Class 12 Geography-II Notes Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture

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Class 12 Geography-II Notes Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture

Class12th 
Chapter No05
PartII
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameLand Resources and Agriculture
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectGeography
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Class 12 Geography-II Notes Chapter 5 Land Resources and Agriculture

  • ★ Resources Resources are the means to meet human needs. These natural resources are air, water, land, minerals, agriculture and energy etc.
  • * Growing period – the suitable season for sowing, growing, climbing, and ripening of crops
  • ★ Wetland Agriculture-75 cm. Agriculture done in areas with an annual rainfall of more than 1000 kg is called wet agriculture.
  • ★ Dry land agriculture The crops which depend on rain are called dry land agriculture.
  • ★ Cropping Intensity — The ratio of total sown area to net sown area is called cropping intensity. It is expressed in percentage.
  • ★ Fallow land- To increase soil fertility, the farmer does not sow any crop in the field for some time and leaves it empty. Such land is called fallow land.
  • ★ Green Revolution – The plan to modernize Indian agriculture is called Green Revolution.
  • ★ Agricultural Imbalance- There is a regional imbalance in Indian agriculture.
  • ★ Agriculture season—There are two agricultural seasons in India, Kharif and Rakhi. Biotechnology and Gene Revolution – Now another revolution is gene revolution which is the product of biotechnology. There is discussion. Through this, new energy can be brought by eradicating the fatigue of Green Revolution and India’s food security can be solved. Biotechnology solves unique problems of agriculture and can increase the value (quality) of agricultural products. can solve

things to remember

  • 1. Agricultural Country – India is an agricultural country. Agriculture is Gamble on Monsoons.
  • 2. Types of Crops—
  • (i) Food Grains — wheat, rice, coarse grains.
  • (ii) Beverages—Tea and so on.
  • (iii) Fibrecrops – Cotton and Jute.
  • (iv) Oil seeds, Sesame, Sarmo, Linseed
  • (v) Raw Materials – Sugarcane, tobacco, rubber.
  • 3. Green Revolution – The plan to modernize Indian agriculture is called Green Revolution.
  • 4. Agricultural imbalances Regional in the development of Indian agriculture There is an imbalance.
  • 5. Crops-Season in India Two agriculture and Chariot Our main compulsion in Indian agriculture is not the heat factor but the humidity factors.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q.1. What are the main crops of ‘Pari’?

Ans. The main crops of Kharif are rice, maize, jawar, bajra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, pungent groundnut, soybean etc. The metal of the southwest monsoon is called the season of Kharif. In this season, high-yielding and high-temperature demanding crops are grown.

Q, 2. What is the season of Ravi?

Ans. Let’s do it for nothing. Its main crops are wheat, barley, poori and mustard, linseed, lentils are dense.

Q, 3. What is the importance of blisters in food?

Ans: All four are the main sources of protein in food. These are leguminous crops and theyBy increasing the amount of nitrogen in Bara Khuda, it increases its fertility. Gram is the main pulse crop in the country.

Q.4. What are the main problems of Indian agriculture?

Ans. Despite a lot of efforts, the productivity of Indian agriculture is low. Many factors are responsible for this situation- (1) Environmental, (ii) Economic, (iii) Institutional, (iv) Technological.

Q.5. What are the physical characteristics of natural resources?

Ans. Physical features such as land, climate, soil, water, mineral and organic matter, bio-vegetation, wildlife, fish area are included.

Q.6. What do you understand by non-renewable resources?

Ans. These natural resources which can be reproduced if they are completely destroyed are called renewable resources.

class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science
EnglishHindi

Q.7. What are non-exhaustible and non-renewable resources?

Ans. These include water, solar energy, wind energy, climate soil, wind etc.

Q.8. What is meant by agricultural land?

Ans. Agricultural land means the cultivated area, it includes net cropped area and fallow land.is included. The cropped area in a year is called the net sown area.

Q, 9. What are the three main tasks of Indian agriculture?

Years.

(i) To provide food to the vast population of India.

(ii) agro-based industries providing raw materials.

(iii) Earning foreign exchange from the export of agricultural commodities

 Q.10. What is meant by cropping intensity?

Ans. Cropping intensity is the number of crops grown on a single field in a single agricultural year. The gross cropped area as a percentage of the net area gives a measure of cropping intensity.

Q. 11. In how many parts can the crops be divided?

Ans. Crops can be divided into two parts. Food crops and non-food crops. Crops can be further divided into three subclasses

(i) cereals and millet,

(iii) Fruits and vegetables.

(ii) pulses, and

Q. 12. How many agricultural seasons are there?

Ans. There are three agricultural seasons in the country – Kharif, Ravi and Zaid. The climatic conditions of India are such that crops can be grown here throughout the year.

Q.13. What do you understand by resource?

Ans. The useful elements of the environment which satisfy human needs are called resources.fulfills the needs.

