Class 12 Geography-II Notes Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition

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Class 12 Geography-II Notes Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition

Class12th 
Chapter No1
PartII
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NamePopulation: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectGeography
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition

★ Demographic Revolution – The process of change in the population of a society is called the demographic revolution. 

Class 12 Geography-II Notes Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
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★ Migration A change in the place of residence for a relatively long period of time is called effort. Population Growth- The population growth in India is at 1.93 percent per annum. Population – The number of people living in an area, including men, women, and children.

★ Density of population- any one square kilometer. m. The number of people living in a unit area Population density in India is 324 persons per km. Is. The highest population density is 904 in the state of West Bengal and the lowest density is 13 in Arunachal Pradesh. 

★ Growth Rate Number of people who grew up in a particular time, Death rate – number of deaths per thousand humans in a year 

★ Sex Ratio — Number of females per 1000 males. Demography is the science in which we study things related to the population. 

★ Census – Counting of people at a given point in time.

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition
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★ Social relations-Many cultural centers develop in the city, which is taken advantage of by the villagers. The villagers get entertained in exhibitions, fairs, cinema, plays, etc. and this benefit comes with the cooperation of the cities.

★ Transport links-People from the village move to the cities daily in search of work. In this way, they become beneficial to each other. Agriculture Relation – The requirement for agricultural products in the cities is met by the villagers with their crops and agricultural products. The supply of vegetables, fruits, grains, milk, eggs, etc. to the cities is completed from the village itself.

★ Rural population- The rural population is mainly engaged in primary occupations like agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, etc. and there are very well-organized social relations among the people. The rural population in India is about 73%. 

* Urbanization- The process of conversion of the rural population into the urban population is called urbanization. 

★ Urban population- The urban population is engaged in non-agricultural activities and urban lifestyle is intense and social relations are formal. 

★ Youth – 50% of the population in India is under 20 years of age.

Things to remember

  • 1. Total Population – According to the 2001 census, the total population of India is 102.7 crores. 
  • 2. Place in the world (Ranking in the world)—India has second place in the world after China in total population. There is one Indian in every 6 people in the world.
  • 3. Density of Population—The average population density in India is 324 persons per sq. km. m. Is. The highest density is in the state of West Bengal with 904 persons and the lowest density is in the state of Arunachal with 13 persons. 
  • 4. Distribution of Population – Uttar Pradesh has the highest population of about 16 crores in India. 
  • 5. Delhi Region (Delhi NCR) — Highest density among Union Territories in India – 9294 persons per sq. km in Delhi. m. Is.
  • 6. Growth of Population – The population growth rate in India is 1.93 percent per annum. 
  • 7. Doubling of population India’s population doubles in about 35 years.
  • 8. Demographic characteristics Rural-urban population, sex ratio, literacy, and occupational structure are studied in the characteristics of population composition of a state.
  • 9 Urban population – The total urban population in India is about 27 crores (27%).
  • 10. Rural population- The rural population in India is about 73%.
  • 11. Cities with a population of more than one million – There are 35 million cities in India, in a total population is around 10 crores. 
  • 12. Sex Ratio — The average sex ratio in India is 933 females per 1000 males. Kerala has the highest sex ratio of 1058 females per 1000 males. 
  • 13. Labor Population 33% of the population in India is labor while 67% of the population is dependent.
  • 14. Youth – 50% of the population in India is below 20 years of age.
  • 15. Literacy- According to the population of 2001, the literacy rate in India is 68.38%. The female literacy rate is 54.16%. 
  • 16. Agribusiness—67% of the total labor force in India is engaged in agriculture.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. What was the average population growth rate of India from 1991 to 2001? 

Ans. 2.134% 1 

Q. 2. According to the present rate of growth, in how many years the population of India will double?

Ans. 36 years.

Q. 3. Name one state each with the highest and lowest growth rate of India. 

Ans. Nagaland’s highest and Kerala’s lowest growth rates.

Q. 4. According to 2001, what are the total population and average density of India? 

Ans. The total population is 102.7 crore and the average density is 324 people per square kilometer. 

