Class 12 Easy Direct and Indirect speech worksheets with Answers Pdf

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Class 12 Easy Direct and Indirect speech worksheets with Answers Pdf

Class12th 
Chapter NameDirect and Indirect speech
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectEnglish Elective  (Kaleidoscope)
Medium English
Study MaterialsVery important question to answer
Download PDFDirect and Indirect speech worksheets with Answers Pdf
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CHANGING THE NARRATION OF THE GIVEN INPUT


Narration means narration. In English it can be said like this-Narration means to narrate something said by someone.

That is, describing the things said by someone is called Narration.

In English, someone’s statement is expressed in two ways-

(i) Expressing the statement of the speaker as it is.

(ii) Expressing the statement of the speaker in his own words. When we express the statement of the speaker in his own words, then it is called Direct Narration.Or it is called Speech. And when we express it in our own words, it is called Indirect Narration or Speech.

Example — Ashok said, “I am going to school. ” Ashok said that he was going to school.


NARRATION


Here in the first sentence, within the Inverted Commas (“”) the speaker’s statement has been kept in his own words. That’s why it is in Direct Narration. In the second sentence, we have expressed the narrator’s statement in our own words and not in his words, hence it is in Indirect Narration. go

In Direct Narration, the statement of the speaker is placed inside the Inverted Comma (“). The words or sentences inside the inverted commas are called Reported speech and

The verb that introduces it is called the Reported Verb. Rules for changing from Direct Speech to Indirect SpeechInverted Comma of Direct Narration is removed to make Indirect from Direct. That is used to connect reporting verbs and reported speech.

There are some rules to make Direct to Indirect which are related to the following-

1. Change of Reporting Verb 2. Change of Tense

3. Change of Certain Words Showing Nearness

4. Change of Pronouns 


1. CHANGE OF REPORTING VERB


(a) If the Reported Speech is in an Assertive Sentence, then while changing it from Direct to Indirect, say or tell or its other form is kept as it is. That is, Reporting Verb does not change, like Direct-Ashok said, “I want a book.” Indirect-Ashok said that he wanted a book.

(b) If the Reported Speech is in Interrogative Sentence, then while making Indirect, Ask or inquire of is used instead of Reporting Verb say or tell. Is.

Example — Direct-He said to the station master, “Will the train come in time?” Indirect He enquired of the station master if the train would come in 

(3) If the Reported Speech is in an Imperative Sentence, then when making Indirectortime. Reporting Verb says tell зrafgar Order, ask, request, forbid, adviser fra & Reported Speech & Finite Verb Infinit is replaced. As-Direct-Mukesh said to his servant, “Go to Patna.” Indirect-Mukesh ordered his servant to go to Patna. 

Note- If please or kindly remain in the Reported Speech, they are removed while making Indirect. As-

Direct-Rakesh said to Anita, “Please sing a song.” Indirect-Rakeshd requested her to sing a song.

(4) If the Reported Speech is an Optative Sentence, then while making an Indirect, reporting verb to say or tell is used instead of wish or pray. Might or should is used as per the requirement. As-Direct-He said, “May the Prime Minister live long !” Indirect He wised that the Prime Minister might live long. 

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Hindi SubjectHistory answer keys

(5) If the Reported Speech is an Exclamatory Sentence, then while making an Indirect, exclaim is used instead of Reporting Verb, say or ask. It is followed by with joy or with delight to express glee, with sorrow to express sorrow, with contempt to express hatred and with applause to express praise.

As Direct Ganesh said, “Hurrah! we have won the match.” Indirect Ganesh exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.

Note – Reported Speech exclamation how, what, such so, then while making Indirect, such words are changed to great or greatly. If there is a noun after how or what, then it is great and if it is an adjective, then it is great. or very. Like– Direct-She said, “What a fine place it is!”

Indirect-She exclaimed with joy that it was a very fine place. Direct-He said, “What a fool I am!” Indirect-He exclaimed with sorrow that he was a great fool.


2. CHANGE OF TENSE


(a) ft Reporting Verb Present Tense Future Tense, at Reported Speech the Tense of the Verb does not change. As-Direct-He says, “I am ill.” Indirect He says that he is ill. Direct-He will say, “I have done it.” Indirect-He will say that he has done it.