Q.14. On what factors does the utility of a resource depend?

Years.

(i) the intelligence of human beings,

(ii) Development level of human culture,

(iii) scientific and technical knowledge,

(iv) The nature of the area.

Q. 15. What is meant by fertile soil?

Ans. Those soils which have the capacity to supply plant nutrients are called fertile soils. Soil is naturally fertile, but it is made fertile artificially by adding manure and fertilizers.

Short Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. ‘The main objective of Indian agriculture is to obtain food.’ Explain.

Ans. The main objective of Indian agriculture is to provide food to about 100 crore population of the country. After independence, there has been a significant increase in the production of food grains in India. Food grains are cultivated on about 3/4 of the country’s agricultural land. India is self-sufficient in food production. Three fold increase in food grain production in about 50 years after independence

While the population has increased 2.5 times.Per capita, food grain production was 395 grams per day in 1950, which increased to 580 grams per day in 1995-96.

Q. 2. What do you understand by the intensity of crops?

Ans. Cropping intensity refers to the number of crops grown in a field in one agricultural year. If only one crop is grown in the year then the crop index is 100, if two crops are grown then this index will be 200. more crop more land

Shows ability to use. Cropping intensity can be calculated with the help of the following formula

Cropping Intensity = Total Sown Area Sown Areax 100/

The cropping intensity is 166% in the state of Punjab, 158% in Haryana, 147% in West Bengal and 145% in Uttar Pradesh. Higher cropping intensity actually reflects higher intensification of agriculture.

Q. 3. Describe the factors affecting cropping intensity.

Ans. Food production can be increased only by increasing the cropping intensity. FollowingFactors affecting cropping intensity are-

  • (i) Higher index of cropping intensity due to expansion of area sown more than onceand productivity per unit area also increases.
  • (ii) With the expansion of irrigation area, the deficiency of years is fulfilled and more than one crop can be sown in a year.
  • (iii) Cropping intensity is high by the use of fertilizers. Thus the land is not left fallow.
  • (iv) A field gets more than one crop in one agricultural year from early maturing varieties.
  • (v) Cropping intensity can be increased by protecting the plants from the use of insecticides.
  • (vi) Use of mechanization like tractor, pump set increases the cropping intensity index.

Q.4. What is meant by dry region? What are the ways to increase production in those regions?are being done?

Ans. 30 cm Agriculture can be done in sub-I and I areas with more than 30 cm Areas with less than annual rainfall are called arid regions where there is a lack of moisture almost throughout the year, such as western Rajasthan, the rain shadow region of the southern plateau, Gujarat and south-west Haryana. Productivity is low in these parts. Coarse grains, pulses, and oilseeds are the main crops. Technical research and development work is being done at International Crop Research Institute for Semiarid Tropics (I.C.R.I.S.A.T), Hyderabad and Central Arid Zone Research Institute (C.A.Z.R.I.), Jodhpur. By which dry farming can be done without irrigation in dry areas.

Q.5. What is meant by fallow land? How can the period of fallow land be reduced?

Ans. Growing crops continuously on the same field for a long time depletes the nutrients of the soil. To restore the soil’s fertility, the land is left fallow for a season or a whole year without cultivation. This land is called fallow land. The fertility of the soil increases by this natural action.

When land is left fallow for one season, it is called current fallow. The land which is more than one year old is called old fallow land. Due to the excessive use of fertilizers in this and the period of fallow land can be reduced.

Q.6. What is the difference between traditional agriculture and modern agriculture in India? ObviousDo

traditional agriculturemodern agriculture
(1) Size of the holdings In this method – the size of the holdings is small. (i) In this method the size of the holdings is medium due to consolidation. 
(ii) Investment – Farmers are generally poor. Hence the quantum of investment is less. Ruck is less used. There is a lack of modern methods and water irrigation means.(ii) Farmers are generally rich and are able to invest more. There is more use of modern till chemical fertilizers, and machinery tubewells.

Q.7. Name the leading state in cotton production in India. Mention the geographical conditions necessary for a good crop.

Ans. The production of cotton in India is highest in the state of Gujarat.Geographical conditions of cultivation – Cotton is the crop of tropical regions and is a Kharif crop.

(i) Temperature Strong sunlight and high temperature are required. nurtured for is harmful. Therefore, it needs 200 days of frost-free weather.

(ii) 50 cm for rain-cotton. Need rain. Dry frost free weather is required while picking.

(iii) Water irrigation: Water irrigation is used in areas with low rainfall, such asPunjabAnd cotton is also cultivated in the alluvial soil (loam) of the rivers.

(iv) Soil- Black soil of lava is most appropriate for cotton. red soilRice.

Q.8. 100 cm in Punjab and Haryana. Why is it a main crop with annual rainfall less than

Ans. In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the area under rice cultivation in Punjab and Haryana. The annual rainfall here is 100 cm. Yet these states have high productivity. The per hectare yield in these states is more than 15 quintals.

