similar to the Alvars, they also opposed the caste system, many of the saints of this tradition came from the class of artisans and cultivators.

These thinkers were open to the social exchange of ideas and they attracted followers from a wide segment of society. Apart from the caste system, they also opposed the traditional patriarchy prevalent in the society as in both of these traditions women Bhakta such as Andal (Alvar) and Karaikkal Ammaryar (Nayanars) played significant roles.

Virashaivas This movement was started by Basavanna in 12th-century Karnataka. The thinkers from this tradition challenged the idea of caste and pollution attributed to certain groups by Brahmanas. They questioned the theory of rebirth. They also encouraged certain practices disapproved in the Dharmashastras, such as post-puberty marriage and the re-marriage of widows.

Contribution of These Thinkers in Bringing Changes in the Society

These thinkers travelled from one place to another and composed their teaching in the language of the masses. It played a massive role in bringing changes in society, as given below

• Equality These thinkers promoted social equality, as they saw no difference between Brahmanas and Untouchables.

Opposing Caste System These thinkers opposed the division of people based on gotra and kula. They were not in favour of the caste system.

Reducing the Exploitation of Women by Opposing some

Practices like child marriage encouraging post-puberty marriage, and widow re-marriage, helped in reducing the exploitation of women. 

• Personal Devotion to God They discard certain

meaningless rituals promoted by Brahamanas, instead they promote Bhakti as a path to attain moksha. It won them followers among those who were marginalised within the Brahmanical social order.

Thus, thinkers of these three traditions helped in the reformation of popular religion and preached the message of unity and equality among the masses

The earliest Bhakti movements around Sy sang were led by the Aivars and Nayanars. They sang hymns Tamil in praise of their gods and travelled from one place to another.

The following were the relationships that exist between the State and Bhakti movements

Powerful Chola rulers of the ninth to thirteenth centuries supported Brahmanical and Bha traditions by making land grants and constructing temples for Vishnu and Shiva.

Some of the most magnificent Shiva temples, those at Chidambaram, Thanjavur ar Gangaikonda Cholapuram were constructed with the support of Chola rulers. During this, some of the most beautiful representations of Shiva bronze sculpture were produced.

By building very impressive temples, the Cha kings tried to claim divine support and prove their power and status.

These kings also introduced the singing of Tam Shiva hymns in the temples under royal patronage, taking the initiative to collect art and organise them into a text called Tevaram.

The following is the relationship that existed between the State and Sufi traditions:

The Sultans set up charitable trusts (auqaf) as an endowment for hospices and granted tax-free land(inam). In the fourteenth century, there were references to Khwaja Muinuddin’s dargah. It was popular because of the simplicity and charity of Shaikh the greatness of his spiritual successors and the support of royal visitors.

• Akbar visited the tomb, inspired by the spirited singing of pilgrims who were going to Ajmer. He went there fourteen times to get blessings for new conquests, the fulfilment of promises and the birth of sons. Imperial documents recorded about the generous gifts that were presented on each d these visits.

• Sufi’s charity and scholarship and people’s belief in their magical powers made them famous among the masses. Kings on the other hand want these masses’ support. So, kings had to not only) show that they were associated with Sufis but also required acceptance from Sufis

Sultans asked for Sufi’s help, who derived the author directly from God and did not depend on jurists to Interpret the sharia. It was also believed that the auliya could intervene with God to improve the material and spiritual conditions d ordinary human beings.

Section D consists of 3 Source based question

31. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Buddhism in Practice

This is an excerpt from the Sutta Pitaka and contains the advice given by the Buddha to a wealthy householder named Sigala: In five ways should a master look after his servants and employees? By assigning them work according to their strength, supplying them with food and wages, tending to them in sickness, sharing delicacies with them and granting leave at times. In five ways should the clansmen look after the needs of samanas (those who have renounced the world) and Brahmanas: by affection in act and speech and mind, by keeping an open house to them and by supplying their worldly needs.

There are similar instructions in Sigala about how to behave with his parents, teacher and wife.

