Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 The World Population

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Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 The World Population

Chapter No02
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameThe World Population
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 The World Population

★ World Population Density is the ratio of humans to land. The average density in the world is 41 persons per sq. km. Is.

★ Determinants of population growth – birth rate, death rate, mobility of the population. 

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 2 The World Population
image credit; Wikipedia

★ Human Development—Human development is the process of creating the best qualities of human life. 

★ The index of human development is life expectancy period, literacy, and per capita income are the main indicators. India ranks 108th in the world in human development. The number of live births per thousand births. 

★ Death rate – number of deaths per thousand population * Life expectancy – surviving population per thousand population 

★ Study of a demographic structure according to the population death rate, birth rate, sex-dependent ratio, and earning power. 

★ Total population – total population. 

★ Population Density – Average number of people living per square kilometer 

★ Growth rate The number of people who die per thousand persons in a year is called the death rate. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate is called the growth rate of the population. 

★ Migration — Transfer of population from one place to another. 

★ Emigration – Population of more than one village or city, due to lack of employment, when people leave that place and transfer elsewhere, this action is called external migration or emigration. 

★ Immigration People coming and settling in big cities, business centers, industrial cities, ports, etc. to get employment.


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q.1. What do you mean by population growth? 

Ans. It refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a particular area within a specified period of time, say 10 years. This change can be expressed as a total number or as a percentage. 

Q. 2. What do you mean by migration? Give a short answer.

Ans. Migration is the third important component of population change. It can be analyzed as a spontaneous effect towards achieving a better balance between man and resource. It is a permanent or semi-permanent change of residence of a man. Migration is probably a more important factor than reproduction and death in determining population structure and change in an area. 

Q. 3. About 60 percent of the world’s population resides in the ten most populous countries of the world. Six of these ten countries are located in Asia. Name those countries.

Ans. 1. China, 2. India, 3. Indonesia, 4. Pakistan, 5. Bangladesh, 6. Japan 

Q.4. What is the density of the population called? 

Ans. The ratio between the number of people and the size of the land is called the density of the population. 

Q.5. Which regions of the world have the lowest density of population?

Ans. The density of the population is very low in the hot and cold deserts, near the northern and southern latitudes, and in other areas of high rainfall near the equator.

Q.6. Which are the areas with medium population density? 

Ans. Western China, Southern India in Asia, and Norway and Sweden in Europe. 

Q.7. What is the negative growth of the population?

Ans. If the population decreases between two-time intervals, then it is called negative growth of the population. This happens when the birth rate is less than the death rate or people migrate to other countries. 

Q.8. What is the natural increase of population called?

Ans. The increase in population in a particular area by the difference between birth and death in two-time intervals is called the natural increase of that area. 

Natural increase = birth – death.

Q.9. What is the reason for slow population growth?

Ans. AIDS / H.I.V. Deadly epidemics have increased mortality and reduced average life expectancy in Africa, parts of the Commonwealth of Independent States, and Asia. This has slowed down population growth.

Q. 10. What was the increase in the human population in the last 500 years?

Ans. The human population has increased more than ten times in the last 500 years.


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

1. What are the five types of demographic transition? 


(a) primitive demographic period and variable birth rate and death rate 

(d) Expansion or youth demographic or youth demographic period with high birth rate and slow population growth. and falling death rates and rapid growth in population. 

(c) Later expansionary demographic period with decreasing birth rate and low death rate and decreasing rate of population growth. 

(d) Low variable or mature demographic low birth rate and high death rate and declining population. 

(d) Almost zero growth rate of population, birth rate, and death rate being almost equal. 

Q.2. The factors affecting the birth rate are mainly economic, social, and cultural, not physical. Briefly discuss. 

Ans. Another factor that directly affects the birth rate is the population structure, specifically the age structure of the population. A comparison between birth rates and fertility rates will clarify the importance of this factor. 

