Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 Population Composition

WhatsApp Group (Join Now) Join Now
Telegram Group (Join Now) Join Now

If are you looking for questions and answers To the Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 then this website is for you.

So students, after reading this article, you will get very high marks in the exam from this chapter because all the exam-related questions are described in it, so read it completely.

I have been a 12th topper myself and I know what kind of questions are asked in the 12th exam. Presently, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written this article with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to score very good marks in Geography from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 Population Composition

Chapter No03
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NamePopulation Composition
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3 Population Composition

★ Literate – People the age of 15 years or above who can read and write by understanding a short and simple statement are called literate. 

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 3
image credit:

★ Active population The population earning a living from remunerative business activities is called the economically active population. 

★ Primary business — This includes hunting, agriculture, forestry, and fishing. 

★ Human Development is the process of expanding the level of human aspirations and living facilities available to them. 

★ Sex Ratio – Number of females per thousand males. Age structure – a division of the population into different age groups 

★ Population Pyramid – Representation of the age and sex of the population in the form of a pyramid. * Rural population — The part of the total population of the country that resides in rural areas. * Urban population – that part of the total population of the country, which resides in big or small cities or towns. 

★ Productive Population – That part of the total population of the country which earns its livelihood by doing some work. Dependent population – that part of the total population of the country in which children below 15 years of age and elderly people above 60 years of age come.


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. What are the characteristics of the population represented by population composition? 

Ans. Population composition refers to those characteristics of a population that can be measured and with the help of which two different types of groups of individuals can be distinguished.

Q. 2. What are the important components of the population? 

Ans. Age, sex, literacy, place of residence, etc. are important components of representing the population.

Q. 3. In how many age groups can the population of a country be divided? 

Ans. Generally, the population of a country can be divided into three age groups: 1. Children (0-14 years) 2. Adults (15-59 years) 3. Old people (above 60 years) 

Q. 4. What is meant by the age structure of the population?

Ans. The number of people in different age groups is called the age structure of the population. The size of the age groups can vary from country to country and even within a country it varies from time to time. 

Q.5. What is ‘Human Resource Development’?

Ans. In 1990, a Human Resource Development Statement was presented by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) which stated that ‘development’ does not mean only an increase in income and wealth but it should be the process of increasing the productivity and efficiency of human beings because Increase in the productivity and efficiency of the people plays an important role in the development of a country. 

It is necessary to develop and train the human resources of any country in a good way because the development of the natural resources of that country depends on their development. This is called Human Resource Development.

Q. 6. What is the highest population? 

Ans. When there is a mutual balance between the total population and the natural resources of the country, then it is called the highest population.

Q. 7. What is meant by the occupational structure of the population? 

Ans. The occupational structure of the population means the proportional distribution of the population in specific economic activities of an area.


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. Briefly discuss the following characteristics of the population of India: 

(i) Rural-urban ratio 

(ii) Sex ratio 

(iii) Age structure

Ans. (i) Rural-Urban Ratio—The total population of India resides in 5 lakh 70 thousand villages and 4615 cities. India is generally considered to be a country of villages. Half of the total population of India lives in only five states. These five states are Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. The rest of the urban population lives in the remaining 15 states and seven union territories.

(ii) Sex Ratio – Sex ratio means the number of females per thousand males in the population of an area. According to the 2001 census of India, there are 933 females per 1000 males. The sex ratio in India is unfavorable.

(iii) Age Composition: The age and sex pyramid show the composition of the population according to the age and sex of the people. It also gives an indication of the growth rate of the population and working and dependent population. The age structure is shown by a pyramid.

Q. 2. What is called a metropolis? Briefly tell. 

Ans. A city with a population of more than one million is called a metropolis. The number of metropolises in India is continuously increasing. Kolkata was the only metropolis in 1901. Till 1941 Kolkata and Mumbai were the only two metropolitan cities. But in 1951 their number increased to five. In 1991 there were 23 metropolitan cities. 

Their names are Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore Ahmedabad, Pune, Kanpur, Nagpur, Lucknow, Surat, Jaipur, Cochin, Coimbatore, Vadodara, Indore Patna, Madurai, Bhopal, Visakhapatnam, Varanasi, and Ludhiana. 65 percent of the total urban population of the country lives in these metropolitan cities.

class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science

Q. 3. How many types are there on the basis of child, adult, and growth age differences? 

Ans. On the basis of such differences, three types of age structures have been identified.

  • (i) Western European type – In this, the population in the child age group, and old age group is 30 percent and 15 percent respectively. the ratio of respectively
  • (ii) United States type In this type of population, children and old people are 35 to 45 percent and 10 percent.
  • (iii) Third World Type: In this type of population, the child age group is 55 percent and old age is 4 to 8 percent.

