Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Human Geography

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If are you looking for questions and answers in Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 then this website is for you.

So students, after reading this article, you will get very high marks in the exam from this chapter because all the exam-related questions are described in it, so read it completely.

I have been a 12th topper myself and I know what kind of questions are asked in the 12th exam. Presently, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written this article with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to score very good marks in Geography from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Human Geography

Chapter No01
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameHuman Geography
Medium English
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Human Geography

★ Human is the active worker in the human environment.

★ Geography- Study of the earth as a human home.

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Human Geography
image credit; Human Geography

★ General Geography—Study, in which the entire earth is discussed as a unit.

★ Human geography – study, in which the characteristics of the distribution and location of cultural traits resulting from the continuous and changing interaction between man and nature are known.

★ Human Ecology – Human geography is mainly human ecology.

★ Nature of Human Geography — The nature of human geography aims at understanding the diversity of human life. 

★ Field of study of human geography- (i) study of the cultural landscape, (ii) resource use, (iii) climate adjustment. 

★ Age of Discovery-The period from about the late fifteenth century to the eighteenth century, in which there was a qualitative development in the methods of making maps.

★ Specialized Geography — The study, in which emphasis is placed on the structure of individual regions. 

★ Geomorphology – a study, in which the features of relief are measured and tested in many ways. 

★ Environment—the natural conditions in which man lives and by which he is affected.

★ Regional Geography- It is the study of a region at different levels from all geographical aspects.

★ Systematic Geography – Study about the whole world or any region regarding a particular geographical factor. 

★ Determinism ideology The ideology according to which all human actions are determined by the environment.

★ Possibilism ideology, the ideology according to which man is capable of making changes in his environment and he can use many possibilities given by nature as per his wish.

★ Positivism—a school of thought that emphasized the use of quantitative methods to make analysis more objective when studying geographic patterns of various factors.


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q.1. What were the reasons for the development of geomorphology? 

Ans. In the 19th century, the scope of geography was very limited. This study was limited to Indian traits only. It was easy to describe them. That’s why a separate branch was developed by the name of Physiography. In course of time, this branch took the form of geomorphological science.

Q. 2. Give the definition of human geography. 

Ans. Human geography is the science in which we study the mutual relations between man and the environment on a regional basis.

Q.3. American geographers Finch and Dwivartha have divided the subject matter of human geography into which two parts?

Ans. 1. Physical or Natural Environment 2. Cultural or Man-made Environment. 

Q.4. What is meant by neo-determinism?

Ans. Nature has provided ample opportunities for human development. But humans can use them up to a limit. That’s why many scholars have criticized Possibilism. Griffith Taylor presented the ideology of neo-determinism through this criticism. According to him the job of a geographer is that of a counselor and not a critic of nature. Man is neither the slave of nature nor its master. Man lives on the earth and depends on it

Q.5. Mention three new schools of thought accepted in the study of human geography.

Ans. There are three accepted new principles of human geography –

1. Determinism, 2. Probability, 3. Humanism.

Q. 6. What is Humanism ideology?

Ans. In this ideology, emphasis is placed on the central and active role of man in the context of human awakening, human resources, human consciousness and human creativity. This ideology is focused on man.

Q.7 . What is meant by ‘discovery era’? Why was it called the Age of Discovery? 

Ans. The period from about the latter part of the fifteenth century to the eighteenth century is called the Age of Discovery. During this time there was a qualitative development in the methods of making maps. Apart from this, detailed information was also collected through research trips in different parts of the world. This information was scientifically examined and classified and systematized by the geographers. 

Q.8. What are the two main branches of geography?

Ans. Systematic geography and regional geography. 

Q.9. What is meant by human geography? It is related to which branch of geography?

Ans. Human geography is the study of the characteristics of the distribution and status of cultural traits resulting from the ever-changing interaction between man and nature are studied. Human geography is a branch of systematic geography.

Q.10. Who is called the father of modern human geography? 

Ans. Friedrich Ratzel is called the father of modern human geography.


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. What were the thoughts of the famous geographer Jean Bunsch about the nature and scope of human geography? Answer in brief.

Ans. According to the famous geographer Jean Boonch, “Just as economics is related to prices, geology is related to rocks, botany is related to plants, anthropology is related to races and history is related to time, in the same way, the focal point of geography is ‘place’. ‘ in which attempts are made to answer important questions like ‘where and why’. 

