Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 4 Human Development

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If are you looking for questions and answers To the Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 4 then this website is for you.

So students, after reading this article, you will get very high marks in the exam from this chapter because all the exam-related questions are described in it, so read it completely.

I have been a 12th topper myself and I know what kind of questions are asked in the 12th exam. Presently, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written this article with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to score very good marks in Geography from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 4 Human Development

Class12th 
Chapter No04
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameHuman Development
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectGeography
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Human Development

* Human Development is the process of expanding the level of aspirations of human beings and the facilities of living available to them. 

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 4
image credit: social media-Human Development

★ Economic Development — Economic development refers to the process of increasing human income in terms of production and productivity.

★ Life Expectancy — The average age at which a human dies. It also varies with the change in infant mortality rate. Adult literacy — the proportion of literate people to the total adult population who have attained a minimum level of literacy. It is expressed in percentage. Purchasing power parity—an indicator of a high standard of living for expressing adjusted per capita gross national product.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. Which states have the highest literacy rate?

Ans. The rate of education is highest in 9 states and union territories. Kerala ranks first among these. The literacy rate here is 90.92 percent. These states are Kerala, Mizoram, Lakshadweep, Goa, Delhi, Chandigarh, Pondicherry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Daman, and Diu.

Q. 2. What is the age limit for the primary school level? 

Ans. The age range of primary school level is 6 to 11 years. Some students are more or less than this age limit.

Q. 3. Which formula is used for the analysis of elements affecting the environment?

Ans. I = PAT where 

  • I = environmental impact,
  • P = Population (Density and Growth), 
  • A = Abundance and
  • T = Harmful technology used in production.

Q. 4. What is the meaning of development? 

Ans. Development means qualitative change which is relative to value.

Q.5. What are the important aspects of development?

Ans. The quality of life that people enjoy in a country, the opportunities available to them, and the freedoms they enjoy are important aspects of development.

class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science
EnglishHindi

Q. 6. On what concepts is the idea of ​​human development based? 

Ans. The idea of ​​human development rests on the concepts of equity, sustainability, productivity, and empowerment.

Q.7. What are the approaches to human development? 

  • Ans. (a) Income Approach
  • (b) Welfare Approach
  • (c) minimalist approach 
  • (d) Capability Approach.

Q.8. What is the rank of the Human Development Index (HDI)?

Ans. The ranking of the Human Development Index is based on the score between 0 and 1 a country receives on one of the important indicators of human development.

Q. 9. What do you understand by development?

Ans. Development means raising the standard of living of the people and general conditions of human welfare. 

Q. 10. What is the state?

Ans. The land in which there is a similarity of geographical conditions and homogeneity of development-related problems.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q.1. ‘Development and environmental degradation are two sides of the same coin.’ To what extent is this statement correct?

Ans. Gradually, humans discovered techniques to overcome natural barriers. To combat the challenges of climate, started consuming clothes and housing and started rearing animals and growing trees and drinks. The progress of social and economic organizations and the development of technology greatly enhanced the capacity to produce goods and develop services through the exploitation of natural resources. The development of means of transport hastened the process of exploitation of resources. With the Industrial Revolution, humans developed immense knowledge, skill, power and technology. 

Through this, he now started controlling nature and started exploiting the resources of matter and energy on a large scale. As a result, depletion of natural resources, scarcity, over-exploitation and environmental degradation started. Thus man became the destroyer of nature. Human impact on the environment is through the use of natural resources. Thus it is clear that human development and environmental degradation are two sides of the same coin.

Q. 2. Discuss the concept of human development. 

Ans. Long and healthy life, education, and a high standard of living are the main elements of human development. Other options for human development are political freedom, a guarantee of human rights, various components of self-reliance, and self-respect. Human development is the process of increasing people’s choices and raising the level of public welfare. The concept of human development is not only related to the development of the economy, but it is related to the overall development of human beings. 

Like economic factors, political, cultural, and social factors are also given equal importance. Apart from this, special attention is also given to both the goals and means of development. The expansion of human choices is considered to be the goal of development. But the expansion of income is considered as its essential sion.

Q.3. Explain the difference between human development and human resource development. 

Ans. Human development is the process of increasing the choices of the people and raising the level of public welfare. Long and healthy life, education, and a high standard of living are the main elements of human development.