Q. 4. Give reasons for variations in sex ratio in different regions of the world.

  • Ans. 1. In developing countries, the infant mortality rate is higher among males than among females. 
  • 2. The death rate of men is higher in developed countries. 
  • 3. Migration of women and men also affects the sex ratio. 
  • 4. Migration of males from rural to urban areas in developing countries affects the sex ratio.

The reason for high literacy in developed countries is the high level of education. Literacy is low in the agricultural economy. There is a need for a revolution in the education sectors in developing countries. 

Q.4. What do you mean by age pyramid? briefly describe.

Ans. The age pyramid provides a more detailed depiction of the age structure. The population of each age group is represented by horizontal bars. The length of the bar is in proportion to the percentage of women and men in that class. Bars representing men are arranged vertically to the left of the central axis and bars representing women to the right. The axes are divided at intervals of one year or several years. The three different shapes of the pyramid are related to the three different conditions of the population-

  • (i) The tapering upward shape of the pyramid indicates an unchanged base birth and death rates over a long period of time. 
  • (ii) The broad base and tapering top of the pyramid show the increasing birth rate and high death rate.
  • (iii) The thin base and thin top of the pyramid show decreasing birth rate and low death rate.

Q. 5. Briefly explain the effect of sex ratio on the technological and economic development of a country.

Ans. The intensity of sex selection in intra-country migration is directly related to the technological and economic development of that country. In developing countries, especially in Asia and Africa, the predominance of male migration from rural areas to urban centers is found. Indian cities show an unexpectedly high proportion of male migration. The number of females per thousand males in Kolkata is 570 is a vivid example of this. Apart from migration to mining and heavy industry centers and military towns, here women also migrate to rural areas.

Q. 6. Discuss the rural-urban combination. 

Ans. Dividing the population into rural and urban populations is the specialty of the residents of the people. This division is necessary because both are different from each other in terms of ways of living and social environment. There is a special difference between the two classes in the occupational structure, density of population, and levels of social and economic development.

The population living in villages and doing agriculture are kept in the rural class. On the contrary, the urban population is engaged in non-agricultural work. With the natural increase, due to the population migrating from rural areas to cities, the urban population continues to increase.

Q.7 Explain in brief any three characteristics of the population.

Ans. The human population always keeps on changing, if climate and food supply is good, and there is no natural outbreak, then with the passage of time, the population increases. 

  • 1. If conditions are unfavorable, the food supply is less than hemp, and natural calamities, such as droughts, floods, or epidemics occur frequently, and the population may decline. 
  • 2. Human beings are very dynamic. People keep on moving from one place to another in search of livelihood. This also affects the population. 
  • 3. If there are more deaths than births and people do not come due to migration, then there will be a decline in the population.

Q. 10. What is the difference between a productive population and a dependent population? 

Ans. Active population – that part of the population which does any work. Earns his livelihood by doing, is called productive or earning population. The division of this productive population into various occupations is called occupational structure. 

Dependent population – that part of the population in which children and old people come and women working in the house are included. All these people do not do the work of earning a living. These people depend on others. Hence they are called the dependent populations.

The high percentage of the dependent population in a country is indicative of the low standard of living and development of that country.

Long Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. After 1901, the sex ratio is generally continuously decreasing. Discuss this statement. 

Ans. The sex composition of a population is represented by a ratio called the sex ratio. The sex ratio in India is calculated as the number of females per thousand males. Thus a sex ratio of 1000 indicates complete equality in the number of both males and females. The sex ratio in India is 933, which shows that the number of females is less than that of males. 

The sex ratio of India was 972 in 1901, which gradually decreased to 933 in 2001. Scholars are of the opinion that there is not much difference in the sex ratio at the time of birth. The decrease in the number of women after birth is our social evil. Boys are given more facilities in society and families. Not much attention is paid to the upbringing of girls. High mortality is found in all age groups of women. The death rate is also high in married women. 

Migration is also one of the reasons for such a difference in the sex ratio. In many states, men migrate for employment, the male population becomes more in those states or cities where they go. Kerala is the only state in India where the sex ratio is 1036. There are 11 states in India with sex ratio higher than the national average (between 981-937). Arunachal Pradesh is the state with the lowest sex ratio (859).

The sex ratio of the urban population of India is 894. In Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana, and Rajasthan, male predominance is found in the urban sex ratio. Variations in the sex ratio arise due to uneven economic development of the country and human beings are forced to migrate from one place to another for livelihood, which affects the sex ratio.