Q.5. In which state is the density of the population more than in other states? 

Ans. West Bengal.

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Q. 6. Name the Union Territory with the highest density of population

Ans. Delhi.

Q. 7. After how many years has the census been done in India? 

Ans. after 10 years.

0.8. How much has the population of our country increased in the last two decades?

Ans. 34.37 crores.

Q.9. What has been the average population growth rate of India between 1981-91? 

Ans. The average population growth of India between 1981-91 has been 2.14 percent. This means that the population has increased at a rate of 2.14 percent per year. 

Q. _ 10. In which regions of India the density of the population is very low and why?

Ans. Population density is found to be extremely low in mountainous dense forests, deserts,s and snow-covered and very dry areas. In India, less population density is found in the arid regions of North, North-East, Rajasthan, and Gujarat. 

Q.11 . What is the percentage of the rural population in India? 

Ans. The rural population in India is about 76 percent.

Q. 12. How can you say that the population of India is male-dominated? 

Ans. India’s sex ratio is 933 per thousand and the earning population is also dominated by the male class. It is known from this that there is a predominance of men in the population of India.

Q. _ 13. Which are the three most urbanized states of India? 

Ans. Mizoram 49.50% Goa 49.77% and Tamil Nadu 43.86% 

Q.14. The combined urban population of which five states in India is half of its total urban population?

Ans. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh.

Q. 15. What percentage of the Indian population is in the age group below 20 years?

Ans. 47 percent. 

Q.16. Which age groups are included in the working population?

Ans. People aged 15 to 59. 

Q.17. Which are the developed states in agriculture but with the lowest female participation rate?

Ans. Punjab and Haryana. 

Q. 18. Which state has the highest sex ratio?

Ans. Kerala.

Q. 19. Name the states where the sex ratio is less than the national average. 

Ans. The states in which the sex ratio is less than the national average (933) are as follows. Arunachal Pradesh has the lowest sex ratio of 859. 886 in Nagaland, 865 in Haryana, 862 in Punjab, 879 in Uttar Pradesh, 923 in Jammu and Kashmir, 917 in West Bengal, and 910 in Rajasthan.

Q.20. Which states of India have a predominance of men in the urban sex ratio? 

Ans. The predominance of males is found in the urban sex ratio in the following states of India – Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana, and Rajasthan, etc. The urban sex ratio in India is 894.

Short Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. _ 1. Write the four phases of the demography of India.

Ans. There are four phases of Indian demography – There are four phases of Indian demography – 

  • The period of 1921 in which the growth rate remained stagnant.
  • The period of 1921-51 was of slow growth rate. 
  • The period 1951-81 saw rapid growth.
  • The period after 1981 in which the rate of growth started declining. 

Q. 2. ‘There should be an ideal or optimum population for the development of the country.’ Please  explain

Ans. The ideal population in a country is said when the per capita income is high and the country is fully prosperous. The greater the balance between the country’s natural resources and the use of those natural resources by the population of that country, the more happy and prosperous the people of the country will be. For this, there should be neither too much population nor too little population in the country. 

The calculation of the ideal population in a country keeps on changing with the change in the methods of use of resources and the state of development. Therefore, the ideal and optimum population is the one through which maximum human welfare can be achieved. That’s why the population cannot be fixed forever. The optimum population is the one from which economic, social, cultural and political welfare can be achieved.

Q.3. Why is the density of the population increasing in each successive census? 

Ans. According to the 1991 census in India, the average density of the population is 267 persons per square kilometer. It is one of the most densely populated regions of the world. The density of the population of India is increasing continuously.

The density is increasing in each successive census due to the increase in population. But it is not increasing. The area of ​​the country is the same. Population density is the ratio of total population and area. Therefore the density of the population increases. The people of the country are heavily dependent on agriculture. Due to the lack of growth in agriculture, the population density in rural areas is increasing. To reduce this, diversification in the economy is necessary.

Q.4 . Which are the areas of high and low population density and why? 