As a major branch of geography, the study of mutual relations between humans and the environment is the focal point of the study of human geography, that is, in human geography, special emphasis is given to the study of society related to the environment. In fact, the scope of human geography is very wide. Under it, human species, distribution of population in different parts of the world, density, development, characteristics of growth demographic, Knowledge is gained regarding the mass transfer, etc. 

Along with this, the economic activities of human groups are studied. In this, the development of economic activities like industry, transport and communication system, and trade and its regional distribution are also studied.

Q.2. The subject matter of human geography integrates all the social sciences. Write a short note on this topic. 

Ans. The subject matter of human geography integrates all the social sciences, as it provides the regional and systematic approach to those sciences, that they lack. Along with this, human geography establishes relations with other social sciences for the analysis of its subject matter. In this process, human geography draws upon and supports other social sciences. 

For example, it relies on demography for the study of population, economics for economic geography, agricultural science, urban sociology for urban geography, political science for political geography, and sociology, and history for social geography. Human geography, in turn, informs these sciences from the point of view of regions and hierarchy.

Q.3. Write a brief note on economic geography, a sub-field of human geography. 

Ans. Economic geography is an important branch of human geography. In this, the distribution of human economic activities and their relationship with natural conditions are studied. Dr. N. Yes. According to Poundus, “Economic geography studies the distribution of human production activities on the earth’s surface.” Production, distribution, consumption, and exchange, etc. are included in the economic activities of man. 

Q4. What are the five parts of the study area of ​​human geography?

Ans- Following are the five parts of the study area of ​​human geography – (i) Population of a region and its potential.

  • (ii) The resources provided by the natural environment of that region.
  • (iii) Cultural pattern of use of natural resources by that population.
  • (iv) The form of human environment adjustment by the interaction of natural and cultural environments, which we also call the form of the field organization. (v) above environmental-adjustment time sequence.

All five organs are shown in the following figure:

  • Alternative index
  • population
  • human environment adjustment
  • natural resources of the state
  • cultural model

Q.5. Comment on the recent changes in geography as a subject of study after the Second World War. 

Ans. After the Second World War, there was rapid development in many fields including the educational world. The subject of geography also did not remain untouched by this development. Geography in general and human geography in particular offered solutions to the contemporary problems and issues of human society. In this period, traditional methods were unable to understand the new problems related to human welfare like poverty, social and regional inequality, social welfare and empowerment, etc. As a result, new methods were adopted from time to time. For example, in the middle of the fifties, a new school of thought was born in the form of positivism. Emphasis was placed on the use of quantitative methods. 

Thereafter, in opposition to positivism, behavioral ideology emerged based on the concept taken from psychology, in which special attention was paid to human knowledge power. Due to the increasing inequality within different regions and countries of the world and within different groups due to the influence of capitalism, welfare ideology was born in human geography. 

Topics like poverty, regional disparity in development, urban slums, and deprivation became the focus of geographical studies. Apart from these, the ideology called humanism was also “born” in geography. This ideology is focused on the human being. In which human awakening, human-means, consciousness, and the creative and active role of humans were emphasized. Therefore, after the Second World War, there was a rapid development of many new ideologies in human geography.

Q.6. Explain the difference between systematic and regional geography. 

  • (i) A specific region of a region in this geography 
  • (i) Geographical element is studied.
  • (ii) This study takes place in an isolated form. 
  • (iii) This study is based on the regional geography of political units. (iv) This study presents findings and facts. 
  • (iv) It is based on the physical environment of a region. Shows the relationship between humans. a factor in the study such as climate 
  • (v) demarcates the regions in this study.
  • (v) On the basis of this, different types and sub-groups are included, which is called regionalization. types are determined.

Q.7. Into which two parts have the subject matter of ‘Human Geography’ been divided by Finch and Divarthi? Give two characteristics of each part. 

Ans. American geographers Finch and Dwivarthi have divided the subject matter of human geography into two parts-

  • 1. Physical environment or natural environment – ​​Hug studies natural phenomena in this. Like-climate. 
  • 2. Human-Made Environment – ​​It studies man-made or cultural elements. Like – population. In this, we study distance, industry, etc.

