Class 12 Geography-II Notes Ch-1O Transport And Communication Pdf Download

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If are you looking for questions and answers To the Class 12 Geography-II Notes Ch-1O then this website is for you.

So students, after reading this article, you will get very high marks in the exam from this chapter because all the exam-related questions are described in it, so read it completely.

I have been a 12th topper myself and I know what kind of questions are asked in the 12th exam. Presently, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written this article with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to score very good marks in Geography from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Geography-II Notes Ch-1O Transport And Communication Pdf Download

Chapter No10
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameTransport And Communication
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available
Pdf downloadClick Here

key points of the lesson | Class 12 Geography-II Notes Ch-1O Transport And Communication Pdf Download

  • ★ Back region – The land area around the port whose manufactured goods are exported from that port and imported goods are distributed in that area.
  • ★ Website – to get any desired information in the world wide network (web) of the computer.
  •  * Transport- Bringing and carrying goods from one place to another or movement of passengers is called transport.
  • ★ Communication- Sending news or ideas from one place to another is called communication.
  • ★ National Highways-The roads which meet the capital of the states are called National Highways.
  • • The connecting roads are called State Highways.
  • ★ Port means those coastal places where the ships start their journey and where they come and end their journey.
  • ★ Density of roads—per 100 sq. km. m. The ratio of road length to the area is called road density.
  • * Unifying role of the transport system—Integrated and coordinated transport networks reduce social distance, political fragmentation, and economic isolation. It strengthens the centripetal forces of society, polity, and economy and helps in weakening the centrifugal forces.

things to remember

Class 12 Geography-II Notes Ch-1O Transport And Communication Pdf Download
  • 1. Life Lines — The means of transport are the lifelines of a country.
  • 2. Transport System- Transport System Social, Economic, and Political Unity in India strengthens.
  • 3. Ports — There are 12 main ports in India.
  • 4. The development of railway routes depends on the following factors— (i) physical (ii) political factors, (iii) economic factors.
  • 5. The density of railways is more in the northern plains.,
  • 6. National Roads – The length of National Roads in India is about 34000 km.
  • 7. Rail Zone – Indian Railways has been divided into 9 Rail Zones and 6 new Rail Zones. are being made.
  • 8. Foreign trade- Foreign trade is called the economic barometer of a country. Per capita trade in India is low.


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. What is the significance of April 16, 1853, in the history of Indian Railways?

Ans. On this day the first train ran in India.

Q.2. How many trains do the Indian Railways run daily?

Ans. about 13 thousand

Q.3. What is the place of Indian Railways in the world?

Ans. Fourth.

Q.4. Name three areas with sparse rail networks.

Ans. Himalayas, Northeast India, and Western Rajasthan.

Q.5. Name the railway zones whose headquarters are in Kolkata.

Ans. East and South-East.

Q.6. When did the first train run on the Konkan Railway?

Ans. on January 26, 1998

Q. 7. What was the total length of roads in India in the year 1997-99?

Ans. 32.66 lakh km.

Q.8. Which states have the highest average density of metalled roads?

Ans. Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Punjab.

Short Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q.1.Why has transported an important part of the national economy?

Years-In ancient times, humans have used different types of means of transport to move from one place to another, its goal being to cover long distances in less time. Transport plays an important role in linking production and consumption. The transport system facilitates this by connecting the inputs to the location of the raw materials.

With the help of a developed transport system, goods, and services can be transported to local, national, and international markets. Apart from this, your ideas and skills can also be taken from one state to another. Thus we can say that the transport system is an important part of the national economy. For the economic development of the country, it is necessary to develop the transport system.

Q2. What are the merits and demerits of road transport?

Years.Merits of Road Transport

  • 1. Road transport is very suitable for short distances. It saves time.
  • 2. Road transport is suitable for light, perishable, and breakable goods.
  • 3. Road transport is suitable for mountainous areas.
  • 4. It is easy to make and maintain them.


  • 1. Road transport is more expensive than rail. 2. It is not suitable for heavy goods and long distance goods.
  • 3. The carrying capacity of goods is less than that of water transport.
  • 4. Heavy pollution spreads in the environment.