These states send rice to the deficient regions of India. That’s why it is also called the rice bowl of India. Here the deficiency of rainfall is met by water irrigation means. Here the yield per hectare is high due to fertile soil, high temperature and use of quality seeds.

Q.9. Write the names of the main crops of India.

Ans. India is an agricultural country. Here 70% of the people do farming. That’s why India is also called the country of farmers. Agriculture is done on 42% of the total geographical area of ​​the country. Various types of important crops are produced according to the geographical conditions of the country. Food is the most important of these. 80% of the total cultivated land is used for food grains. The crops of India are divided into the following categories

(i) Foodgrains Rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, millet, maize, gram, pulses etc.

(i) Beverages tea and coffee.

(iii) Fibrous material cotton and jute.

(iv) Oilseeds-groundnut, sesame, mustard, linseed etc.

(v) Raw material sugarcane, tobacco, rubber etc.

Q. 10. How are the resources classified?

Ans. The classification of resources has been done on the basis of the characteristics, use and nature of resources in the following categories-

(i) biotic and abiotic resources

(ii) exhaustible and inexhaustible resources,

(iii) Potential and developed resources,

(vi) Mineral and industrial resources.

(iv) resources of raw materials and energy,

(v) Agricultural and pastoral resources,

Q. 11. Why are natural resources called the gift of nature? How are they the cornerstone of the economy of a country?

Ans. Resources are useful elements of the environment. major elements of the natural environmentWater, vegetation, mineral soil, climate and animals are natural resources. Humans get these permanent resources without any cost. That’s why they are called gifts of nature. These resources are the cornerstone of the economy of a nation. Reservoirs develop fish. Wood is obtained from forests and raw material is obtained for many industries. Agriculture is developed due to Jat and fertile soil. as human resourcesuses resources. All economic activities depend on natural resources.

Q.12. Which resources are backward in India due to technological development? Or, what is the contribution of technology in increasing the utility of resources?

Ans. Technology has a big hand in increasing the utility of resources. of resources

Changing form increases their usefulness. For this it is necessary to have technology. The development of technology depends on human ability, skill and technology.The use of resources can be increased only by Karan. The presence of natural resources does not mean that a region is economically developed. Chhotanagpur plateau and Bastar tribal block in India are rich in resources. But they are economically backward in terms of industry.

Q13. India has huge reserves of natural resources, explain.

Ans. Many natural resources are found in the vast land area of ​​India. Vast agricultural land, flowing water body, underground watershed, civilization growth period, different types of vegetation, minerals, livestock and human resources are our economic and natural resources. Various economic activities in India from ancient times till today have been dependent on these resources. In ancient times, iron and steel industries were advanced in India.

Agriculture has been the basis of the Indian economy since ancient times. Shifting agriculture, animal husbandry and fishing were developed in many regions. Even today the evidence of this is Bhuming agriculture in Assam, Gujjar and Bakarwal caste shepherds in Kashmir and Mopla fishermen on the Kerala coast. In this way, on the basis of natural resources, primary and secondary businesses have been progressing in India since time immemorial.

Q.14. What is the relation of economic development with nature?

Ans. Nature provides natural resources to humans. These resources are the basis of economic development of a region. Due to water and fertile soil in the river valleys, agriculture is developed. Irrigation and hydropower are developed through water resources. Industries depend on minerals. In this way, the economic system of a region is determined by the natural resources of that region.

Q.15. “The relationship between man and the environment is not static.” explanation with exampleDo it.

Ans. There is a close relationship between human and environment. In the beginning, there was a storage quantity of human resources, because then there was an abundance of resources and human needs were less. Along with scientific progress, humans started exploiting resources. The economic development of man thrives according to the environment.

The development of natural resources depends on the combination of nature, man, and culture. Nature is almost constant. Human beings and cultures are changeable. In ancient times, primitive man was ignorant of the use of resources. But in the modern era, with the help of technology, Manaya is engaged in new discoveries. Therefore human and environmental relationship is always changing.

Q. 16. Discuss the various measures of soil conservation. 

  • (i) Contour plowing on hill slopes.
  • (ii) Controlled grazing
  • (iii) Use of improved agricultural method.
  • (iv) Blockage of channels.
  • (v) Use of farmyard manure, green manure and chemical fertilizers.
  • (vi) Afforestation on the border of the affected areas and desert lands.
  • (vii) Planting of rock belt.

Q.17. Give three reasons for the disappearance of forests from the northern plains of India.

Ans. The vast northern plains from Punjab to West Bengal do not have any cover, the extent of forests in this area is gradually decreasing. The reasons for this are as follows-

(1) Forests have been cleared to get land for agriculture in the plains.

(ii) Due to high population, the need for living space and fuelForests were cut to make ends meet.