Human Resource Development The resources required for human development are called human resource development. Political freedom, a guarantee of human rights, self-reliance, and self-respect are essential options for human development. Development should be for the people and not the people for development, development should be participatory. There should be opportunities for disinvestment to improve the capabilities of the people in health, education, and training. People should get opportunities to make full use of their abilities.

Q.4. What is the welfare approach to human development?

Ans. This approach views human beings as the beneficiary or the target of all developmental activities. This approach argues for higher government expenditure on education, health, social security, and amenities. People are not participants in development but they are only passive recipients. Governments are responsible for increasing the levels of human development by spending the maximum on welfare.

Q.5. Bhutan is the only country in the world to have declared Gross National Happiness (GNH) as the official measure of the country’s progress. Comment on this. 

Ans. Bhutanese have approached their environment or other aspects of cultural and spiritual life cautiously or mindful of the potential damage caused by material progress and technological development. It simply means that material progress cannot be made at the cost of happiness. Gross National Happiness encourages us to consider the spiritual, material, and qualitative aspects of development.

Q.6. What is the difference between the concepts of economic development and human development? 

Ans. There is a fundamental difference between economic development and human development. In economic development, only emphasis is given to increasing income whereas human development means an emphasis on change in human choices. Economic, social, cultural, and political development are the main options for human development. Economic development is essential for the development of all these. The basic principle of economic development is the good use of income in development works and not income. This increases human choices. The real wealth of any nation is its people. So there should be human development.

Q.7. Explain the difference-

(a) Human Development and Human Resource Development 

(b) Economic development and human development.

Ans. (a) Human Development and Human Resource Development-

Human Development – ​​Human development is the process of increasing the choices of the people and raising the level of public welfare. Long and healthy life, education, and a high standard of living are the main elements of human development. Human Resource Development The resources required for human development are called human resource development. Political freedom, a guarantee of human rights, self-reliance, and self-respect are essential options for human development. Development should be for people and not people for development. Development should be participatory. Health, education, and training capabilities of people

There should be opportunities for disinvestment to improve People should get opportunities to make full use of their abilities.

(b) Economic development and human development – Economic development – In economic development, the emphasis was mainly on increasing human income. goes. Economic development is essential for economic, social, cultural, and political development. Economic development has the right use of income and not income. Human Development – ​​Human development is the process of increasing the choices of the people and raising the level of public welfare. Long and healthy life, education, and a high standard of living are the main elements of human development.

Q. 8. Discuss the concept of human development. 

Ans. Long and healthy life, education, and a high standard of living are the main elements of human development. Other options for human development are political freedom, the guarantee of human rights, various components of self-reliance, and self-respect. Human development is the process of increasing people’s choices and raising the level of public welfare. 

The concept of human development is not only related to the development of the economy, but it is related to the overall development of human beings. Like economic factors, political, cultural and social factors are also given equal importance. Apart from this, special attention is also given to both the goals and means of development. The expansion of human choices is considered to be the goal of development. But expansion of income is considered as its essential means.

Q.9. Explain why human development is necessary. 

Ans. Human development is necessary for the following reasons- 1. The objective of development is to improve human conditions and increase the choices for people.

2. Human development is a means to higher productivity. Fit, healthy, educated, skilled, and alert workers are capable of producing more. Therefore, disinvestment in human development is justified on the basis of productivity.

Q. 10. Describe the design of the health indicators.

Ans. Health indicators are measured in terms of birth rate, death rate, nutrition, and life expectancy at birth. The death rate has decreased rapidly in India. The death rate was 25.1 in 1951 but it came down to 8.7 in 1999. But there was no decrease in the birth rate. In 1999 the infant mortality rate has halved as compared to 1951. The death rate of children up to the age of four has come down considerably. 

It was 51.9 per thousand in 1971, which reduced to 22.5 in 1999. Thus the risk of death decreased at every stage of life. The fertility rate has also decreased at a slow pace. It was 40.8 per thousand in 1951, which decreased to 26.1 in 1999. The details of the demographic indicators from 1951 to 1999 are given in the table below.

Q. 11. What is the place of education in the human development process? Please explain 

Ans. Education is a part of the social indicators. Education has been universally considered a major component of human resources. A minimum certain level of literacy is essential for the people. It lifts people out of the vicious circle of poverty. Therefore, human development is assessed in terms of literacy. Education contributes to development by raising the standard of living of human beings. Education and a high human standard of living are the main elements of human development. 