Ans. Due to adverse climatic conditions, the density of the population is very less in the hilly states of North and North-East. Sikkim has 57, Nagaland 73, Jammu and Kashmir 76, Meghalaya 78, Manipur 82, Arunachal Pradesh 13, and Mizoram 33. Himachal Pradesh has 92. In these states, the population density is low due to the mountainous surface, more expansion of forests, lack of means of transport, and unfavorable climate. The northern plains have a higher density in Punjab than in West Kila. Apart from this, the contribution of demographic, social, economic, political, and historical factors sheds a lot of light on the density of the population. 

Q.5. ‘The growth of urban population is becoming a problem for India.’ Explain. 

Ans. 24 percent of India’s total population lives in cities and the numbers here are increasing continuously. If this trend from villages to cities was not curbed then a huge problem would arise. Employment is the main reason for the further migration of the population from rural areas to cities. No more people can depend on agriculture in the villages. Therefore, those people who do not get work in their own village start migrating to other villages or cities for employment. Agriculture in our villages has reached a saturation point and cities attract people because of good services and facilities. 

There are two types of migration from villages to cities, permanent and temporary. In daily migration, people come and go from nearby villages and cities to work, some people work in the city but go to the village during the harvesting and sowing season and others settle permanently in the cities, so that Congestion, traffic, electricity, water, housing, employment, schools, colleges and other types of water, air, noise pollution problems arise and the administration has to face a huge problem. For this, it is necessary that employment and agriculture-based work should be found in the rural areas itself so that the problems of the rural society can be solved there.

Q.6. Why do men dominate the population of India? 

Ans. Since the 20th century, the proportion of the female population has been continuously decreasing. Girls have been neglected in the family due to social reasons. Girls are more prone to diseases due to a lack of proper upbringing. Many women die at the time of delivery. The male is considered to be the head of the family. That’s why the population in India is male-dominated. 

Q.7. Compare the population of India with other countries.

Ans. India with its 32 lakh 87 thousand sq. m. Due to geographical area, it is in seventh place in the world in terms of size. Australia, Brazil, the USA, China, Canada, and Russia are bigger than India in terms of area. In size, it is about a third of Canada and a little more than a third of China. But in terms of population, its place is second only to China. The population of India is more than the combined population of Russia, the United States of America, Canada, Australia, and Brazil. Do it. 

Q.8 . Describe the important features of population growth in India between 1991-2000. 

Ans. In India, the population growth during the decade 1991-2000 was 12.3%. The urban population increased by 46.22% while the rural population increased by 19.23%. The highest population growth in India occurred in the state of Nagaland at the rate of 56%. While the lowest increase was in the state of Kerala at 9%. The states with more than 30% growth are Sikkim, Nagaland, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, and Tripura. Average population growth in the country occurred in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal. 

Q.9. Highlight the importance of socio-economic factors in explaining the distribution of the population. 

Ans. Socio-Economic Factors Humans have tried to manipulate material factors to their advantage through technological knowledge and social organizations. There is a wide variation in the nutritional capabilities of different types of economies. The nutritional potential of primary activities is usually low as compared to secondary and tertiary activities. 

That is why a very high density of the population is found in highly urban and industrial areas. For example Mumbai, Kolkata, and Delhi. Similarly, a high-density the population is also found in districts cultivating modern high-yielding crops. Western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Punjab are similar states. 

Q. 10. Name ten states of India where more than 80 percent of the country’s urban population lives.

Ans. Following are the ten states of India, where 80 percent of the country’s urban population resides.

1. Maharashtra. 2. Uttar Pradesh, 3. Tamil Nadu, 4. West Bengal, 5. Andhra Pradesh, 6. Karnataka, 7. Gujarat, 8. Madhya Pradesh, 9. Bihar, 10. Rajasthan.

Q. 11. What are the main demographic characteristics of the population? 

Ans. (1) Urban and rural population (2) Gender composition. (3) Labor and dependent population.

Sex Structure: Any population is composed of females and males of different age groups. Because they are either too young to work or unable to work due to illness or old age. These characteristics of population composition are called demographic characteristics. 