(iii) Forests have been cut down for raw material in many industries. Such as paper industry, artificial textile industry and furniture industry.

Q. 18. Conservation of natural resources is necessary for human civilization. Explanationdo । 

Ans. The useful elements of the environment are called natural resources. Resource human. Meets the basic needs of. Human life depends on the resources like water, land, wind, vegetation etc. Natural resources are the assets that we have as a legacy for future generations. In the modern era, due to the development of technology, the exploitation of resources has started on a large scale, the consumption of resources is increasing day by day.

With the end of resources, modern civilization and human existence will also end. Therefore resources should be used in a planned manner. So that these resources are not destroyed and they can be used for human benefit for a long time. Absorption of natural resources is happening at a rapid pace. In developed countries, resources are almost exhausted due to overuse. There are very few reserves left for the future. But due to lack of technology in the developing countries, there is not much production of natural resources.

Minerals are being exported to earn foreign exchange. Conservation of resources is essential for the continuity of human civilization. All economic development is based on resources. That’s why conservation of resources is necessary to maintain human civilization.

Q. 19. “The concept of natural resources is cultural.” Discuss.

Ans. Resources of water, air, land, forest, minerals, and power are provided by nature free gift. These resources are deeply related to the level of cultural development. Unaware of the use of minerals and hydropower due to a lack of human technology

Was. Coal in China was only hard rock. There was no importance of oil sources in Assam but in the modern era, man has succeeded in developing hydropower and mineral resources with his intelligence and skill.

 Countries like the United States, Japan, Russia etc. are born due to cultural development, but the developing countries of Africa and Asia are backward. Thus the utility of natural resources depends on the level of technology attained by a society. The development of natural resources depends on nature, man, and culture. Natural resources can be converted into economic resources only by human capacity. Resources are those that can be used. Thus the concept of natural resources is culture-bound.

Q. 20. Describe the general status of resource development in India.

Ans. People use the bio-physical environment to meet their needs.Have been doing This process is called ‘resource utilization’. As the culture develops, new resources are discovered and better ways of using them are also found. Let’s go This is called resource development. The number and quality of people constitute resources.

Natural resources do not become resources until they are recognized as resources. There is expansion and contraction of resources according to human abilities. Indian culture has an inbuilt system of using resources within ecological limits. In which nature gets time to complete its loss again. India has vast reserves of natural resources.

Q. 21. Discuss sustainable development

Ans. Sustainable development refers to the process of development in which the quality of the environment is maintained. resources exhausted in it are used in such a wayMay the total reserves of all types of wealth never become empty. Many forms of development deplete the same resources of the environment. on which they depend.

This slows down economic growth. Therefore, in sustainable development, the stability of the ecosystem has to be always kept in mind. Therefore, sustainable development is an improvement in the quality of human life while living according to the subsistence capacity of the nurturing ecosystem. Along with sustainable sustainability, a good quality of life is also important.

Long Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q.1. Answer the following in brief-

(i) Describe the distribution pattern of horticulture crops in India.

(ii) Describe the distribution of tea and coffee in India.

(iii) What are the achievements of the Green Revolution?

(iv) Name the five major wheat producing states of India with reasons.

Ans. (i) Distribution of Horticulture Crops Due to different climatic conditions, different types of Horticulture crops are grown in India. Prominent among such crops are fruits, vegetables, tuber crops, ornamental crops, medicinal plants and aromatic plants and spices. India India is the leader in the production of Mango, Banana, Chiku and Lemon in the world. Uttar Pradesh has the main place in the production of mangoes. The oranges of Nagpur are very famous. Tamil Nadu Maharashtra and other South Indian states are famous for bananas. The production of grapes has increased a lot in Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.

There is a huge demand for apples, pears, apricots, walnuts, and other fruits from Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Among spices, black pepper is confined to the Western Ghats of Kerala, but ginger is also grown in the eastern states. India is the largest exporter of cashew. India accounts for 40 percent of the world’s total cashew production.

Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are the major cashew-producing states. India is the largest coconut-producing country in the world. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of groundnut. Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana are major in rapeseed and mustard production.

(ii) Distribution of tea and coffee India is the largest producer and consumer of tea in the world. 28 percent of the world’s tea is produced here. Tea plantations were started in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam in the 1840s. Assam continues to be a major producer of tea even today. Nowadays tea is mainly produced in North-East India and South. The Brahmaputra valley has favorable conditions for tea plantations. Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, and Cooch Behar are the major tea-producing districts of West Bengal.

In South India, tea is grown on the Nilgiri and Cardayam hills on the lower slopes of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Tea is grown in the Doon valley of Uttaranchal on the slopes of the Shivalik hills in Himachal Pradesh. Coffee- The commercial production of coffee in India was around 1820 tonnes.