Q.4. Give reasons

(i) There is a dense network of railways in the plains of northern India.


  • 1. The plains of India are flat.
  • 2. The density of the population is highest here.
  • 3. The most fertile agricultural land is found here.
  • 4. The industrial development of this plain area has been very high.
  • 5. Delhi, the capital of the country, is in this part from where rail routes connect every part of the country.
  • 6. Other important railway centers of the plains are Amritsar, Ambala, Kanpur, Lucknow, Mughalsarai, Patna, Howrah, etc.
class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science

(ii) There is no railway network in the northeastern states.

Ans. 1. In the northeastern states- Shimla Plateau, Tripura, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, etc., there is almost no rail connectivity. Hilly areas and high rainfall are the reasons for this.

  • 2. Due to being a rugged hilly region.
  • 3. The land here is covered with forests, this is also a reason.
  • 4. It is very expensive to build a railway here. A lot of money is spent on making it.
  • 5. The density of the population is low.
  • 6. The economic development of the states of this entire region has been very slow. This is the reason why there is no network of railway routes in the northeastern states of India.

(iii) The density of roadways in Punjab is the highest in India.

Ans. Punjab is the most economically developed state in India. There has been a huge development in the field of agriculture and industry. Any area can develop in the modern era only through transport routes. The means of transport here, especially the roadways, have a special contribution to the development of agriculture and industry. Every village here is connected to the city by roadways, due to which the villages get economic benefits, and the presence of dense roadways here is considered to be a major factor in the progress of the state.

Q.5. The development of inland waterways in India receives very little priority because of mention three major factors which are both geographical and economic.

Ans. The development of inland waterways in India receives very little priority. The navigability of rivers and canals mainly depends on the continuity of water flow and its depth. In which boats can be run. The following are the reasons for Indian waterways not being fully utilized-

1. The level of river water keeps on fluctuating according to the season.

2. Presence of waterfalls and accumulation of sediments in the river bed.

3. Reduction in the level of river water due to water flowing in canals for irrigation comes

4. The main reason is that roads and railways are cheaper and easier, due to which inland waterways in India have not been properly utilized.

Q.6. Classify the roads of India into different types

Ans. There are four types of roadways in India-

(i) National Highways—which connect the major cities of the country. These are constructed by the Central Public Works Department. Their total length is 52,000 km. Is.

(ii) State Highways—which connect state capitals to other cities’ mix. Their total length is about 1.5 lakh km. Is.

(iii) District Roads which connect the headquarters of one State to interconnect with cities. These are the maximum number of roads in India.

(iv) Village Roads which connect rural centers to the cities.

Q.7. Explain the four main obstacles in the improvement of India’s internal waterways.

Ans. Following are the four main obstacles in the improvement of India’s internal waterways-

  • 1. Many canals have been taken out from the rivers of North India, due to which the water of these rivers remains less. Due to the shallow depth, boats cannot be used in them.
  • 2. The rivers of South India flow fast and form waterfalls, which are important for shipping. Not suitable for
  • 3. At the time of the flood, silt gets deposited in the bottom of the rivers flowing in the plains due to which the depth of water decreases.
  • 4. The rainfall in India is limited to only four months in a year, due to which the amount of water in the rivers is reduced and they are not navigable during the rest of the time.

Q.8. Transport system plays an important role in connecting production and consumption. Explain.

Ans Transport system plays an important role in the development of a country. Transport transports the cultivator to the manufacturing centers. Manufactured goods are delivered to the consumer by means of transport only. With the help of the transport system, services can be reached to national and international markets. In this way, the transport system connects production and consumption with each other.

Q.9. Why is the development of railways less in different regions of the Himalayan Mountains?

Ans. In the Himalayan region, railways cannot be developed due to ground barriers, making tunnels in many regions and building bridges over rivers with fast currents is a difficult task. The Jags had to be left only by taking them to the cities located on the post site. Earlier the railway line to Padankot, but now it is extended till Jammu.