(i) What advice was given by Buddha to Sigala regarding the relationship between a master and his servants and employees? 

(ii) List the instructions given by Buddha to clansmen for Samanas and Brahmanas.

(iii) According to you, what suggestion

Buddha would have advocated for parents and teachers. 

Ans.

(i) Buddha advised Sigala to assign servants with as per the work their competence besides provision for food and wages for them.

(ii) There are following instructions of Buddha to clansmen for Samanas and Brahmanas

(a) To look after their needs with affection in act and speech and mind.

(b) They should keep their houses open for them and give them their worldly needs. 

(iii) Buddha would have advocated the following instructions

• To behave with parents and teachers respectfully.

• To show proper care towards them.

32. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow. “There cannot be any divided loyalty” Govind Ballabh Pant argued that to become loyal citizens people had to stop focusing only on the community and the self.

For the success of democracy, one must train oneself in the art of self-discipline. In democracies, one should care less for himself and more for others. There cannot be divided loyalty. All loyalties must exclusively be centred around the state. If in a democracy, you create rival loyalties, or you create a system in which any individual or group, instead of suppressing his extravagance, cares nought for larger or other interests, then democracy is doomed.

(i) Why did Govind Ballabh Pant lay more stress on the art of self-discipline? 

(ii) What was considered important for the success of democracy? 

(iii) ‘In democracies one should care less for himself and more for others.’ Give your views on this philosophy. 

Ans. (1) Govind Ballabh Pant suggested that to make democracy successful, one should be self-disciplined. Individuals should care less for personal gain and focus more on collective benefit in democracy.

(ii) For the success of democracy, loyalty should not be divided, it must be centred around the state and citizens should care less for themselves and more for fellow citizens.

(iii) This philosophy of democracy suggests that one should be considerate towards others. Nothing should be done for personal gain that can harm the interest of another person or a large section of people. This philosophy promotes the feeling of people-centric benefits instead of individual-centric ones.

33. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow. Declining a Royal Gift

This excerpt from a Sufi text describes the proceedings at Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya’s hospice in 1313. I (the author, Amir Hasan Sijzi) had the good fortune of kissing his (Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya’s) feet. At this time, a local ruler had sent him the deed to ownership of two gardens and much land, along with the provisions and tools for their maintenance.

The ruler had also made it clear that he was relinquishing all his rights to both the gardens and land. The master had not accepted that gift. Instead, he had lamented “What have I to do with gardens and fields and lands? None of our spiritual masters had engaged in such activity.”

Then, he told an appropriate story, ‘Sultan Ghiyasuddin’, who at that time was still known as Ulugh Khan, came to visit Sheikh Fariduddin and offered some money and ownership deeds for four villages to the Sheikh, the money being for the benefit of the dervishes (sufis) and the land for his use. Smiling, Sheikh-al-Islam (Fariduddin) said ‘Give me the money. I will dispense it to the dervishes. But as for those land deeds, keер them. There are many who long for them. Given them away to such persons.’

(i) What did the local ruler send to Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya? Explain. 

(ii) What did Ulugh Khan offer to Sheikh Fariduddin when he visited him? 

(iii) Why did Nizamuddin Auliya refuse to accept the offer of Amir Hasan Sijzi?

Ans. (i) The local ruler sent the deed of ownership of two gardens and land along with the provisions and tools for their maintenance.

(ii) Ulugh Khan offered some money and ownership deeds of four villages to Sheikh Fariduddin when he visited him. He wanted to give the money for the benefit of the dervishes (sufis) and the land to Sheikh Fariduddin.

(iii) Nizamuddin Auliya refused to accept the offer of Amir Hasan Sijzi, as he had no desire for those offerings. None of his spiritual masters had ever accepted anything before him, therefore keeping the same tradition, he also refused to accept anything.

Section E consists of Map based questions of 5 marks

34 A. On the given map of India, locate and label the following sites.

(iv) Lahore

Or (ii) Bidar

B. Identify the following places related to major Buddhist sites marked as (1) and 

A (iv) Lahore

(iii) Kanchipuram

(i) Vijayanagara

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