Its production in 1950-51 was 24.6 thousand tonnes or which increased to 3.01 lakh tonnes in 2000-01. CountryThe Rouasta and Arabica varieties produced in India are in great demand all over the world. land in kerala23.6 percent of India and 5.6 percent of coffee is produced in Tamil Nadu. Coffee plantations in Karnataka accounted for 58 percent of the country’s total production.

(III) Achievements of Green Revolution –

(a) Increase in the production of food grains.

(b) The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides started.

(c) improvement of irrigation facilities and production In the last few years, due to the Green Revolution, the production of wheat in the country has increased. About 708 lakh tonnes of wheat is produced in the country on about 240 lakh hectares of land. Areas of production Wheat is cultivated in all the states in India except the sandy lands and deserts with high rainfall. Wheat does not grow in hilly areas due to cold. Punjab is called the granary of India. Other regions are Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Bihar.

Q.3. Explain the difference-

(i) Wet land and dry land agriculture.

(ii) Kharif and Rabi crops.

(iii) Food grains and food crops. 

Ans. (i) Wetland agriculture and dry land agriculture-

wetland agriculturedry land agriculture
(a) 75 cm in it areas with high rainfall(a) 75 cm in it Areas with less rainfall than
(b) It is called rainfed agriculture (b) It is called bare ground. 
(c) In rainfed regions, the availability of water during the rainy season is more than the requirement of the crops.(c) Rain is the only source of water for dry land crops. Poor people of the rural population live in dry land agricultural areas.
(d) The use of water irrigation means is not required in this agriculture because the amount of rainfall is sufficient.(d) Water irrigation is required in this agriculture and the method of retaining rain water in the soil for a long time is used. 

Q.4. Answer the following in brief-

(iii) Name five major rice-producing states with reasons.

(iv) Describe the distribution of sugarcane in India.

Ans. (i) Importance of agriculture 70 percent of people in India are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Agriculture accounts for 26 percent of the GDP. It provides food security to the country and produces a variety of raw materials for industries. National security and prosperity are closely related to agriculture. More than half of India’s area is under agriculture.

(ii) Cropping intensity – Cropping intensity means the number of crops grown in a single field in an agricultural year. Shows the measure of cropping intensity to the gross cropped area as a percentage of the net sown area. The formula for determining the crop intensity is-

Gross cropped area Net area sown x 100

Cropping intensity varies from 100% in Mizoram to 189% in PunjabLives Irrigation is the main determinant of cropping intensity. Population pressure also affects cropping intensity.

(iii) Five major rice producing states – West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Uttaranchal (Uttar Pradesh) are major rice producing states

(iv) Distribution of sugarcane – India is considered to be the original place of sugarcane. Sugarcane is an irrigated crop. Major sugarcane producing states are Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The total area under sugarcane cultivation in these states is 15.5 lakh hectares. The per hectare yield of sugarcane in the southern states is higher than in the northern states. It is 106 tonnes in Tamil Nadu and 101 tonnes in Karnataka. The per hectare yield of sugarcane is 41.7 tonnes in Bihar and 57.4 tonnes in Uttar Pradesh.

As a result of this, despite the production of sugarcane being 50.2 million tonnes, Maharashtra is at the second place in sugarcane production and Karnataka is at the third place. The major sugarcane-producing regions of North India are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar located in the Sutlej-Yamuna plain and the upper and middle Ganga plain. In North India, Gujarat is second only to Uttar Pradesh. Here the total production of sugarcane is 42%. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane.

Q.5. Why is the economic development in India low, while the resources are sufficient?

Ans. Natural resources are abundant in India. These resources are the basis of India’s economic system. The northern plains of India are a gift to agriculture. Fertile soil is available on 2/3rd part of the country which is the basis of agriculture. The country has a long growing season for crops due to year-round temperatures. The rivers flowing in the northern plains are very helpful in water irrigation and hydropower generation. The country has vast reserves of minerals. So it is true that India is a country rich in natural resources.

The resources available here in India have not been fully utilized. The reason for this is the lack of technological development. India has been lagging behind in the technology of the agriculture industry and transport sector for a long time. For this reason, the production per hectare in the agriculture sector and the production per worker in the industries are very low in India. The level of technology is very low compared to other countries. Due to lack of capital and lack of economic development, the use of new technology is less in India. The increase in agricultural production due to the Green Revolution in India is the result of the use of new technology.

There is a shortage of skilled technology and skilled labor in India. There are about 25 lakh skilled workers in the country, but this is small compared to the vast population of India. The average number of scientists and engineers in India is 22 per 10,000, compared to 456 in the United States and 311 per thousand in Russia. Most of the foreign technology is being used in India. But now technology made in India is being used in the fields of science, mining, oil refining, space science, transport etc. Hence the following of technological development in IndiaProductivity is low because of the low level.

Q.6. (i) Suggest measures for the development of natural resources.

(ii) Prepare a list of natural resources of your state or union territory.