Urban and Rural Population – They live in different housing units such as villages and small, medium or large towns. They also have different occupations on which they depend for their livelihood. “Working and Dependent Population – A large proportion of the population is not employed

Q.12. In which part of the country the proportion of the rural population is higher than the national average? 

Ans. The percentage ratio of the average rural population in India is 76.69 percent. In some states, this percentage is higher than the average, such as 94 percent in Arunachal Pradesh, 92.4 percent in Himachal Pradesh, 89 percent in Tripura, 88 percent in Orissa, 87 percent in Bihar, 84 percent in Nagaland and 82 percent in Uttar Pradesh. . Arunachal Pradesh is the most rural.

Q.13. Give a brief description of three main features of the male/female ratio of the Indian population. 

Ans. The sex ratio in India is shown as the number of females per thousand males. 

(i) From the sex ratio or male/female ratio, it is known that the number of women in India is less than that of men. This number (933 in 2001) is very small compared to some developed countries. 

(ii) The sex ratio in India was 972 in 1901 which fell to 933 in 2001. 

(iii) It is known from this that women in India get fewer facilities in the fields of health, education, etc. than men. India is a male dominant country here girls Not much attention is paid to nurture and development.

Q. 14. “High proportion of rural population means traditional economy and social structure.” Give the above arguments in favor of this statement. 

Ans. The population of India is mainly rural as 72.22 percent of its population lives in small and big villages. The high proportion of the rural population shows that the economy is mainly dependent on agriculture and the traditional social structure has not changed. 

This is definitely true in Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, etc. These states are underdeveloped from an economic point of view and industrialization has not been able to affect urbanization in them. The proportion of the rural population is also high in the forested and hilly regions of the north and northeast. In these areas also the pace of economic development and urbanization is very slow. 

Q. 15. What do you understand by sex ratio?

Ans. Knowledge of gender structure is essential for the social development of any country. The ratio of the number of females per thousand males is called the sex ratio. The sex ratio in India is continuously decreasing. In 1901, this ratio was 972 per thousand men. Whereas in 2001 this number has decreased to 933. In India, only in the state of Kerala, the number of women is more than men. Here there are 1058 females for every 1000 males.

Q.16. What is the effect of the rural population on the economy of the country? 

Ans. The high proportion of the rural population shows that the economy is mainly true for Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan. This state is dependent on economic agriculture and the traditional social structure has not changed. It is dominated by reality and there has not been large-scale urbanization as a result of industrialization. 

Other states with a high proportion of rural population are located in the hilly and forested regions of the north and east. The pace of both economic development and urbanization has slowed down in these regions.

Q.17 . What are the main problems of urban life? 

Ans. The population of India is distributed in both rural and urban areas. The rural settlement has its own specific effect on population which is different from an urban settlement. It is commonly known that the people of the village differ from the people of the city in their occupation, way of life, thoughts, and worldly outlook. 

The urban population, on the other hand, is adapted to the urban way of life where the pace of life is fast and social relations are formal. Urban life has its own problems, such as lack of housing and health facilities, lack of drinking water, overcrowding of cities, etc., along with adversely affecting the urban environment, which gives rise to social tension.

Q. 18 Compare the urban population of India with other countries.

Ans. According to the 2001 census, the proportion of the urban population in India is 8 percent, and the total urban population is about 28 crores. It is 161 million in the United States and 160 million in China. India does not have a special place in terms of the percentage of the urban population to the total population. 78% in the UK, 73% in Canada, 70% in the USA, 68% in Brazil, 44% in Egypt, and 29% in Pakistan live in cities. Thus the ratio of population in India is very less in terms of the world. 

Q.19 What do you know about the working population?

Ans. The proportion of labor in a population is represented by a rate called the participation rate. It is expressed as a percentage of the working population to the total population. goes. The participation ratio is different for men and women. It is assumed that the working population consists mainly of people in the age group of 15-59 years. But due to economic difficulties, children below 15 years of age and old people above 60 years of age also work. 

The proportion of laborers (producers) in the total population is considered an indicator of economic prosperity. The average participation rate in India in 1991 was 39.26 percent. It is known from this that the economy of India is underdeveloped. Here the pace of development should be fast so that people will get employment and the country and the society will be prosperous.