(b) Reporting Verb Past Tense, Reported Speech Verb Tense usually changes into corresponding Past Tense. As-Direct-He said, “I have finished my work.” Indirect He said that he had finished his work. 

Direct-She said, “I will go.” Indirect -She said that she would go.

Direct Mr Mohan said, “I am going to the hospital.” Indirect Mr Mohan said that he was going to the hospital.

Exception – If there is a statement in the Reported Speech that

If there is a sense of universal truth, then the Tense of the Verb of the Reported Speech does not change even if the Reporting Verb remains in the Past Tense. As-

Direct-The teacher said, “Honesty is the best policy.” Indirect The teacher said that honesty is the best policy.

(3) यदि Reporting Verb Past Tense में हो और Reported Speech का Verb भी Past Tense, at Reported Speech Simple Past Tense, Past Perfect Tense Past Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Continuous Tense goes. For example-

Direct-She said, “The girl came late.” Indirect-She said that the girl had come late.

Direct-He said, “The birds were flying.” Indirect He said that the birds had been flying. Note- यदि Reporting Verb और Reported Speech का Verb दोनों Past

Tense, a Reported Speech Past Perfect Tense of Past Perfect Continuous Tense never changes. As-

Direct-He said, “I had finished the book.” Indirect-He said that he had finished that book.

Direct Ram said, “I had been writing a letter.” Indirect-Ram said that he had been writing a letter.


3. CHANGE OF WORDS SHOWING NEARNESS


Some words denoting nearness in Reported Speech are changed to corresponding words denoting remoteness in Indirect Speech. Are being given. As-

Direct Speech

DirectIndirect
ThisThat
TheseThose
HereThere
ShallShould
WillWould
ThusIn that way, so Then
NowThen
AgoBefore, earlier
HenceThence
ComeGo

Example

DirectIndirect
Direct-He said, “I will write these letters now.” Indirect-He said that he would write those letters then.
Direct-She said, “I saw the book here on this table today.”Indirect-She said that he had seen the book there on that table that day.

Exception : Now, here, this and these, the sense of time, place or thing happens that if present at the time of saying time, place, or thing again in Indirect Narration, then now, here etc. does not change.

Example

DirectIndirect
Direct– Sanjay said, “This is my book.”Indirect – Sanjay said that this was his pen.
Direct– She said, “Life here in Gaya is rather dull.”Indirect– She said that life here in Gaya was rather dull.

4. CHANGE OF PRONOUNS


Pronouns and Possession Adjectives are generally of the following format changed-

Direct Speech

1, me, my, mine

we, us our, ours

you, your, yours

Indirect Speech

he, (she), him, his (her, hers)

they, them, their, theirs they, them, their, theirs

1. Reported Speech in First Person, Reporting Verb change according to Subject Person. As-

Direct-Mohan said, “I am right.”

Indirect-Mohan said that he was right.

2. Reported Speech Second Person, Reporting Verb Object It changes according to the person.

As-

Direct-Mohan said to me, “You are late.” Indirect-Mohan told me that I was late.

3. The Third Person of the Reported Speech never changes.

Example – Direct-Ram said to me, “He is right. We will not change. As-

Indirect-Ram told to me that he was right. Note: (i) In Reported Speech, if We are used for mankind, then

Direct-Vikash said to me, “We are mortal.” Indirect-Vikash told me that we are mortal.

(ii) If the editor of a paper uses We, Us or Our in the Reported SpeechIf you do, it will convert to It/its.

Example – Direct-The Times of India says, “We shall issue a magazine section in our Sunday’s paper.” Indirect The Times of India says that it will issue a magazine section in its Sunday paper. 

(iii) If both the Subject and the Object of the Reporting Verb are in the Third Person, we need to mention the Noun or Pronoun related to the Pronoun for clarity of meaning in the Reported Speech First Second Person, and Third Person. As-

Direct-Suresh said to Vijay, “You are wrong, but I am right.” 

Indirect Suresh told Vijay that he (Vijay) was wrong, but he (Suresh) was right. 


SOME SPECIAL RULES


1. When the word Sir or Madam is used in Reported Speech, then from DirectWhile changing to Indirect, only respectfully is used in place of Sir or Madam.

Example – Direct-He said to the teacher, “Sir, I am very sorry.” Indirect He respectfully told the teacher that he was very sorry.