  • Ans. (i) Measures for the development of natural resources-
  • (a) The resources should be used in a planned manner.
  • (b) Conservation of resources is necessary
  • (c) There should be a continuous supply of resources.
  • (d) There should be a balance between population growth and resource exploitation.
  • (e) Mineral metals can be reused like- iron, tin, copper etc.
  • (i) Aluminum was used in place of copper in the electrical industry.
  • (g) Electricity and other non-conventional energy resources are being used in place of mineral oil or coal.
  • (h) Natural substances are used to a minimum by using synthetic products.
  • (ii) List of natural resources in the State/Union Territory-

Q.7. Explain the difference-

(i) Human and cultural resources.

(ii) fund energy resources and flow energy resources

(iii) Resource conservation and resource management

ANS: (i) Human and cultural resources.

human resourcescultural resources
The number and quality of people make up human resources.Natural resources do not become a resource unless humans recognize them as modifications.
The pace of development also slows down when a certain number and quality of people are removed.Resources expand and contract according to the needs and abilities of man.
Obstacles stand in the way of development due to oversight and a malnourished population and sparse population.Knowledge of natural phenomena as resources depends on cultural heritage such as knowledge, experience, skill, organization, technology, etc.
Man is not a resource but a purpose.Science and technology are producers of culture.

(ii) fund energy resources and flow energy resources

Nidhi Energy ResourcesFlow energy resources
They are being used since a long time.are alternative sources of energy.
Coal, oil and electric energy are such resources.Solar energy, wind energy, biogas, and Bhujaria Jaye are the means of this type.

(iii) Resource conservation and resource management

resource Conservationresource management
The use of resources wisely and protected underutilization is called resource conservation.Resource management emphasizes the judicious use of resources.
Inspires people to make judicious use of resources and avoid excessive use and abuse.Its purpose is to meet the present requirement so that the ecosystem maintains this balance and the needs of future generations are also met.
Conservation is viewed as responsible behavior towards resources.This includes resources, policies and principles under certain conditions for development.
Conservation is the equation of many interacting subjects.Resource management is a well-thought-out process of decision-making keeping in mind the choice of justice and commitment.

Q. 8. Resources and economic development Discuss the interrelationships of 

Ans. Economic development is a complex process. It depends on many factors, and natural resources are one of them. The relationship between potential resources and economic development is not that simple. This fact is strengthened by three circumstances found all over the world-

(i) Most of the countries of Africa and Latin America and also India have vast resources despite having reserves, economic development is low.

(ii) Japan, United Kingdom and Switzerland is a highly developed countries.

(iii) Countries like USA, Russia and South Africa are examples of rich in resources and highly developed economy.The availability of local resources is of great importance in the initial stage of economic development. The exploitation and export of resources are essential factors of economic development. Therefore, resources are essential for development. Rich regions and countries are able to import resources from outside. From this point of view resources can be divided into two categories; Transferable and non-transferable.

Land use is a non-transferable resource. That’s why agriculture has been developed only in the regions having good and very good land. In contrast, transferable resources such as minerals, forestry, etc., are often exported for industrial processing and end use after their exploitation. Natural resources provide raw material and energy for development. They also affect health and vitality.

 Hence the need for human life and development. Many forms of development deplete the resources on which they depend. This slows down the present economic development and reduces the future prospects to a great extent. Therefore, in sustainable development, the stability of the ecosystem should always be kept in mind.

Q.9. Explain in detail the inter-relationship between technological development and availability, exploitability and renewableness of resources. Give suitable examples to explain your answer.

Ans. Technological development and availability of resources – obtained from outside the economic systemNatural resources of living and non-living matter, which humans use for their needs.Uses as raw material to complete. are called natural resources.

Some resources cannot be used in a certain environment. especiallySome resources cannot be used due to lack of technology. TechnologyThe development depends on the availability of resources. Exploitation of minerals, forestry etc. are the resources on which industrial development depends. The economic development of any country depends on many factors.

Of which natural resources are also a factor. India has huge reserves of natural resources but economic development is low. Economic development despite lack of natural resources in Japan, United Kingdom and SwitzerlandTherefore, the availability of local resources is very important in the initial stage of economic development.

Exploitable and renewable – Natural resources provide human beings with matter, energy and favorable conditions for development. Secondly, they create environment. Some resources are renewable and some are non-renewable. As the human population increased, they got better tools and techniques, due to which the exploitation of resources started increasing.

Resources expand and contract according to the needs and abilities of man. The exploitability of resources depends on scientific discoveries and technology. Science and technology are products of culture. The availability, renewability, and expansion of culture characteristics broaden the supply base of the resource.

Renewable resources naturally reproduce themselves if they are not completely destroyed. Forests and fishes are examples of these. Some cultures have such a system of resource use within ecological boundaries. In which nature completes its loss again. Few cultures use natural resources to this extent. that they cannot be replenished. Modern European culture is the product of this class. The first type of culture conserves resources by maintaining the balance of the ecosystem.