For example, in 1982, both Singapore and Spain had similar ossified birth rates (17.2 and 15.2 per thousand 421), but Singapore’s fertility rate (58) was much lower than Spain’s (73.1), because of its older age structure. Was young 

In other words, an area with a high proportion of young preds is likely to have a high birth rate. New cities, new settlements, and regions with high immigration rates come under this category. Thus it can be concluded that the factors affecting the fertility rate are mainly They are economic, social, and cultural, not physical.

Q.3. Briefly discuss the first stage of demographic transition. 

Ans. The first stage reveals the demographic trends before the process of economic development started. This reflects the demographic disparities of Europe before industrial development or Japan in the mid-nineteenth century, or perhaps a tribal community living alone in the hot forests. 

The general characteristic of this period is that the size of the population is small and the net growth rate is stable for some time, at about 1 percent. Both birth and death rates are very high, but death rates decrease in times of prosperity, while they increase in times of famine, epidemics, or war.

Q. 4, What is called international migration?

Ans. International migration is the transfer of people between countries and continents. The role of migration is important in bringing changes in population patterns in a relatively short period of time. International migration has been on the rise again in recent decades. Voluntary migration provides many with greater economic benefits or other employment opportunities. On the other hand, a fair number of people have to go to other countries which is not common these days. At the beginning of the 21st century, the United Nations estimated that there were approximately 120 million people living outside their countries of origin worldwide, including 15 million refugees.

Q. 5. What is internal migration? 

Ans. Internal migration is a relatively prevalent demographic process. In this, thousands and millions of people leave the villages and migrate to the cities or from the densely populated areas to the regions that provide better opportunities. These include high wages, cheap land, good standards, and opportunities for economic growth. As a result of such relocation, most of the rural migrants migrate to the cities. Due to this, the large number of slums are increasing in the cities. 

Q6. What is seawater migration?

Ans. In countries where three-fourths of the total population is urbanized, inter-city migration i.e. inter-city migration is more prevalent. Such migrants often move from one urban center to another. There are some such examples that people from villages first go to the nearest city and after staying there for some time, move to a bigger city. This is called step migration. Metropolises all over the world today have a powerful magnetic pull. Migration from city to city is due to economic reasons because there are better and varied employment opportunities and many other facilities as compared to small towns. As a result, the big cities are becoming disproportionately large, while the growth of the smaller cities has stagnated.

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Q.7. Why is the decrease in population a matter of concern? 

Ans. Because the resources that are used to support a population at a given level are no longer capable of supporting that population. If mass migration is not diverted in the opposite direction, then the basic structure of that society itself can become unstable. Population growth is an indicator of social prosperity and progress, as the resource base increases. However, if land and other important resources are scarce, this is seen as another distinct problem.

In developed countries, where the resource base is adequate or abundant, or underutilized, policies are adopted to encourage population growth, such as natural growth incentives, appropriate tax exemptions for large families, and acceptance of immigration. etc. policies are adopted. 

Q.11. When will the population of the major countries of the world double the current population growth rate?

Ans. According to the current population growth rate of 2 to 2.9 percent, the population of 71 countries will double in the next 24 to 30 years. The population of 14 countries with a growth rate of 3 to 4.4 percent will take 16 to 23 years to double. One-fourth of the world’s population lives in 90 countries. Whose population will double in a generation or two? India offers a moderate example. The current growth rate here is 1.9 percent. At the same rate, it will take 36 years for the country’s one billion population to become two billion.

Q.12. What is the physical transition model?

Ans. Looking at the current demographic trends, it is clear that the annual population growth in developing countries is more than 20 times that of developed countries. Although the crude death rate is different in the two groups, the average crude birth rate is about three times higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Why is it like this? Notestein, a demographer, has observed a close relationship between the processes of economic development and population growth.

When an agrarian rural society changes to a technology-based urban society, demographic trends also change. Changes in the dynamics of the population correlated with the urbanization process associated with industrialization and economic development are depicted in the form of the demographic transition model.

Long Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. Describe physiological or physiological density. 