2. If the sentence in Reported Speech begins with Yes or No, then in Indirect Speech, instead of Yes, it is replied in the affirmative and instead of No, it is replied in the negative is used.

Example — Direct-She said, “Yes, I can do it.”

Indirect-She replied in the affirmative and said that she could do it. Direct He said, “No, I cannot do it.” Indirect He replied in the negative and said that he could not do it. 

3. If the Reported Speech begins with an address, then Address is used instead of Reporting Verb.

Then the Object related to the Reporting Verb, then as, then the word of address and another Reporting Verb is used as needed to start the next sentence. As-

Direct-The Chief Minister said, “Ladies and gentlemen I should thank you all.” Indire-The Chief Minister addressed (the public) as ladies and gentlemen and said that he should thank them all.

4. If must is used in Reported Speech, then in Indirect Speech, in Present Tense, has to is used instead of must and had to is used instead of must in Past Tense. As-

Direct-He says, “I must do it.”

Indirect-He says that he has to do it. Direct-He said, “I must do it.”

Indirect-He said that he had to do it.

Note- If must is used for a local duty, then must does not change in Indirect Speech. Like- Direct-He said, “Students must respect their teachers.” Indirect-He said that students must respect their teachers.

5. If there are questions beginning with auxiliaries in the Reported Speech, then when changing from Direct to Indirect Speech, according to the general rules of VerbFollow the following special rules after changing the tense and person of the Pronoun etc.is done. As-

(a) If or whether is used instead of inverted commas.

(b) If or whether is followed by the subject and then the verb.

(c) Full stop is given instead of Note of Interrogation.

(d) In place of Reporting Verb say or tell ask or inquire of is used.

(e) If the question starts with do/does/did etc., it is dropped. But if the question starts with did not, do not or doesn’t, then it is not removed.

As–

Direct-The teacher said, “Is anyone there?” 

Indirect—The teacher asked if anyone was there.

Direct-I said to her, “Did you go there?” Indirect-1 asked her if she had gone there.

6. If there is a Sentence starting with Let in the Reported Speech, then it should be DirectReporting Verb in addition to the general rules while changing from to Indirect SpeechIt is converted into request, propose, suggest, order etc. as required. Let’sShould or allow or might is used instead. As-

Direct– They said to the teacher, “Let us go home.” 

Indirect-They requested the teacher to allow them to go home. 

Direct-He said to his friends, “Let us go home.”

Indirect-He proposed to his friends that they should go with me.

Note: Some sentences starting with let sometimes have the defect of wish or permission. In such sentences, let is followed by me, him, her, and them. etc. remains.

While changing such sentences to Indirect, Reporting verb is changed to wish and Let is changed to should. Object (me, him, her, them etc.) is changed to the subject (I, he, she etc.) and placed before should. As-

Direct-He said to me, “Let me help you.” 

Indirect–They wished that he should help me.

Direct-She said, “Let me go out.”

Indirect — She wished that she should go out. 


KINDS OF SENTENCES


In Direct Narration, the following five types of sentences are used according to their meaning-

1. Assertive Sentence

2. Interrogtive Sentences 

3. Imperative Sentence 

4. Optative Sentence

5. Exclamatory Sentence


1. ASSERTIVE SENTENCE


Expressing acceptance or disapproval is called an assertive sentence.Are. As-

A man’s success depnds on luck. He did not agree to my proposal.

EXAMPLE

DirectIndirect
Direct:He said to her, “You were absent yesterday.” Direct:He said to her, “You were absent yesterday.” 
Direct: The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east.” Indirect: The teacher said that the sun rises in the east.
Direct: The officer said, “You have mispresented the fact.” Indirect : The officer remarked that he/I had misrepresented the fact.
Direct: The teacher said, “I don’t find you working hard.” Indirect : The teacher observed that he did not find him working hard.
Direct: The boy said, “I hope to become an IAS officer.”Indirect The boy hoped to become an IAS officer. 
Direct: I said to him, “I am afraid, you have spoiledIndirect I was afraid that h had spoiled his career. 

2. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE


When we ask a question to someone to know something, then it is called an Interrogative. The sentence is called. As-

What are you doing?

When will you come?