Some renewable resources are renewable to all, as long as they are exploited judiciously within the limits set by nature. There are also some renewable resources that are available continuously, regardless of activities. Solar energy and tidal energy are such resources. The mechanism of renewable resources is complex. The components of this system interact with each other. The use of one resource can affect another. Therefore, their development should be planned.

Q.10. Answer the following questions in brief : (i) In how many ways does man use his environment?

(ii) Give the definition of resource.

(iii) Explain the functional theory of resource.

(iv) How do the ‘neutral substances’ of the bio-physical environment become resources?

(v) To what extent is it correct to say that resources are only natural substances?

Ans. (i) Resource – That part of natural stock which can be used under specific technical, economic and social conditions. Resources are the basis of both security and wealth. Development and resources are dependent on each other

(ii) Functional principle Man should not be considered as a resource. They themselves are the objective goals around which the works of development go on.The number and quality of people make up human resources. When a certain number and quality of people decrease, the pace of development also slows down. Obstacles arise in the way of development due to illiterate and malnourished population and sparse population. Therefore, natural resources do not become resources until humans recognize them as resources.

(iii) Indifference Factors People have been using their bio-physical environment to satisfy their demands. This process is called resource utilization. As culture develops, new resources are discovered and better ways of using them. This is called resource development. Resource utilization is the process of using neutral resources as natural resources by converting them into goods and services to meet human needs and aspirations.

(iv) Resources are often identified as natural substances existing in physical form. Is . Resource pockets are elements of the physical environment, but they remain dormant until their usefulness in meeting human needs is known. For example, coal has always existed, but it only became a resource when humans began using it as a source of energy. The aggregates of substances in the environment are natural resources. So it is clear that resources are natural substances, their use is in the hands of human beings.

(v) Resources are real things. It is that part of nature’s stock which can be used to meet human needs. These resources can be used under specific technical, economic and social conditions. The elements of the biophysical environment capable of meeting human needs are called natural resources. “The characteristics and products of nature readily usable as factors of production and use of goods are natural resources.” Natural resources do not become resources until humans use them as resources.

Do not recognize The number and quality of people make up human resources. So resources are natural things which are used by human beings.

Q. 11. Answer the following questions in brief :

(i) Are resources the only real things? If not, why?

(ii) Discuss the recent changes in the concept of resources.

(iii) Explain the concept of resource conservation.

(iv) Why should resource management be considered as a new form of conservation?

Ans. (i) resources are elements of the bio-physical environment; But they remain inactive until their usefulness is known to meet human needs. Example- Coal has always existed, but this resource only became when humans started using it as a source of energy. Resources include both biotic and abiotic substances

(ii) Natural resources are abundant, yet only a small part of the vast store of energy could be used, because they are either completely inaccessible or in such a form that they cannot be used. is the part of whichCan be used in specific technical, economic and social conditions. Thus resources are created by the interactions of human culture and physical environment.

(iii) Economy and use without wastage is called conservation. Conservation is seen as responsible behavior towards resources. Conservation is a combination of many interactions. The purpose of conservation is one-sided, so cultural, social and economic systemson the one hand and conservation of natural systems on the other.

(iv) Because, resource management lays emphasis on judicious use of resources. Its purpose is to meet the present needs and also to keep in mind that the ecological balance is maintained. Resource management is a process of decision making. In this, keeping in mind the needs, aspirations and desires of human beings, resources are allocated according to place and time within the scope of their legal and administrative systems. Various types of managerial, technical and administrative options were used to achieve this goal. goes.

Q. 12. Mention those agricultural technical methods which can help in increasing agricultural land productivity.

Ans. India lags far behind other countries in terms of agricultural productivity. The per hectare yield of food grains and other crops is very less as compared to other countries. most of IndiaAgricultural productivity is moderate in parts.

The following technical methods have been adopted to increase agricultural productivity. Where developed means of water irrigation are available, the intensity of crops has been increased.

(i) Dry Agriculture – Agriculture in India depends on the monsoon rains. In many regions, the amount of rainfall is very less and the means of water irrigation are also very less. Dry irrigation in such areasAgriculture is done by Agriculture is done in soils that retain moisture for a long time.

(ii) Use of high-yielding new varieties – In the country, agriculture has been developed for new high-yielding varieties of food grains and other crops like wheat, rice, millet etc. In this the yield per hectare has increased manifold.

(iii) Green Revolution- Green Revolution has been made successful with the help of better seeds, fertilizers and mechanical agriculture, due to which there has been a significant increase in the production of food grains.

(iv) Mechanical agriculture – Modern machines are being used in place of old tools. This has become possible only because of the development of hydropower. Many government organizations provide assistance to poor farmers to buy these implements.