Plans have been made to construct a railway from Jammu to Udhampur, Jawahar Tunnel, and Beed to the Kashmir Valley. The Shimla-Kalka railway line and Siliguri-Darjeeling railway line have been built by narrow gauge. That’s why the railway route is less due to the rugged terrain, backward economy, and sparse population of the Himalayan region.

Q.10. Describe the progress of road construction in border areas.

Ans. In view of the strategic importance of the border regions, the ‘Border Road Organization’ was established in the year 1960. Its purpose was to build roads to provide security and speed up economic development in the border areas. This organization has built the world’s highest road from Manali to Leh.

This road is on average 4,210 meters above sea level. This organization has also constructed the India-China border, the Hindustan-Tibet border road. This organization has covered about 30,000 km in the border areas of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, and Nagaland. m. Long roads have been built.

Q.11. What is road attitude? Which states have high road density and which is less in the states? 

Ans. The length of road per 100 square kilometers is called road density. The road density is high in the northern plains of the country and in South India. Road density is very low in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, and Mizoram. Chandigarh has the highest road density in the country and the lowest in Arunachal Pradesh (12 km per 100 square mm. 9-12. State the types of air transport services in India.

(i) There are two segments of air transport in India—internal services and international services। Air India organization manages foreign flights. Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai are the hubs of Air India. Indian Airlines manages air services within the country and with neighboring countries. Since 1981, Vayudoot air services have also been started in remote parts of the country. Pawan Hans Limited was established in 1985 to provide helicopter services to connect remote areas, forested or hilly areas. 23. Name four national highways along with their terminals.

  • (ii) National Highway-2 – is between Delhi and Kolkata.
  • (iii) National Highway-3 connects Agra to Mumbai via Gwalior, Indore, and Nashik.
  • (iv) National Highway-4 connects Chennai to Thane.

Long Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. What is the contribution of Indian Railways to the development of the Indian economy? Explain giving examples of five major commodities carried by Indian trains in support of your answer.

Ans. Indian Railways ranks first in Asia and fourth in the world. trainsConnects 7105 railway stations. There are three types of railways according to the width-

(a) big line (Broad Gauge) 1.67 m (f) Meter Line (Metre Gauge) 1.00 m and

(c) Narrow gauge 0.77 meters on railway routes of these different widths, Trains with diesel and electric engines run. Indian Railways for convenience is divided into 9 circles. A deep railway network is spread over the vast Indian plain. north-easternAnd it can be expanded in Southern India now. Heavy goods such as coal, oil, grains, cement, iron steel, fertilizers, etc. are transported from one place to another by rail routes.

Indian Railways is contributing to the country’s economy by carrying passengers and goods. Indian Railways is the largest government establishment in the country. 16,03,000 regular employees in this establishment. Apart from this, two lakh people work temporarily. Fast and affordable Metrorail services are available. Indian Railways has a huge contribution in the development of agriculture and industries. TheseEvery year, huge quantities of food grains and fertilizers are transported. coal, food grains, and mineral soil occupy a prominent place among the commodities carried by railways.

9-2 How has the development of industrial and agricultural sectors increased the demand for rail transport in India? Explain with four suitable examples. Ans. The development of industrial and agricultural sectors in India has increased the demand for rail transport. Apart from other geographical factors, regional development is also responsible for the development of railways.

1. The density of railway routes has also increased in the regions where there has been development in the field of agriculture. Is. For example, in the northern plains of India, railways were needed to transport agricultural products such as sugarcane or sugar to the market. The procurement of food grains was 73.2 million tonnes in 1950-51 which increased to 473.25 million tonnes in 2001.

2. The demand for railways has increased for the transportation of industrial materials. industrial by rail material handling was 16.1 million tonnes in 1970-71, which increased to 38.75 million tonnes in 2000-01.million tonnes.

3. Due to industrial development, the demand for railways increased for means of power like coal weighing. Where only 20.2 million tonnes of coal was carried by railways in 1950-51, 222.75 million tonnes were carried in 2000-01. This is the reason why new trains were started every year by developing new railway routes in industrial regions like the Chhotanagpur region.

4. Areas with more population also require more railways. Because food and other essential goods are carried in this area only by trains. This is the reason that the rail network is dense in the plains.

