Class 12 Geography-II Notes Ch-7 Mineral and Energy Resources Pdf Download

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So students, after reading this article, you will get very high marks in the exam from this chapter because all the exam-related questions are described in it, so read it completely.

I have been a 12th topper myself and I know what kind of questions are asked in the 12th exam. Presently, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written this article with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to score very good marks in Geography from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Geography-II Notes Ch-7 Mineral and Energy Resources pdf download

Chapter No07
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameMineral and Energy Resources
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available
Pdf downloadClick Here

key points of the lesson | Class 12 Geography-II Notes Ch-7 Mineral and Energy Resources pdf download

  • ★ Malleability – The property of metals, due to which they can be molded into a new shape by pressing or hammering. Mallet means hammer in the English language. From this, the word is derived. ★ Ductility — The property of metals that allows them to be molded into new shapes, such as wires, without heating or stretching. Copper is one such metal.
  • ★ Beautification – Treatment or method of removing impurities from mineral ores.
  • ★ Non-Ferrous Metals — In which there is no part of iron. Like gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, etc. Metallic Minerals: These minerals contain metals. Such as iron ore, nickel, and copper. Apallic minerals do not contain metals, such as limestone, potash, mica, etc.

things to remember | Class 12 Geography-II Notes Ch-7 Mineral and Energy Resources pdf download

1. Mineral resources – India is dependent on minerals.

2. Mineral Reserves Adequate reserves of minerals are available in India. 3. Number of minerals- About 100 minerals are found in India.

Class 12 Geography-II Notes Ch-7 Mineral and Energy Resources pdf download
image credit: toppr

4. Value of minerals – The value of minerals extracted in India is 4.80 billion rupees.

5. Distribution of minerals – Most of the minerals in India are found in Damodar Valley. 6. Mineral Belts – There are three mineral belts in India- North East Plateau, South West Plateau, and North-Western Region.

7. Resources – Coal, mineral oil, hydroelectricity, gas, and nuclear power are the major energy resources in India. 8. Sources of non-conventional energy—solar energy, wind power, biogas, tidal in IndiaThe main source of energy is geothermal energy.


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. How many types of minerals are extracted in India nowadays?

Ans. About 100 minerals.

Q. 2. Name a mineral that India has to import the most.

Ans. Petroleum.

Q, 3. What was the value of the total minerals extracted in the year 2000-2001?

Ans. 48,016.67 crores.

Q. 4. Name one metallic and one non-metallic mineral.

Ans. Metallic Minerals Iron Ore Non-metallic Minerals Limestone

Q.5. Gold is extracted from which belt of minerals?

Ans. Karnataka-Tamil Nadu belt.

Q.6. How many crores worth of minerals were imported in the year 2000-01?

Ans. 1,09,080 crores of Rs.

Q.7. Name two types of iron ore found in India.

Ans. Hematite and Magnetite.

Q.8. Name three mines of the iron-ore belt of Jharkhand-Orissa.

Ans. Gurumahipani, Badam Pahar and Noamandi.

Q.9. State any two uses of manganese.

Ans. Battle tanks, cannon balls, strong steel sheets, ceramic utensils, etc.

Q. 10. Largest reserves of manganese in which state?

Ans. Orissa.

Short Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. Name any four non-conventional sources of energy. Why are these sources more important than conventional sources of energy?

Ans. Non-conventional sources of energy are- (1) Solar energy, (ii) Tidal energy, (iii) Geothermal energy, (iv) Wind power, (v) Biogas, etc.

Conventional sources of energy—coal, oil, and nuclear energy—are all exhaustible sources andIt is not possible for them to remain on earth after 50 years. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new non-conventional resources that can meet the energy demand of the future. It is expected that 20 percent of the total energy demand will be met by non-conventional energy sources by 2010 AD.

Q. 2. Name three such non-conventional energy sources which have a bright future for our country. Compared to conventional energy sources except for hydropower kiss type more appropriate?

Ans. There are two types of sources of energy—

(a) Conventional energy sources—coal, oil, gas, and hydropower. (b) Major sources of non-conventional energy are solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and biogas, etc.

The future of non-conventional energy sources like solar energy, wind energy, geothermal and tidal energy, etc. is bright for our country. Solar energy is available in abundance in India except in the high mountain regions of the Himalayas. There has been a lot of development in the country in the method of getting energy from the sun.