EXAMPLE

DirectIndirect
Direct:You said to me, “Am I ugly?’Indirect : You asked me if you were ugly. 
Direct:He said to Rita, “Is your brother married ?”Indirect He asked Rita if her brother was married.
Direct: I said to Moha, “Has your result come Out?Indirect: I asked Mohan if his result had come out. 
Direct: Gita said to Raj, “Are youinterest in politics?”Indirect : Gita enquired of Raj if he was interestd in politics.
Direct: The teacher said to Gita, “Was your father residing over the meeting?”Indirect: The teacher asked Gita if her father had been presiding over the meeting..
Direct: He said to them, “Have you done the work.”Indirect He asked them if they had done the work.

3. IMPERITIVE SENTENCE 


ImperativeSentence is called. As-

Do this work at once. (Command) Please lend me a book. (Request) Save me from the lion. (Entreaty) Don’t walk in the sun. (Prohibition) 

EXAMPLE

DirectIndirect
Direct: The teacher said to the class, “stand up”.Indirect: The teacher ordered the class to stand up.
Direct: He said to his friend, “Kindly help me.”Indirect He requested his friend to help him. 
Direct: The King said to his commander-in-chief, “Crush the rebellion.”Indirect: The King commanded his commander-in-chief to crush the rebellion.
Direct: They said to me, “Do not punish us.” Indirect: They begged me not to punish them.
Direct: “Be merciful to me, O Lord, for I am a sinner”, said the priest. Indirect: The priest prayed to the Lord to be merciful to him, for he was a sinner.
Direct: He said to his friend, “Follow the 20-point economic programme of Mrs. Indira Gandhi.”Indirect : He bade his friend to follow the 20-point economic programme of Mrs. Indira Gandhi.

4. OPTATIVE SENTENCE 


If a sentence expresses the fervent desire and desire of the heart, then it should be called Optative.The sentence is called. Like- king! God save the My he lives long!

DirectIndirect
Direct: The Captain said, “Hurrah! we have Indirect: The Captain exclaimed with delight that they had won the match.
Direct He said, “How foolish I am!”Indirect He said that he was very foolish. 
Direct: Malti said, “What a joy to see you!”Indirect : Malti said that her joy to see him was very great.
Indirect: Malti said that her joy to see him was very great.Indirect: The boy exclaimed happily that his brother stood first on the list.
Direct: He said, “Who can say that this will happen.”Indirect He said that none could say that would happen. 
Direct He said to Gita, “How much older are you than your looks!”Indirect He remarked that Gita was much older than her looked.
Direct: “What fools!” exclaimed the wise man.Indirect: The wise man exclaimed that they were great fools.

5. EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE 


The exclamatory sentence says like-won the match.” What a shame! How wonderful! What a piece of work man! It is necessary for the students to have a thorough knowledge of the above sentences.

DirectIndirect
Direct: The saint said to the boy. “May you live long !” Indirect: The saint blessed the boy so that he might live long.
Direct: The old man said to me, “May God help you !”Indirect: The old man prayed that God might help him. 
Direct: We said, “Long live our President!”Indirect: We said that our President might live long. 
Direct: He said to her, “May you be ruined.Indirect He cursed her that she might be ruined.

EXAMPLES WORKED OUT


Q. Rewrite the following into indirect form of speech:

Direct Indirect
Direct: He said, “God is great.”Indirect He said that God is great.
Direct: He said, “Our country became independent in 1947”. Indirect He said that our country became independent in 1947.
Direct: He said, “Don’t move, boys.” He forbade the boys to move.Indirect Direct: “What am I to do, Sir ?” said Rajesh. 
Direct: The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east.”Indirect: The teacher said that the sun rises in the east.
Direct: They said to her, “When do you go to Patna”?Indirect They asked her when she went to Patna.
Direct: The teacher said, “I am going to teach you English.”Indirect: The teacher said that he was going to teach me English.
Direct: He said to me, “What time does your train leave ?”Indirect He asked me what time my train left.” 
Direct: He said, “Sanjay, what a lot of time you waste !”Indirect He told Sanjay that he wasted a lot of time.
Direct: The teacher said to the boys, “Take back your answer books”. Indirect: The teacher asked the boys to take back their answer books.
Direct: Ravi said, “Honesty is the best policy.” Indirect: Ravi said that honesty is the best policy.
Direct: Mahesh said to me, “I am going to market now”.Indirect: Mahesh said to me that he was going to market then. 
Direct: She said, “I must wash off my hands.”Indirect : She said that she had to wash off her hands.


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