Q. 3. “Great influence of physiographic structure on road design in India”Justify the above statement by giving five examples from the regions with the highest and lowest density of roads in our country.

Ans. The design of roadways in our country is influenced by the physical structure. Road construction and maintenance are very expensive in mountainous and desert regions. Therefore the network of roads is very sparse in Himachal hilly region, the northeastern hilly region, and Rajasthan. On the contrary, the network of roads in the northern plains is very dense, because the roads can be easily built on the flat land of this region. Therefore, the network of roads in Punjab and Haryana is very dense. Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu also have a dense road network.

Secondly, the development of roadways is influenced by economic development. Developed states with economic development encourage the development of roadways, while the development of roadways is very less in the state of low economic level. For this reason, the density of metalled roads in Punjab is the highest in the country (74.0 kilometers per 100 square kilometers). After this, the density of roads in Tamil Nadu and Haryana is very high. Chandigarh has the highest road density among the Union Territories.

The lowest density of metalled roads (10 km per 100 sq km) is found in Assam, Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Jammu, and Kashmir. In this way, the physical structure and economic level of the country affect the design of the roadways. does.

Q4. Write a short note on National Highway.

  • Ans. It is the main road network of the country. The responsibility for its construction and repair rests with the Central Public Works Department. In 1950-51, the total length of National Highways was 19,800 km. which increased to 57,700 km in the year 1999-2000. Has occurred. The length of National Highways is only two percent of the total length of the country’s roads, but its participation in traffic is 40 percent.
  • National Highways connect one end of the country to the other end. Many major highways run in the north-to-south and east-to-west directions. The historical Sher Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway-1. It is between Delhi and Amritsar. National Highway-2 is between Delhi and Kolkata. National Highway-3 connects Agra to Mumbai via Gwalior, Indore, and Nashik. National Highway-4 connects Chennai to Thane (near Mumbai).
  • National Highway-5 runs along the east coast between Howrah and Chennai. National Highway-6 is the second longest (1949 km) highway in the country and it goes from Kolkata to Dhule via Sambalpur, Raipur, and Nagpur. National Highway-7 is the longest (2377 km). It goes from Varanasi to Kanyakumari via Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore, and Madurai. National Highway-8 connects Delhi and Mumbai. National Highway-15 stumbles through the desert of Rajasthan.

Q.5. Write a note on the development of satellite communication in India.

Ans. One of the main goals of India’s space efforts is to bring people closer to the world through satellites.

To be reached India’s foray into satellite technology dates back to 1975 when the Aryabhata satellite was launched on 19 April in collaboration with the Soviet Union. Masker-1 was launched on June 7, 1979, and Rohini satellite on July 18, 1980, from Sriharikota.

Similarly, on June 19, 1981, an experimental telecommunication satellite “Apple” (Apple. Arian Passenger PayLoad Experiment) was launched by Arian Rocket. Bhaskar-2 was launched on November 20, 1981, which was Bhaskar. It was a remote-sensing satellite like Bhaskar-1.

INSAT-1B satellite was launched on April 10, 1982, but from September 1982 the satellite stopped working. So on August 30, 1983 INSAT-1-B

(INSAT 1-B) was launched by Space Shuttle Challenger. INSAT has brought revolutionary potential in radio, television, and other mediums of telecommunication. Now we get weather information on television and we get advanced information about storms.

Is. Success has also been achieved in the medium of telecommunication like telephone and tex (Telex). 9 Explain the difference-

  • (i) transport and communication,
  • (ii) National Highway and State Highway
  • (iii) Personal communication and mass communication.

Q6.What is the difference between transport and communication?

Ans. (1) Difference between transport and communication

(i) Movement of people, goods, and essential commodities to and from is called transport. (1) Communication network sends or receives information from one place to another.
(ii) Transport system consists of four elements- origin, destination route, and carrier play an important role.(ii) It has three forms – physical such as postal services, telegraph, telegraph, and telephone, and by airwaves such as radio and television.
Work, like-postal services. 
(iii) Transport as a well-coordinated system plays an important role in the sustainable economic development of the country.(iv) Some means of communication work independently of the transport system. Like radio.