Ans. Physiological or trophic density is a more sophisticated method of calculating the ratio of man and land than simple arithmetic density. In this, instead of the total area, the total population is divided by the total agricultural land or crop area.

vegetative density = total population total agricultural area

Thus it is the ratio between the total population and the total cultivated area. In developing countries where subsistence agriculture is the most important of the economic activities, the intensity of agriculture is reflected by the vegetative density. 

In almost all the highly populated developing countries of Asia like India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc. the average per capita crop area is less than one acre (0.4 hectares). Five people are dependent on one hectare of agricultural land in India, 12 in China, and 1.5 in the United States. In most agricultural countries, almost all the land suitable for crops is being cultivated. 

Therefore, as the population is increasing, more and more population has to depend on the currently available agricultural area only. Since there is variation in agricultural productivity from place to place, vegetative density also presents a working measure of population pressure. 

Q2. Why is population growth increasing rapidly in the last few centuries? explain it

Ans. In the early stages of development hunters, gatherers and farmers used only simple tools and kept moving from one place to another. Even after the agricultural revolution that came 8000 to 12000 years ago, the population of the world was very less and their activities were of simple nature. Thus man had very little influence over nature. 

Population growth was slow, which can be confirmed by the fact that the total population of the world in the first century was only 25 million. Due to the rapid expansion of trade in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the population of the world was about 500 million at the beginning of the industrial revolution (around 1705). However, the population exploded after the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century. 

A series of dramatic changes in technology rapidly expanded the resource base. Due to this the rapid growth of the population got the basis and this process continued for two centuries. After the development of the steam engine, it first became a supplement to human and animal energy and later took its place. Who provided mechanized energy to water and wind.

Mechanization improved agricultural and industrial production. The global population has changed dramatically and rapidly due to scientific and technological advancement, increased quality of life of people in economically prosperous countries, improved medical facilities, and improved sanitation. Vaccines against epidemics and other infectious diseases, to destroy or reduce the number of germs of many diseases, and

Improvements in sanitation have led to a rapid reduction in death rates in almost all countries.

It was increasing at the rate of 0.12 percent. But later this rate increased unexpectedly to 1 percent by 1930 and 2.1 percent by 1960. This rapid growth rate of population has become a matter of concern for the world. Many developed countries have taken immediate notice of this. Small developing countries are trying to control this rapid growth. The slow growth rate in the last four decades

Speed ​​has decreased. The current growth rate is 1.4 percent. It is estimated that the world population will reach 6.8 billion in 2010 and 8 billion in the year 2025. It is believed that more than 98 percent (about 2 billion) of the total population growth in the next 25 years will be in developing countries. In the developed nations, where 20 percent of the world’s population resides today, there will be only 15 percent of the population in the year 2025.

Q-3 Discuss the factors affecting population distribution and density of population in the world.

Ans. Many factors have influenced the unequal distribution, density, and growth of the population on the earth. The factors affecting the density and distribution of the population are as follows-

1. Physical Factors – Physical characteristics have been considered to be an important factor in influencing the distribution and growth of the population on the surface. Relief, climate, soil, natural vegetation, water, and mineral resources are some of the important physical factors. Mountainous and rough regions are unsuitable for human habitation. A favorable physical environment has always been given prominence in human settlement. Thousands of years ago, the deserts of Western Asia and Egypt were highly fertile lands due to the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers settling here. That is why ancient civilizations developed here.

2. Cultural factor – Human culture also plays an important role in the distribution of population. Ancient traditions and practices, religion, and language also influence the concentration and dispersion of the population. For example, the concentration of people of different nationalities, such as German, Spanish, French, and Chinese, in different parts of the United States clearly reveals their preferences. The main reason for this gathering is that people are connected to their respective cultures.

3. Economic Factors – People can migrate from one region to another every year under the influence of various factors such as difficult economic conditions, unemployment, religious, ethnic or political intolerance, class conflict, and war. On the other hand, pull factors such as advanced economic opportunities can attract people to a place. The diverse settlement patterns of the modern world reflect the combined effect of push and pull factors. 