Q. 2. Write a short note on the age structure of the world population. 

Ans. Age composition is one of the basic characteristics of any population. People of different ages reside in the population of a country. Differences in age structure give rise to social and economic differences. Importance Age structure is a basic characteristic of any population. It reveals many mysteries. The variation in age structure has far-reaching consequences. 

Age structure gives an idea of ​​the labor force of a region. Age structure affects the needs and efficiency and employment of the country. This gives an idea of ​​the dependent class of the population. This gives knowledge of the future population growth pattern of the country. Factors determining age structure — Age structure is mainly determined by three factors:

1. Reproduction 2. Mortality 3. Migration.

Distribution of age group: Generally, the population of a country is kept in three categories. 

  • 1. Young age group—The population of 0-14 years is included in this age group. 40 percent of the population of developing or backward nations comes under this category and 25-30 percent of the population of developed nations comes under this category.
  • 2. The adult age group—The population in this group is 15 to 59 years and is biologically reproductive. In developed nations, it is up to 60 percent.
  • 3. Old age group This age group includes the population of 60 years and above. Its percentage in the total population of developed nations ranges from 10 to 20 percent. 

Q.3. What is the sex ratio? Why is the sex ratio unbalanced in the world? Explain any four reasons with suitable examples. 

Ans. The number of females per one thousand males is called the sex ratio. For example, in India, there are 933 females per 1000 males.

The following reasons for the imbalance of the sex ratio in the world:

  • 1. The infant girl mortality rate is higher than the male mortality rate in both developed and developing economies of the world.
  • 2. Women’s influence is more after the age of 30 in developed countries. 3. Women are given second-class status in developing countries.
  • 4. High death rate is found in all age groups of women.
  • 5. Boys are given priority in society and family while girls are neglected. 

Q.4. On what basis is the Human Development Index measured? Explain these grounds. 

Ans. The Human Development Index is considered a reliable indicator of economic development. The concept of human development is a more comprehensive concept than the traditional theories of economic development. Human development considers the production and distribution of goods and the expansion and use of human potential together. It considers every aspect of society – economic growth, business, employment, political freedom, cultural values, etc. from the perspective of the people. 

This index is measured on three bases— (i) life span, (ii) literacy, and (iii) standard of living.

  • (i) Life span. Longevity – Life span refers to the expectation of living for a long time while being happy and healthy. Its measurement is done on the basis of living life. Life expectancy in India as per the 2001 census is 63 years)
  • (ii) Knowledge or Educational Attainment— By knowledge is meant the average educational qualification. It is measured on the following two bases: (a) Gross Enrollment Ratio and (b) Adult Literacy Rate.
  • (iii) Standard of living or Real GDP per Capita or Standard of Living —— Standard of living refers to the standard of living. It is measured on the basis of real per capita income. The higher this income, the more amenities a person can access, and the higher the Human Development Index.

After ascertaining the above three bases, their average is determined and this average is called Human Development Index. Human Development Index = Life Expectancy Index + Educational Achievement Per Capita Real Gross Domestic Product Index Thus Human Development Index also remains between 0-1. The higher this index is, the higher the economic development is considered.

If you find any kind of error in this article, then do tell us by commenting, we will try to fix it as soon as possible because most mistakes happen while writing 😅😅😅😅😅😅😅😅

Geography Notes In English

MCQs Geography In English

  • Chapter 1 Data – Its Source and Compilation
  • Chapter 2 Data Processing
  • Chapter 3 Graphical Representation of Data
  • Chapter 4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
  • Chapter 5 Field Surveys
  • Chapter 6 Spatial Information Technology

Geography Notes In Hindi

MCQs Geography In Hindi

  • अध्याय 1 डेटा – इसका स्रोत और संकलन
  • अध्याय 2 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग
  • अध्याय 3 डेटा का चित्रमय प्रतिनिधित्व
  • अध्याय 4 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग और मैपिंग में कंप्यूटर का उपयोग
  • अध्याय 5 फील्ड सर्वेक्षण
  • अध्याय 6 स्थानिक सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी


Q. 1. What is meant by literacy rate? 

Ans. Literacy rate – Literacy rate refers to the percentage of people in the age group of 15 years and above who are able to read and write simple statements in their daily life.

Q. 2. What are the factors affecting literacy?

Ans. Level of economic development, level of urbanization, the standard of living, the status of women and caste groups in the society, availability of education facilities and government policy, etc. are the factors affecting literacy.

Q. 3. What are the reasons for the increase in the rate of urbanization in the world? 

Ans. The rate of urbanization has increased as a result of advancement in the technological sector of various economies, industrialization, and an increase in employment opportunities.

Leave a Comment