Wind energy is being developed in Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and North India. Biogas is prevalent and growing in rural areas of ​​India. All these non-conventional energy sources are going to last forever. These are inexhaustible resources. They do not pollute the environment whereas coal and oil are traditional sources, but they are exhaustible resources and pollute the environment in huge quantities. Therefore non-conventional sources of energy are good. their rapid development beneficial for.

class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science

Q.3. What are the characteristics of mineral distribution in India?

Ans. 1. India is deficient in water-soluble minerals like limestone, gypsum, and salts in areas of high rainfall.

2. There is a scarcity of minerals in the northern plains of the country because here the rivers have brought soil over the bedrock.

3. There is a scarcity of minerals in the regions of the Himalayas and their quantity is also less. Here there is the difficulty of transportation, the population is less and the climate is also unfavorable.

4. Most of the minerals of our country are found on the peninsular plateau because the rocks here are ancient and weathered.

The author of Mineral Resources in India (1944), Dr. According to him, if a line is drawn from Mangalore to Kanpur in the south and from there to Arunachal Pradesh in the east, parallel to the Himalayan Mountains, then all the parts that are east of this line are Rich in minerals and poor except for a few exceptions towards the west.

Q.4. Differentiate between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy. three among them point out the differences.

Conventional sources of energyNon-conventional energy
1. There has been a long tradition of their use. Hydropower is also a traditional source.1. They have been in use for some time. 
2. They are exhaustible.2. These are inexhaustible resources.
3. Due to their use of pressure on traditional resources eg coal, mineral oil, etc.3. In the world, they have started sometime from now and will happen. For example Sun, wind, tidal energy, geothermal energy, biogas

Q.5. What is the difference between rock and mineral ore? 

rock oremineral ore
1. All the natural and solid materials that make up the earth’s crust are called rocks. 1. Mineral is an inorganic compound that is found in rock (state) of all-natural and solid substances.
2. Rock is a group of many types of minerals2. Mineral ores are usually made of one type of mineral, such as iron.
3. They do not have any definite chemical organization.3. They have a definite chemical composition.
4. Rocks are mainly of three types – Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic.4. About 2000 types of minerals are found.

Q.6. Is India’s mineral wealth sufficient?

Ans. There is no complete estimate of reserves of all mineral resources in India, yet we can say that minerals are sufficient to meet the needs of the country. The country is self-sufficient in many minerals.

Like-coal, iron, limestone, bauxite, mica, manganese etc. Some of these minerals are also exported. There is a shortage of petroleum in the country. It is expected that with the development of new areas, this shortcoming will be fulfilled to a large extent. Essential metals like gold, silver, lead, lead etc. are less so they are imported. Thus we can say that the minerals required for the industrial development of the country are available in sufficient quantity.

Q.7. What is the importance of copper?

Ans. Use of copper – second place in today’s industrial development

It is of copper. Man has been using copper since ancient times. But its use was limited to making food utensils. Along with industrial development, its use also increased because mainly copper is used in electrical works. It is the best conductor of electricity. That is why it is mostly used in electrical work. In addition to

, Due to the increasing use of electricity in the modern era, its demand is continuously increasing, but now aluminum is being used in its place. The two main properties of copper are malleability and ductility. That’s why it’s so usefulIt is used in wires of motorcars, television, etc. and all types of machines.

It has been proven. Apart from this, there is no corrosion in copper. Other metals are made from the mixture of copper, such as bronze is made from the mixture of copper and tin, and brass is made from the mixture of copper and zinc. Metals of Copper: Samba is found in the form of pure metal as well as in compound form. Its main metals are— (i) cuprite, (ii) malachite, (iii) cubalite(iv) Calcocite.

Q.8. What are the main uses of copper and aluminum?

Ans. Copper is an ancient metal. India lacks copper ore reserves. It is useful for utensils, jewelry, coins, electric wires, and alloys. It is a symbol of an ancient civilization. Aluminum – This metal is made from bauxite mineral. this one

It is a light metal that is used in making utensils, electric wires, and aircraft. It is in great demand in the chemical industry.

Q. 9. What are the drawbacks of nuclear energy?

Ans. The future of nuclear power is very bright. of scientific skill in its development

Too much is required. Its biggest drawback is that it takes a lot of time to build a nuclear plant and it requires huge capital investment. The risk of an accident arising from seepage remains the same, as happened at the Chirinobil center in Soviet Russia. Uranium and thorium minerals are used in this.