For example, more than one million Irish people immigrated to North America after the potato famine of 1864 in their country. These immigrants found cheap agricultural land and employment in factories. When the news of more employment opportunities in North America reached Europe and Asia through their friends and relatives, groups of migrants started settling there. The exodus of computer experts (professionals) from India to the United States of America and other developed countries these days is another such example.

4. Political Factors- Migration of population due to economic difficulties, political unrest, and war is an unprecedented phenomenon in history. Some events of the past decades have made lakhs and lakhs of people refugees. Such events include the Persian Gulf War, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), the civil wars in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Chad, the ethnic conflicts and revolutions in Rwanda and Sri Lanka, the military revolutions in Haiti, the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the rise of 15 independent states, Yugoslavia and In summary, it can be said that the current population pattern is dynamic and reflects both the new and the old demographic trends in Czechoslovakia. 

For example, in China, India, and South-East Asia, in the valleys of big rivers, and in the deltaic parts, due to the high production of agriculture, a large population is being fed for a long time. On the other hand, the Industrial Revolution, economic development, and mass migration of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are the dreams of urban population settlement in Western Europe and the North-Eastern United States.

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Geography Notes In English

MCQs Geography In English

  • Chapter 1 Data – Its Source and Compilation
  • Chapter 2 Data Processing
  • Chapter 3 Graphical Representation of Data
  • Chapter 4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
  • Chapter 5 Field Surveys
  • Chapter 6 Spatial Information Technology

Geography Notes In Hindi

MCQs Geography In Hindi

  • अध्याय 1 डेटा – इसका स्रोत और संकलन
  • अध्याय 2 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग
  • अध्याय 3 डेटा का चित्रमय प्रतिनिधित्व
  • अध्याय 4 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग और मैपिंग में कंप्यूटर का उपयोग
  • अध्याय 5 फील्ड सर्वेक्षण
  • अध्याय 6 स्थानिक सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी


Q. 1. Man is the focal point of human geography, how?

Ans. As a producer, creator, and user of resources, he influences the environment as well as changes it over time.

Q. 2. The distribution of population on the continents is unequal. Why?

Ans. Many factors have influenced the unequal distribution and growth of the population on earth, such as physical factors, cultural factors, economic factors, and political factors. 

Q. 3. Briefly explain the physical factors affecting the distribution of the population.

Ans. Geological features have an important contribution to influencing the distribution and growth of the population on the surface. Relief, climate, soil, natural vegetation, water, and mineral resources are some of the important physical factors. 

Q.4. Briefly explain the cultural factors affecting the distribution of the population.

Ans. Human culture also plays an important role in the distribution of population. Ancient traditions and practices, religion, and language also influence the concentration and dispersion of the population. For example, the concentration of people of different nationalities, such as German, Spanish, French, and Chinese in different parts of the United States, clearly reveals their preferences.

Q.5. How do economic factors affect the distribution of the population? Comment briefly.

Ans. People can migrate from one region to another under the influence of various repulsive factors such as difficult economic conditions, unemployment, religion, ethnic or political intolerance, class struggle, and war. On the other hand, pull factors such as advanced economic opportunities can attract people to a place.

Q. 6. How do political factors affect the distribution system of the population? Tell in brief.

Ans. The migration of the population due to economic difficulties, political unrest, and war is an unprecedented event in history. Some events of the past decades have made lakhs and lakhs of people refugees. Such events, as the Persian Gulf War, Rwanda and Sri Lanka’s ethnic conflicts, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the emergence of 15 independent nations are major events. 

Q. 7. What is the role of population density in the pattern of population distribution? Give a short answer.

Ans. The density of the population is an important measure for analyzing population distribution. It shows the ratio between population and area in a country. Arithmetic population density is obtained by dividing the total population by the total area. This is the simplest way of understanding the degree of concentration of the population.

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