Q. 12. Discuss the economic development in India.

Ans. The ultimate goal of development is progress. Economic development means increasing income. Economic productivity is an essential part of human development. Economic development is a means of human progress. Growth in the economy and productivity can be assessed by gross national product and per capita income. The GDP at constant prices (1993-94) increased from Rs 1404.66 billion in 1950-1951 to Rs 11485.00 billion in 1999-2000. 

Accordingly, the per capita net national product at constant prices was Rs.3,687 in 1950-51, which increased to Rs.10,067 in 1999-2000. Poverty alleviation has been an essential part of India’s economic development strategy. According to the latest statistics, the proportion of poverty is 27.9 percent in villages, 23.62 percent in cities, and 26.10 percent in the whole of India. According to 999-2000, 26 percent of people are below the poverty line.

Q. 13. What are the factors affecting the quality of the environment? 

Ans. The quality of the environment depends on three factors- 

  • 1. Pollution generation according to the number of resources used and per unit of production.
  • 2. Per capita production and consumption.
  • 3. Size of the population.

A formula has been developed for analyzing the impact of these elements on the environment.

I = PAT

where I = environmental impact, P = population (density and growth), A = abundance and = harmful technology used in production. The density and increase in population is the main factor of environmental pollution.

Q. 15. Draw a pattern of enrollment at the primary level in India. 

Ans. The total enrollment at the primary level (IV) has also increased by 5.91 times. Enrollment was 1.92 crore in 1950-51, which has increased to 11.361 crores in 1999-2000, in which the enrollment of girls increased. It was 28.1 percent in 1950-51, which increased to 43.6 percent in 1999-2000. The total enrollment at the upper primary levels (VI-VIII) has increased, from 31 lacks to 4.206 crores in the same period. There is a wide disparity in enrollment across states and union territories. 

Q. 16. Discuss the progress of economic indicators of human development in the country.

Ans. Economic indicators of human development are related to wages, income, and employment. Per capita domestic product, extent of poverty, and employment opportunities are desired indicators of this group. These have been converted into composite indices for an overall picture of human development. After getting independence, there has been a lot of human development in India. India ranks 115 out of 162 countries on the Human Development Index. 

Not only developed countries are ahead of India in terms of human development, but also developing countries like Sri Lanka and Indonesia are far ahead of India. In economic development, the emphasis is on increasing human income. Expansion of income is considered as its essential means.

Long Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. How are economic development and human development related to each other? Why was there a need for human development?

Ans. (a) Economic development and human development- Economic indicators of human development are related to wages, income, and employment. Per capita domestic product, extent of poverty, and employment opportunities are desired indicators of this group. These have been converted into composite indices for an overall picture of human development. India has made a lot of human development since getting independence. 

India ranks 115 out of 162 countries on the Human Development Index. Not only developed countries are ahead of India in terms of human development, but developing countries like Sri Lanka and Indonesia are also far ahead of India, and emphasis is given to increasing human income in economic development. Expansion of income is considered as its essential means.

(b) Need for Human Development – Human development is necessary for the following reasons- 1. The purpose of development is to improve human conditions and increase the choices for people. 2. Human development is a means to higher productivity. Fit, healthy, educated, skilled, and alert workers are capable of producing more. Therefore, disinvestment in human development is justified on the basis of productivity. 3. It helps in reducing the size of the family by slowing down the rate of human reproduction.

4. Human development is also physically environment-friendly. Deforestation and soil erosion are also reduced by reducing poverty. 5. Superior human conditions contribute to the welfare of society.

6. Human development reduces social unrest and helps in increasing political stability. 

Q.2. Economic development depends on natural environmental action, on the adaptive interaction between technology and institutions, explain. 

Ans. (a) Development – ​​Human development is the process of increasing the choices of the people and raising the level of public welfare. In the context of regional development, the concept of development is that the standard of living of the people should be high and the general conditions of human welfare should increase. Per capita income is an important indicator of development. Therefore, the per capita income of the people should increase. Increase in economic output and national income. In this way, there should be equal progress in all parts of the country and in all sections of society.

(b) Development parameters – There are three basic parameters of development of any country – 1. The natural environment, 2. Technology and 3. Institutions.

effect of parameters

1. Natural Environment- It determines the direction of economic development. For example, cutting wood and hunting in forested areas, fishing in coastal areas, and agriculture in river valleys are the main occupations of the people. 