Q. 10. Describe the spatial pattern of coal deposits in India. Does India have enough coal reserves?

Ans. According to the Geological Survey of India, till 1992, there were 19600 million tonnes of coal reserves in India. The largest reserves of coal are in the state of Jharkhand. 90% of India’s coal reserves are found in the states of Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal. Given the industrial growth and consumption in India, these reserves are insufficient and will not last long. There is a shortage of cooking coal in India, so the conservation of coal is necessary.

Q. 11. Describe the production, consumption and import of mineral oil in India.

Ans. The production of mineral oil in the country is low considering the consumption. The production of mineral oil in the year 1999-2000 was 239 lakh tonnes. It meets only 85% of our requirements while the consumption has gone up to about 750 lakh tonnes. In this way, 500 lakh tonnes of mineral oil and petroleum have been imported last year. This import was worth about 35 thousand crores. The main reason for this increase is an increase in consumption, prices and a fall in the value of the rupee.

Q.12. Mention the areas of natural gas in India and H.B. J.’s description of the pipeline it.

Ans. The production of natural gas in India is 22000 million cubic meters. Presently natural gas is being obtained from Cambay Basin, Cauvery Coast, Jaisalmer and Mumbai High. The Hira-Vijaypur-Madpur (HBJ) pipeline has been built to transport gas in India. This pipeline is 1700 km. is long This pipeline passes through the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.

Bijaypur, Sawai Madhopur, Jagdishpur, Amla and Babrala fertilizer factories are being run with this gas. In India Gas Authority of India (GAIL), Oil and Natural Gas Commission (O.N.G.C.), and Indian Oil Corporation HindustanOrganizations named Petroleum Corporation (HPC) are doing the work of gas exploration and management.

Q.13. Why is thermal power more important in India?

Ans. Thermal electricity is obtained from mineral oil and coal. The use of thermal power is increasing as compared to hydropower in the country. In the Sixth Five-Year Plan, this ratio was 39.7% to 66.3%. This proportion has increased to 26%-74% by the end of the Seventh Plan. The development of electrical schemes takes longer. Therefore, for the purpose of reducing the current energy crisis, thermal power is being used more. Due to this, there will be a shortage of exhaustible resources like coal and oil in the country. The cost of thermal power will also be high. For this, more quantity of oil will have to be imported.

Q.14. Where are the nuclear power centers established in India?

Ans: Reserves of uranium and podium are found in the country as raw materials for the development of nuclear power. Uranium is found in Jharkhand, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu. Manhars of Porium is obtained from the sand called Monazite on the Chhotanagpur plateau in Jharkhand and on the Kerala coast. Atomic Power Commission was set up in 1948 to achieve nuclear power in India.

There are 6 nuclear power stations working in the country- (i) Tarapur (Maharashtra), (ii) Rawatbhata (near Kota in Raj), (111) Kalpakkam (near Chennai), (iv) Narora (Bulandshahar in Uttar Pradesh) near), (v) Kakrapara (Gujarat) and, (vi) Kaiga (Karnataka).

Long Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q.1. Describe the distribution of iron ore in India.

Ans. India produces 50% of the world’s iron and ranks seventh. Indian iron has fewer impurities and has 65% iron content. Jharkhand and Orissa produce 75% of India’s iron. It is also called the iron region of India. India’s main steel plants in this region are located at Jamshedpur, Bokaro, and Rourkela. The total production in 1999-2000 was 700 lakh tonnes.

1. Jharkhand – In this state, Noamandi and Pansit are famous places of Buddha in the Singhbhum district. The Noamandi mine is the largest iron mine in Asia.

2. Orissa – Iron is found in Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and Bonai areas in this state. 3. Pali in Chhattisgarh, Rajhara hills and Bailadila area in Bastar.

4. Salem and Madurai regions in Tamil Nadu. 5. Baba Budan hills and Kradaimukh area in Karnataka, Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh, Lohara in Maharashtra, Peepal village and Goda produce iron.

Q.2. Discuss the trends in the production of petroleum in India.

Ans. The area in India in which oil can be found is spread over an area of ​​1.72 million square kilometers. Out of this, 3 lakh 20 thousand km area is the sedimentary offshore area which is found up to a depth of 200 meters. There are 13 important basins with oil-mud layers, which are divided into three parts—

(a) Cambay Basin,

(b) Upper Assam Region, and

(c) Mumbai Offshore Region.