Long Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q.1. Explain any five factors affecting population distribution in India.

Ans. Following are the five factors affecting the distribution of population- 

1. Relief – The texture of the surface affects the population density. The rugged and desert areas have less water population than the plains. For example, the density of the population is less in the northeastern part of Jammu and Kashmir and in the desert region. 

2. Climate Dense population is found in areas with the above-mentioned climate like northern plains. On the contrary, less population is found in desert areas like extreme cold like Jammu and Kashmir, extremely hot.

3. Soil: The fertility of the soil also affects population distribution. Areas where the soil is more fertile, more population resides like Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. 

4. Industries Where industries are more developed, people get more employment opportunities. Like Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, etc. 

5. Means of Transport —— Means of transport affects industry, trade, etc. The reason for the high population in the northern plains is also the means of transport. 

Q.2. How do physical and economic factors affect the distribution of the population in India? Explain five factors (at least two of each) with examples.

Ans. See the answer to question 1 above for physical factors. The following are the economic factors-

(i) Agriculture — More population resides in areas with more agricultural production. For example, the northern plains. 

(ii) Industries (Industries) Industrial regions also have more population like West Bengal. 

(iii) More population resides in the area having means of transport and minerals. In areas where railways and roadways are more developed, there is more population, such as the northern plains, where these resources are less, and the density of the population is also less. Like Rajasthan and Gujarat etc. 

Q.3. According to the 2001 census, what is the percentage of the rural and urban population in the total population of India? Mention four characteristics of each of the rural and urban populations.

Ans. The percentage of the rural population in India is 72.22% and the percentage of the urban population is 27.8%. Characteristics of the rural and urban population in India 

Rural Population – 

1. Rural population lives in remote villages. 

2. The occupation of the rural population is agriculture and agriculture-related work. 

3. The behavior of the rural population remains informal. 

4. The standard of living of the rural population is also relatively low. 

Urban Population- 

1. The population living in cities is called the urban population. 

2. The main occupation of the urban population is service work and trade and business. 

3. The behavior of the people in the urban population remains formal. 

4. The standard of living of the people in the cities is relatively high.

Q.4. Explain the factors responsible for variations in population density.

Ans. The following factors are responsible for the population density: 

1. Relief – The texture of the ground affects the population density. Mountainous, rugged plateau areas and desert areas have less dense populations than the plains. For example, the density of the population is less in Jammu-Kashmir, North-East India, and the desert region. 

2. Climate: Densely populated areas like the northern plains have the above climatic conditions. On the contrary, the population is found less in extreme cold like Jammu-Kashmir and extreme hot like Rajasthan. 3. Water supply India is an agricultural country, so rainfall is more important. There is a close relationship between the distribution of rainfall and the density of the population. West Bengal receives more rainfall than Rajasthan. Therefore, population density is found to be higher in West Bengal than in Rajasthan. 

4. Fertility of soil: The vast plains of the north and the soil of the coastal plains are more fertile, so agricultural production is more in these areas. The density of the Falswar population is found to be high. On the contrary, the population is found less in desert areas like Rajasthan. 

5. Industries – Where industries are more developed, people get employment opportunities. As a result, the density of the population is found to be high. In the states of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, etc., the population is found to be more due to industries.

6. Minerals: In areas where iron, coal, gold, manganese, mineral oil, etc. are found, people get employment in mines. As a result of this, the density of the population is found in such areas as Chotanagpur Plateau, Deccan Plateau, states like Orissa, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, etc. 

7. Means of transport affect industry, trade, and agriculture. Where the railway route and road route are more developed, the density of the population is found more. Transport facility is the main reason for the high population in the northern plains. On the contrary, the population is found less in mountainous, desert, and forested areas.

8. Other factors- Other factors like peace and security, centers of education, pilgrimage centers, and centers of tourism also affect the density of the population. 

Q.5. Discuss the causes of the unequal distribution of population in India. 