(v) Crop rotation In many areas cropping intensity has been increased and crop rotation is done to maintain the productivity of the fields. thanbFertility increases in the fields.

Q. 15. Discuss the impact of globalization on Indian agriculture.

Ans. Indian markets have been opened to the world through globalization. Due to this, government control on international trade has reduced and there has been liberality in the policies related to import and export. Now other foreign products including agriculture products can be imported into India.

In free trade, the price and quality of goods become competitive. If the cost of a crop is high, then the traders import it from other countries at a lower price and make it national.Can sell in the market. This can lead to stagnation in Indian agriculture and it can also lag behind or even decline. The prices of many products keep falling in the international market, while in the Indian markets they are increasing. This is due to two reasons- rapid development in the field of biotechnology, resulting inHigh yielding seeds are being made available to the farmers.

(ii) The cost has come down considerably by the use of sophisticated agricultural machinery. According to the World Trade Agreement, the grants given in the agriculture sector of all the countries will have to be stopped. In order to face the competition of the world market, India has to utilize the huge potential of its agriculture in a systematic and planned manner. The task of creating a free and unified national market for agricultural products in the country has been taken up in the right direction.Will step.

Q. 16. Despite ‘remarkable growth’, Indian agriculture suffers from many problems. Explain.

Ans. A lot of efforts are being made for the development of agriculture in India, but the productivity of our agriculture is still low as compared to the developed countries of the world. many for

Factors responsible for-

(i) Environmental factors- The serious problem of Indian agriculture is the erratic nature of the monsoon. The temperature remains high throughout the year. In most parts of the country, it rains only in 3 or 4 months. Not only this, the amount of rainfall and its seasonal and regional distribution are highly variable. This situation has a great impact on the development of agriculture. Most of the country is temperate, semi-arid and arid. Droughts often occur in these areas. The productivity of these regions can be increased by the development of irrigation facilities and rain water harvesting.

(ii) Economic factors like investment in agriculture like high yielding seeds, fertilizers etc. and transport facilities are an economic factor. Lack of marketing facilities or loans at reasonable interestDue to non-availability, the farmer is not able to collect the necessary resources for the development of agriculture.

(iii) Institutional Factors- Due to the increase in population, holdings are being subdivided and dispersed. In 1961-62, 52% of the total holdings were marginal in size and smaller. The uneconomical nature of holdings is a major obstacle in the modernization of agriculture. The land tenure system is not conducive to large-scale investment, as the tenure of tenancy remains uncertain.

(iv) Technological Factors The methods of agriculture are old and inefficient. Mechanization is very limited. The use of fertilizers and high-yielding seeds is also limited. Irrigation facilities can be mobilized for only one-third of the cropped area. Its distribution is not consistent with the scarcity and variability of rainfall. Due to these conditions, agricultural productivity is at a low level.

Q. 17. Describe the recent development of agriculture in India.

Ans. Technological changes in agriculture in India started in the 1960s. high yieldIn addition to yielding seeds, the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides was also introduced, and irrigation facilities were improved and expanded. The combined effect of all these is called Green Revolution. Green Revolution is an important agricultural scheme. whose main objective is the production of food by increasing this, the shortage of food grains in the country has to be removed. After the partition of the country in food grains

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Geography Notes In English



MCQs Geography In English


  • Chapter 1 Data – Its Source and Compilation
  • Chapter 2 Data Processing
  • Chapter 3 Graphical Representation of Data
  • Chapter 4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
  • Chapter 5 Field Surveys
  • Chapter 6 Spatial Information Technology

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Geography Notes In Hindi



MCQs Geography In Hindi


  • अध्याय 1 डेटा – इसका स्रोत और संकलन
  • अध्याय 2 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग
  • अध्याय 3 डेटा का चित्रमय प्रतिनिधित्व
  • अध्याय 4 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग और मैपिंग में कंप्यूटर का उपयोग
  • अध्याय 5 फील्ड सर्वेक्षण
  • अध्याय 6 स्थानिक सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी

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FAQs

Q. 1 What are the reasons for the loss of soil fertility?

(i) By soil erosion.
(ii) By faulty method of shifting agriculture like humming in forested areas.
(iii) By deforestation and overgrazing.
(iv) By faulty management and excessive irrigation.

Q.2 What plans have been made for the arrangement of drinking water?

Ans. Accelerated Gram Jat Purti Yojana has been formulated to provide drinking water to the rural population in the country. For this purpose, a plan named National Mission has been made for the provision of drinking water for the urban population.

Q.3 What are iron minerals?

Ans. The minerals in which trace amounts of iron are found are called ferrous minerals. Iron, manganese, chromite, cobalt, etc. are minerals.

Q.4 What are the natural means of livelihood?

Ans. Substances obtained from animals and plants are called natural means of sustenance because human beings are alive by the use of these means.

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