Oil is being produced in all these areas. The petroleum metamorphosed layer is found in Rajasthan, Kaveri-Krishna-Godavari basin, Andaman, Bengal Himalayan foothills, Ganga Pati and Tripura-Nagaland Mela area. Still, commercial-scale production has not yet been started in these areas.

Kutch-Saurashtra, Kerala-Konkan, and Mahanadi have such favorable geological belts where petroleum can be found. This is the future state of petroleum production of the country. The production of petroleum in India is much less than the consumption.

In 1950-51, the total oil production was 2.5 lakh tonnes while the consumption of petroleum products was 34 lakh tonnes. In 1988, the production of crude oil increased to 23.9 million tonnes and the consumption went up to 36.4 million tonnes. Thus, there was a gap of 1.25 crore tonnes between production and consumption.

• The total consumption of petroleum products in India in 2000-2001 is about 100 million tonnes, only a third of it is produced in India. The rest has to be imported from outside. valuable foreignerThere are 18 refining centers functioning in India.

Q. 3. Give your views on the production, distribution and use of mica.

Ans. Mica due to its ductility, transparency, and poor conductivity of electricity and heat. Used in the manufacture of electrical equipment, wireless wires, computers, aircraft, etc. Apart from this, it also comes in the work of lantern chimneys, eyeglasses, windows of houses, furnaces used in high temperatures and many types of decorations. By mixing its powder in a sprint, sheets of any size and type are made.

Production and Distribution India has mica. There is a continuous monopoly in the world for production. 60% of the world’s mica is extracted in India. The production of mica in India fluctuates greatly. Although mica production in India has been going on for the last 140 years, it started on a commercial scale only after independence.

At the time of independence, in the year 1947-48, only 772 tonnes of mica was produced in India, which increased to 10 thousand tonnes in a short period of only three years. In the ten years between 1950-51 and 1960-61, there was almost a threefold increase.

Till the year 1960-61, our mica production increased rapidly, but after that, this production started declining. Mica production was 9,494 tonnes in 1970, which decreased to 4,299 tonnes in 1987 and 4,080 tonnes in 1990. In 2000-2001, its production was reduced to 1.8 thousand tonnes only.

The distribution of mica in India is also uneven. 95% of India’s mica is obtained only from Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, and Rajasthan.

Bihar-Jharkhand-Bihar produces 60% of the total mica production of India. It is the largest producer not only in India but in the world. The main mica-producing belt of Bihar starts from the Gaya district in the west and reaches the Bhagalpur district in the east passing through Hazaribagh and Munger. The length of this strip is 150 km. And the width is 32 km. Is. The mica that came out from here is of high quality.

Which is called Ruby Mica. In this way, this strip provides high-quality mica in large quantities, due to which it is called the ‘mica store’ of the world. Hazaribagh is the largest mica-producing district of Jharkhand which produces 7.5% of the state’s mica. In second place is the Gaya district which produces 209) mica of Bihar. 5% mica of Bihar is produced in the Munger district.

Andhra Pradesh – This state is in second place by producing 25% mica of in India. The main mica belt here is in the Nellore district; Which is 97 km. long and 24 to 30 km. Is wide. Rajasthan- There has been a significant increase in mica production in Rajasthan in the last few years. The main mica belt of Rajasthan is 322 km from Jaipur to Udaipur. is long

Its average width is 96 km. In its central part, this belt is divided between Kumbalgarh and wider. The main producing districts are Bhilwara, Jaipur, Udaipur, Tonk, Sikar, Dungarpur, and Ajmer. Most of the lead is extracted in the Bhilwara district. According to the Geological Survey of India, the future of mica mining in Rajasthan is bright.

Q.4. Describe the production and distribution of manganese in India.

Ans. Manganese is a ferrous metal. It is used in the iron steel and chemical industries. Production – Manganese production in India is 30%, and it is second in the world.

is on There are 120 million tonnes of manganese reserves in the country. The production of manganese in India is 18 lakh days, this production decreases according to foreign demand. Most of the manganese is exported. “Production Sector –

  • (i) In Balaghat, Chhindwara, and Jawalpur areas in Madhya Pradesh.
  • (ii) Nagpur and Bhandara regions in Maharashtra.
  • (iii) Gangpur, Kalahandi and Koraput and Bonai areas in Orissa
  • (iv) Bellary, Shimoga, Chital Fort area in Karnataka.
  • (v) Visakhapatnam region in Andhra Pradesh.
  • (vi) Chaiwala area of ​​Singhbhum in Jharkhand.
  • (vii) Udaipur and Banswara region in Rajasthan.