2. Technology- The level of production in any country depends on the technology available to the people there. Technology is the weapon through which man uses his natural environment. India is not poor in natural resources, but poor in technology. 

3. Institutions Institutions are formed to encourage economic development. These institutions run society smoothly. Sometimes economic development stops due to the criticism of these institutions.

Q.3. Discuss the factors affecting the impact of human beings on the environment.

Ans. There is a relationship between population, environment, and development. Human impact on the environment is through the use of natural resources. Not only this, it is also polluted by the emission of pollutants into the environment resulting from the process of production and consumption of goods and services. The size of the population and its continuous increase also pollute the environment. The quality of the environment depends on the following three factors-

  • 1. The origin of pollution according to the number of resources consumed and per unit of production.
  • 2. Per capita production and consumption.
  • 3. Size of the population. A formula has been made for the impact of these elements on the environment.
  • In this
  • I=PAT I = Environmental Impact
  • P = Population (Density and Growth)
  • A= = Abundance T = Harmful technology used in production.

The density and growth of the population are the major factors. In this, there is pressure on the resources due to which they are exhausted or become scarce or over-exploited. This causes the degradation of the environment. Technology is the third factor that greatly affects the environment.

Q.4. What do you mean by the term human development?

Ans. Long and healthy life, education, and a high standard of living are the main elements of human development. Other options for human development are political freedom, the guarantee of rights for both human beings, and various components of self-reliance and self-respect. Human development is the process of increasing people’s choices and raising the level of public welfare. 

The concept of human development is not only related to the development of the economy, but it is related to the overall development of human beings. Like economic factors, political, cultural, and social factors are also given equal importance. Apart from this, the goals and means of development are also given special attention. Expansion of human options is considered as the goal of development but its expansion is considered a necessary means. 

Q.5. What do you understand by equity and sustainability under the human development concept? 

Ans. It is one of the four pillars of the human development concept. Equity and the second pillar is sustainability.

Equity refers to equal access to opportunities available to each individual. The opportunities available to the people should be equal without consideration of discrimination of gender, race, income, and caste in the context of India. Although it does not happen mostly, yet it happens in almost every society. 

For example, in any country, it is interesting to know which class the majority of dropout students belong to. Then the reasons behind such incidents should be found out. A large number of women and persons belonging to socially and economically backward classes drop out of school in India. This shows how lack of access to education limits the options of these sections. 

Sustainable sustainability – Sustainable human development requires equal opportunities for each generation. All environmental, financial, and human resources should be used keeping the future in mind. Misuse of any one of these resources will reduce opportunities for future generations.

Sending girls to school is a good example. If a community does not stress the importance of sending its girls to school, many opportunities for these women will be lost when they are young. Their career options will be drastically curtailed and this will affect other aspects of their lives as well. Therefore, each generation should ensure the availability of opportunities and choices for future generations.

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Geography Notes In English



MCQs Geography In English


  • Chapter 1 Data – Its Source and Compilation
  • Chapter 2 Data Processing
  • Chapter 3 Graphical Representation of Data
  • Chapter 4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
  • Chapter 5 Field Surveys
  • Chapter 6 Spatial Information Technology

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Geography Notes In Hindi



MCQs Geography In Hindi


  • अध्याय 1 डेटा – इसका स्रोत और संकलन
  • अध्याय 2 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग
  • अध्याय 3 डेटा का चित्रमय प्रतिनिधित्व
  • अध्याय 4 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग और मैपिंग में कंप्यूटर का उपयोग
  • अध्याय 5 फील्ड सर्वेक्षण
  • अध्याय 6 स्थानिक सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी

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FAQs

Q. 1. What is the main goal of development?

Ans. The main goal of development is the prosperity of human life. Long and healthy life, Education. and a high standard of living are the main elements of human development.

Q. 2. What do you understand by Human Development Index?

Ans. The scale is used to measure human development. It is called the standard index. (1) longevity, (2) knowledge base, and (3) high standard of living are the main human indices.

Q.3. Name three groups of indicators of ‘human development’. 

Ans. Health indicators, social indicators, and economic indicators are indicators of human development.

Q.4. What is the place of India in the world in human development? 

Ans. India ranks 115th in the Human Development Index developed for 162 countries by the United Nations Development Programme. India has got a place among the countries of medium development. 

Q. 5. How do social indicators affect human development?

Ans. Education is a major component of human development resources. It can lift people out of poverty.

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