Ans. On the basis of area, India is the seventh largest country in the world, while in terms of population, it is in second place. Population distribution in India is very uneven. Due to the diversity of natural and economic conditions in the country, there is a lot of variation in the distribution and density of the population. 

The fertile plain of Ganga-Sutlej has a concentration of 52 percent population in 23 percent area of ​​the country while only 2 percent population resides in 13 percent area in the mountainous part of the Himalayas. 

The density of the population in the Union Territory of Delhi is 6319. While Arunachal Pradesh has only 10. The most populous state is Uttar Pradesh with more than 13 crores more people living.

The density of the population in India depends on the level of the land, fertility of the soil, amount of rainfall, and water irrigation. India is basically an agricultural country. That’s why more density is found in those regions where the agricultural production capacity of the land is more. The density of the population depends on the amount of rainfall. The population density is also increasing in industrial areas.

Q.6. Describe the regional patterns in the density of the population. 

Ans. The ratio of the population of a region to the area of ​​land is called population density. This shows the concentration of people in a region. Population density is expressed as per square mile or per square kilometer. The average number of people living in one square kilometer or one square mile is called the density of population. 

The spatial distribution of the population in India is very uneven. The real density of the population is observed in the remaining 162 districts of India. The density of the population is found more than 400 persons per square kilometer. These include those districts as well. In which the rate of urbanization has been very high due to city centers like Kolkata, and Chandigarh.

Q.7 Define population density. Write four reasons for variation in population density.

Ans. The number of people living in each square kilometer is called population density. Are. Following are the factors affecting the population density-

1. Physical factors These include land, climate, and vegetation. More people live in the plains than in the mountainous or plateau region.

2. Economic factors — Agriculture, industry, etc. are included in economic factors. Generally, the population density of agricultural and industrial areas is high. This is the reason that higher population density is found in the Ganges and Yangtze river basins.

3. Historical conditions – Sometimes ancient historical places also become due to the density of the population. For example, in the earlier period also more number used to reside in the river valleys.

4. Political factors Sometimes political factors also affect the population density. One reason for the excess of the population inside India is also political. 5. Social and Religious factors Sometimes religious factors also affect the density of the population. Social and religious centers become centers of high population density.

Q. 8. In which part of India the number of laborers is less and in which part more? What are the reasons for this disparity? 

Ans. 33% of the people of India are engaged in gainful work and productive occupations, it is called the labor force of the country. The sector with more than 45% workers is called labor intensive sector and the sector with less than 30% workers is called labor intensive sector. 

(1) Regions with more labor force – 45-60 percent of the people in these regions are workers. 

The labor force is more in the remote areas of the Himalayan region, and small interior regions of the north-eastern hilly peninsula. Still, economic development has slowed down in these regions.

Reason: Due to the harsh environment, the workers do not get the opportunity of transfer. There is no modernity even in the land business. Everyone is a worker for a living. The labor force also becomes more due to the workers coming from outside. The labor force becomes high due to regular and casual laborers working in mines, industries, farms, and tea gardens.

(2) Regions with less labor force – In these regions, the labor force is 25 to 35% of the total population. The labor force is less in Assam valley, industrial centers near big cities, Orissa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan.

Reasons – For some time, the transfer of workers from rural areas to cities has decreased. Even educated people do not get regular employment. Due to this less labor force, the production level is also low. There is a shortage of workers coming from outside in the tea garden in Assam. The labor force has also reduced due to the migration of some workers from Kerala. Even in the state of Gujarat, fewer people go to work in cities than in rural areas.

Q. _ 9. What have been the consequences of dependent people in the population of India? 

Ans. About 67% of the people of the country are dependent on which 33% of the working people are dependent. The number of female workers is only 14% while the number of male workers is 51.2%. Due to social reasons, many women do not contribute to any work outside the home. Due to educated unemployment in cities, the number of workers is less. Several effects of a high proportion of dependent people have been seen in India-

  • 1. Per capita production in the country remains low. 
  • 2. Savings are very less in the country due to high consumption by the dependent class.
  • 3. The pace of national capital formation is very slow due to less labor. 
  • 4. The number of educated unemployed is increasing in the cities.
  • 5. Education growth is slower than population growth. 
  • 6. The number of illiterate dependents is increasing in the country.