(ii) Difference between National Highway and State Highway

National HighwayState Highway
(i) These are the main roads of the whole country. (i) These are the main roads of different states. 
(ii) These highways connect major commercial, and industrial cities, capitals, and major ports.(ii) These highways connect the capitals of different states to the major cities and offices of the states.
(iii) are often made by the Central Government.(iii) These highways would have been under the state governments. Are.
(iv) The total length of National Highways in India is 33,612 km. Is. (iv) The length of state highways in India is 3,81,000 km. Is.
(v) It is important from an economic and military point of view (v) It is important from an administrative point of view. Are.
(vi) Sher Shah Suri Marg is a National Highway.(vi) Amritsar-Chandigarh road is a state highway.

(iii) Difference between personal communication and mass communication

Personal communicationmass communication
(i) Personal communication is done through postal service and through computer-aided telecommunication.(i) It is accomplished through print medium and electronic computer-aided telecommunication.
(ii) Through this system, information can be obtained from all over the world at a relatively low cost through the internet and ‘e-mail’.(ii) Mass media can play an important role in creating awareness among people about national policies and programs by providing information and education.
(iii) Documents can be sent and received faster and cheaper by computers(iii) The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is responsible for the development and regulation of information and free sent and received “and broadcasting” in the country. All India Radio and Doordarshan are its two components.

Q.7. Discuss the importance of radio and television in mass communication.

Ans. Mass media plays an important role in providing information and education, and creating awareness among people about national policies and programs. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is responsible for the development and regulation of information and broadcasting in the country. Prasar Bharati is the autonomous broadcasting corporation of India. It was formed in 1971. Radio and television are powerful mediums of mass communication. AIR Information, Education, and broadcasts a variety of programs related to entertainment. All India RadioVocational programs have also been started.

Doordarshan is the national television of India. It is one of the largest regional broadcasting organizations in the world. This has changed the social and cultural life of the people. Doordarshan news, current affairs, science, cultural magazines, documentaries, music, dance, Dramas, serials, and feature films are telecast.

Q.8. Describe the uses of satellites and computers in modern life.

Ans. Uses of Satellites—INSAT is a multi-purpose satellite system for telecommunication, meteorological observation, and various other data and programs. Satellites have revolutionized both personal and mass communication. The Indian Remote Sensing Agency is located in Hyderabad. It provides facilities for data acquisition and processing. Satellites have proved useful in the management of nature’s resources.


  • (a) They accept data in the form of inputs. (b) It stores data preserve it in memory and retrieves it as and when required. Reverts to.
  • (c) It processes the data as directed for the desired information.
  • (d) It transmits information in the form of output.,

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Geography Notes In English

MCQs Geography In English

  • Chapter 1 Data – Its Source and Compilation
  • Chapter 2 Data Processing
  • Chapter 3 Graphical Representation of Data
  • Chapter 4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
  • Chapter 5 Field Surveys
  • Chapter 6 Spatial Information Technology

Geography Notes In Hindi

MCQs Geography In Hindi

  • अध्याय 1 डेटा – इसका स्रोत और संकलन
  • अध्याय 2 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग
  • अध्याय 3 डेटा का चित्रमय प्रतिनिधित्व
  • अध्याय 4 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग और मैपिंग में कंप्यूटर का उपयोग
  • अध्याय 5 फील्ड सर्वेक्षण
  • अध्याय 6 स्थानिक सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी


Q. 1. What is the total length of the coast of India?

Ans. 7,516 km Me.

Q. 2 When was the Indian Electricity Grid Corporation established?

Ans. In 1989.

Q. 3 Name the different gauges of Indian Railways.

Ans. (a) Broad gauge or broad gauge (distance between two tracks 1.676 m.) (b) Meter gauge or small gauge (1 m) (c) Narrow gauge or narrow gauge (0.762 m and 0.610 m).

Q.4. What are the two types of means of communication?

Ans. Personal communication and mass communication. ,

Q.5. Name three means of mass communication.

Ans. Radio, TV, and newspapers.

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