Q. 8. Describe the contribution of Friedrich Ratzel in the context of the study of human geography. 

Ans. Friedrich Ratzel (1844–1904) was a German scholar. He is considered the father of human geography. He wrote a book called Anthropogeography. In this book, he studied the activities of man. The publication of this book by Friedrich Ratzel is considered to be an epoch-making event due to the establishment of human-centric ideology in geography. According to Friedrich Ratzel, human geography is a synthetic study of the relationship between human societies and the earth’s surface, and the view of human geography is universally concerned with the environment, which itself is a sum of physical conditions.

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Q.9 What is the contribution of Vidal de la Blache to the study of human geography? 

Ans. Vidal de La Blache (1848–1918) was a French geographer. He laid the foundation of Sambhavabad. When a man is given an important place in comparison to nature and when a man is seen as inert or passive to the active force, then this concept is called Possibilism. Although the concept of probabilism became popular after the First World War, it was Videl de Blash who propagated this ideology in a systematic way. 

According to him, the lifestyle of a man is the mirror and result of his civilization. It is the coordinated result of physical, historical, and social influences governing the relationship between man and his habitat. He tried to ‘explain’ the differences between human groups within the same environment. 

He pointed out that these variations are not the result of the pressure of the physical environment but are the result of other factors such as changes in people’s attitudes, human values ​​, and habits. This concept became the basic philosophy for the Possibilists. 

In Vidal de la Vlache’s famous book ‘Principles de geographic humhumane’, he said that “human geography gives a new understanding of the mutual relations between the earth and man. It consists of a combined knowledge of the physical laws governing the earth and the mutual relations of the living beings that inhabit the earth.”

Q. 10. Who were the critics of determinism in human geography? Mention two grounds on which it was criticized. 

Ans. The critics of determinism in human geography were Vidal de la Blache and Lucien Favonne. He criticized it on the basis of Possibilism and New Determinism.

Long Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

1. The study of human geography is progressive and more emphasis has been laid on the study of human society. explain.

Ans. The definition of human geography has been changing from time to time. 

  • 1. Ancient scholars Aristotle, Wakal, Hambroler, and Ritter studied the influence of the earth on history.
  • 2. Later Ratzel and Sempul criticized it.
  • 3. Blash considered ecology and terrestrial unity as two basic principles of human geography. 
  • 4. Intington laid more emphasis on the influence of climate on society, wealth, and history. 
  • 5. It is clear from the above fact that basically more emphasis was given to the study of human society in human geography. The cultural environment is made up of man-made traits. In which population and human settlements are important. They are related to agriculture, construction, industry, and transport.

Q.2. Explain the difference between the physical environment and the cultural environment. 

Ans. The scope of human geography is very wide. In many areas, it is born as a social science, while in many areas physical science is its basis. American geographers Finch and 8 Bivartha have divided this subject into two areas:

  • 1. Physical Environment 
  • 2. Cultural Environment The physical environment is made up of natural elements. Such as climate, surface, water flow, natural resources, minerals, currency, water, and forests.

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Geography Notes In English

MCQs Geography In English

  • Chapter 1 Data – Its Source and Compilation
  • Chapter 2 Data Processing
  • Chapter 3 Graphical Representation of Data
  • Chapter 4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
  • Chapter 5 Field Surveys
  • Chapter 6 Spatial Information Technology

Geography Notes In Hindi

MCQs Geography In Hindi

  • अध्याय 1 डेटा – इसका स्रोत और संकलन
  • अध्याय 2 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग
  • अध्याय 3 डेटा का चित्रमय प्रतिनिधित्व
  • अध्याय 4 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग और मैपिंग में कंप्यूटर का उपयोग
  • अध्याय 5 फील्ड सर्वेक्षण
  • अध्याय 6 स्थानिक सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी


Q. 11. What is human geography according to Ratzel? 

Ans. According to Ratzel, ‘human geography’ is a synthetic study of the relationship between human societies and the earth’s surface.

Q. 12. In which two parts of the subject matter did the American geographers divide human geography? 

Ans. (i) Physical and natural environment.
(ii) Cultural/Man-made environment. 

Q. 13. What is Possibilism ideology? 

Ans. When a man is given an important place in comparison to nature and when a man is seen as inert or passive to the active force, then this concept is called Possibilism. Vidal de la Blache has followed this school of thought. 

Q. 14. Describe three new schools of thought accepted in the study of human geography.

Ans. The accepted three new theories of human geography are: 
1. Determinism,
2. Possibilism, 
3. Humanism.

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