Q. 10. Describe the important characteristics of the labor force of India. What type of economy is reflected by this and how can the level of the population be raised? 

Ans. The proportion of labor in a population is represented by a rate called the participation rate (productive rate). It is expressed as a percentage of the working population to the total population. The average participation rate in India in 1991 was 39.2 percent. In India, the labor force is dominated by males.

In the 1991 census, any person who is engaged in economically gainful work for 183 days in a year is called a main worker (laborer) and those who get employment for less than this are called marginal workers. People aged 15-59 years are considered to be in the working population, but due to economic difficulties, children below 15 years of age and above 60 years of age are denoted. The elders also work. The proportion of working people to the total population

There are differences in the participation rate in rural and urban areas. Most of the rural workers are agriculturists and 30 percent fall in the category of agricultural labor. Thus, 81 percent of the rural laborers got employment in agriculture.

The characteristics of the labor force in India show that the country’s economy is underdeveloped. Here the pace of development plans should be fast, only then the country will get employment for most of the population. In this development, the difference in participation rate between women and men also

will be reduced and the country will be able to become advanced and prosperous. 

Q.11. Express your views on “Male-female ratio or sex ratio. Or, “After 1901, the sex ratio, in general, has been continuously decreasing.” Discuss this statement.

Ans. The sex composition of a population is represented by a ratio called the sex ratio. The sex ratio in India is measured as the number of females per thousand males. Thus the sex ratio of 1000 indicates complete equality in the number of both males and females. The sex ratio in India is 933 which shows that the number of females is less than that of males. The sex ratio in India was 972 in 1901, which has been steadily decreasing to 933 in 2001. Scholars are of the opinion that there is not much difference in the sex ratio at the time of birth.

The decrease in the number of women after birth is our social evil. Boys are given more facilities in society and families. Did not pay much attention to the upbringing of girls. The death rate is also high among married women. Migration is also one of the reasons for such a difference in the sex ratio. In many states, men migrate for employment, and the number of men becomes more in those states or cities where they go. Kerala is the only state in India where the sex ratio is 1058. There are 11 states in India with a sex ratios higher than the national average (between 981-937). Arunachal Pradesh is the state with the lowest sex ratio (859).

The sex ratio of the urban population of India is 894. In Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana, and Rajasthan, male predominance is found in the urban sex ratio. Variations in the sex ratio arise due to uneven economic development of the country and human beings are forced to migrate from one place to another for livelihood, which affects the sex ratio.

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Geography Notes In English



MCQs Geography In English


  • Chapter 1 Data – Its Source and Compilation
  • Chapter 2 Data Processing
  • Chapter 3 Graphical Representation of Data
  • Chapter 4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
  • Chapter 5 Field Surveys
  • Chapter 6 Spatial Information Technology

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Geography Notes In Hindi



MCQs Geography In Hindi


  • अध्याय 1 डेटा – इसका स्रोत और संकलन
  • अध्याय 2 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग
  • अध्याय 3 डेटा का चित्रमय प्रतिनिधित्व
  • अध्याय 4 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग और मैपिंग में कंप्यूटर का उपयोग
  • अध्याय 5 फील्ड सर्वेक्षण
  • अध्याय 6 स्थानिक सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी

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FAQs

Q. 1. Which state of India has the most rural characteristics?

Ans. Arunachal Pradesh. 

Q.2. What is population organization?

Ans. The physical, social, cultural, and economic characteristics of a population are called population composition.

Q.3 What do you understand by dependent population?

Ans. A large proportion of the population is not employed. Such as children who are very young or persons who are unable to work due to illness or old age are called dependent populations.

Q.4 . What is the productive population?

Ans. The population which earns its living by doing some work itself is called a productive population. About 33 percent of the people in India are laborers. 

Q. _ 5. What do you understand by participation rate? 

Ans. The participation rate is a ratio. It is expressed as a percentage of the working population to the total population. The participation rate is low in Haryana and Punjab.

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