Q.5. Discuss the favorable conditions found for hydroelectric power in India with suitable examples.

Ans. (a) The development of hydropower depends on the following geographical and economic factors does-

(i) Up-low lands – for the development of hydropower, up-low and

There should be sloping land. From this point of view, mountainous and plateau regions are ideal areas for the development of hydroelectricity. Water falling from a great height generates a large amount of hydroelectricity.

(ii) Much rain: For hydropower, a continuous amount of water should be available throughout the year. That’s why rainfall should be more evenly throughout the year in the catchment areas of the rivers. Due to seasonal rains in dry areas and in the monsoon section, there is a decrease in the production of hydropower.

(iii) Big rivers and waterfalls (Big rivers and waterfalls) The amount of water in the rivers should be more so that water can be received evenly throughout the year. Natural waterfalls formed in mountainous regions are helpful in hydropower development, such as Niagara Falls in North America.

(iv) Availability of lakes on the way – Lakes are favorable in the course of the river. There are It prevents damage to machines by preventing sand particles. freezing temperature in winter should be above so that the water does not freeze.

(v) Economic factors – (a) Proximity to the market (Nearness of consumption areas) The areas using hydropower should be near so that the loss of hydropower on the way is less and the expenditure is also less.

(b) Need of capital Capital is required for building dams on rivers and for the construction of powerhouses.

(C) Other factors – It is necessary to have the technical knowledge and means of transport for hydropower development. In areas where there is a shortage of coal and petroleum, the development of hydropower becomes necessary. The water used in hydropower should be used for water irrigation so that the cost of production can be reduced.

Q.6. Explain the difference-

(i) Metallic and non-metallic minerals

(ii) thermal and hydropower

(iii) Gondwana and Tertiary coal

Ans. ( i) Difference between metallic and non-metallic minerals

metallicnonmetallic mineral 
(1) Metallic minerals are such minerals that are smelted to obtain various metals.Non-metallic minerals do not yield any metal by collapsing them.
(2) Iron, copper, and bauxite are metallic minerals.Coal, salt, marble, and potash are non-metallic minerals.
(3) These minerals are generally found in igneous rocks.These minerals are usually found in sedimentary rocks.
(4) They can also be used by melting them again.They cannot be used after melting.

(ii) Difference between thermal and hydroelectricity

thermal electricityhydro power
(1) Coal, diesel, and natural gas are used to generate electricity in it.Electricity is generated by water by making dams on rivers, canals, etc.
(2) The National Thermal Power Corporation was established in the year 1975. (2) National Hydroelectric Energy Corporation was established in 1975.
(3) National Thermal Power is operating 13 thermal power schemes based on coal and powerhouses including seven gas diesel etc.(3) Hydrothermal power schemes and seven gas-power have a significant role in the North-Western and Southern grids. Northern – is operating diesel, etc. powered powerhouses.
(4) Its power generation capacity is 19435 MW which is 27 percent of the power produced.They cannot be used after melting.
(5) Nowadays thermal power is 82%.The share of hydropower has come down to 14.9%

(iii) Gondwana and Tertiary coal

Gondwana coalTertiary coal
(1) The deposits of coal are 200 million years old. (1) About 55 million years old. 
(2) Gondwana coal fields are found in four river basins.(2) Tertiary coal is extracted from the Dargiri Cherrapunji, Leringue, Maolong, and Longrin areas of Meghalaya.
(3) Singreli in Andhra Pradesh, Tilchar in Mahanadi Pati in Orissa, and Chanda in Maharashtra are other mines.(3) This coal is found in the earthquake zone in Assam, the Bikaner area in Rajasthan, Meghalaya, and Tamil Nadu.
(4) India’s 30% coal is available. nonmetallic minerals (4) The total production is 22 lakh tonnes.

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Q. 1. What is the main feature of mica?

Ans. It is an insulator.

Q. 2. Which metal is prepared from bauxite?

Ans. aluminum.

Q. 3. Which are the metals used more in electrical equipment?

Ans. copper.

Q. 4. Which state is leading in the production of lead and zinc?

Ans. Rajasthan.

Q. 5. In which two states is rock salt extracted?

Ans. Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh.

Q. 6. Which state has the largest reserves of coal?

Ans. Jharkhand.

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