Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 6 Secondary Activities

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So students, after reading this article, you will get very high marks in the exam from this chapter because all the exam-related questions are described in it, so read it completely.

I have been a 12th topper myself and I know what kind of questions are asked in the 12th exam. Presently, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written this article with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to score very good marks in Geography from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 6 Secondary Activities

Chapter No06
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameSecondary Activities
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 6 Secondary Activities

* Capitalist economy – Under this economy, there is personal ownership of the means of production.

★ Communist Economy — In this economy, ownership is public. Therefore, the government also owns the industries. 

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 6 Secondary Activities
Secondary Activities

★ Mixed economy — Public and private sectors are believed to co-exist in this economy.

★ Industrial regions or clusters – When a bunch of similar or interconnected industries develops, it is called an industrial cluster. 

* Industries – those activities in which the products of primary business (agriculture, animal husbandry, mining, fishing) are processed using techniques and converted into more useful goods.

★ Manufacturing The process of making goods by hand or machines. 

* Production cost- The expenditure on production industries in the form of labor, capital, power and raw material is called cost price or production cost. 

★ Production- The substance prepared inside an industry is called production.

★ Petro Chemical – Chemical substances which are dependent on coal, natural gas or petrol are called Petro chemicals.

★ Personal Sector — Property or industry that is owned by an individual. 

★ Public Sector-Wealth-property or industry, which is owned by the whole society.

* National Industries Industries are established by the government of a country. 

★ Multinational Industries — Industries that are run by foreign aid.

★ Agro-based industries- such industries which are based on the raw material obtained from agriculture. * Small Scale Industries – Industries that are run by small capital and machines. ★ Cottage Industries – Hand-run businesses that are based on local raw materials. 

★ Heavy Industries – Those industries which are run by large specialists in large factories with the goods received from primary industries.

★ Basic Industries — Those industries whose products are used in other industries are called basic industries. Like- as the iron-steel industry, and the chemical industry. 

★ Consumer Industries – Those industries whose finished goods are consumed directly, such as sugar, edible oil, tea, bread, etc. industries. Is.

★ Mixed Industry System – In this, there is a co-existence of private and public sectors 

★ Light Industries – Those industries, which require less raw material, their raw material is light and of small quantity. 

Production by division of labor and maximum use of machines. 

★ Petrochemical Industry – Those industries in which various products are made by refining impure petroleum.


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q.1.. What is called basic industry? 

Ans. Industries whose products are used to obtain other types of products.

Q.2. Which industries are set up near raw materials? Give example 

Ans. Raw materials are the basis of industries. The industries which are manufactured are set up near the raw materials. Like making sugar from sugarcane. In industries where heavy raw materials are used, these industries are to be located near the goods. For example, the iron and steel industry.

Q.3. Give some examples of small-scale industries.

Ans. Examples are the textile industry, kaka goods, metal utensils, forest industry, etc.

Q.4. What is the basic industry? 

Ans. Industries whose products are used to obtain other types of products are called basic industries. 

Q.5. What is the consumer goods manufacturing industry?

Ans. Industries that manufacture such products are called direct consumption goods manufacturing industries. 

Q.6. Give examples of industries based on forest produce. 

Ans. Pulp industry, paper industry, revan industry, etc.

Q.7. Give two examples each of basic and consumer industries.

Ans. Basic industries- iron-steel industry and mechanization equipment industry. Consumer industries – soap industry and tea industry. 

Q.8. Mention the factors affecting the localization of industries. 

Ans. Factors affecting the localization of industries are-

  • 1. Physical and Economic Factors – Climate, Raw Material, Means of Transport, Means of Energy, Market Facility, Management and Capital
  • 2. Political factors—Government policies.
  • 3. Human Factors – Personal Choices and Decisions.
  • 4. Facility to start.

Q.9. What are the industries based on agriculture? 

Ans. Such industries, which are based on the raw material obtained from agriculture, are called agro-based industries. For example cotton textile industry, jute industry, sugar industry, etc.

class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science

Q. 10. What are the industries based on minerals? 

Ans. Those industries which use minerals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries. Like- the iron-steel industry.


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. Write the problems of the cotton textile industry.

Ans. The cotton textile industry is the most organized industry in India; But there are many problems in this industry- 1. The production of long-staple cotton in the country is less. This cotton has to be imported from abroad.

2. The machinery of the cotton textile mills is old, due to which the production is low and the cost is high.

3. It is necessary to install powered machines for the modernity of machinery. For this, digestible capital is required. 

4. There is competition from the handloom industry in the country and there is intense competition from the readymade garments of China and Japan in the foreign market.

Q.2. What do you understand by the manufacturing industry?

Ans. The process of changing the form of raw material with the help of machines to get more useful finished goods is called the manufacturing industry. It is a subsidiary or secondary occupation of man. That’s why in the construction industry, the form of the object changes, it becomes more useful and the value of that substance increases with construction. Just like long and paper is made from wood. Yarn and cloth are made from cotton. Steel and fruit parts are made from mineral iron. 

Q.3. What is meant by heavy industry?

Ans. Heavy Industry – The basic industries that use mineral substances are called heavy industries. The heavy materials in these industries have been manufactured in modern mills. These industries are the cornerstone of a country’s industrialization; industries manufacturing iron steel, machinery tools, and engineering goods are counted in the category of heavy industries. Is?

Q. 4. In what different ways can industries be classified? 

Ans. Industries are classified on the following basis- 

(i) On the basis of the size and functionality of the industries, there are two types of industries— 

(a) large scale industries, 

(b) Small scale industries.

(ii) On the basis of industrial development, industries are of two types— 

(a) cottage industry 

(b) Modern craft industry 

(iii) On the basis of ownership there are three types of industries—

(a) public industries (those managed by the government itself), 

(b) private industry, 

(c) Government industries.

(iv) On the basis of raw material industries are of two types— 

(a) Industries based on agriculture 

(b) Industries based on minerals. 

(v) Industries are of two types on the basis of goods — (a) Light industries, 

(b) Heavy industry.

(vi) Similarly industries have been placed in many different categories. Like handicraft, rural. Industry, household industry etc. 

Q.5. What are the factors that control the location of industries?

Ans. The location of an industry depends on both geographical and non-geographical factors. Geographical factors include proximity to raw materials, means of power, climate, labor, transport means, water resources etc. but the following non-geographical factors are also helpful in the establishment of industries-

  • 1. Availability of adequate capital, 
  • 2. efficient management system, 
  • 3. Proximity to market, 
  • 4. Excess of demand, 
  • 5. Government Policy, 
  • 6. Starting of industries due to historical reasons. 

Q.6. What do you understand by national and multinational industry?

Ans. Industries established by the government of its own country are called national industries, but when an industry is established with the help of another country, it is called a multinational industry. In this industry, raw materials, labor, and market facilities are provided by the local country where this industry is established, but the help of foreign capital and technical knowledge for the industry is received from abroad. Such industries have been established by the developed countries of the world in India and many developing countries. For example, Coca-Cola is a multinational enterprise.

Labor capital and the market are important determinants of industries. These are also called the basic factors of industries. All these factors work together. The importance of each factor varies with time, place, and industry. Due to these favorable elements, many industries are established in some places. This region becomes an industrial region. 

The factors of localization of industries are divided into two categories- 

(i) Geographical factors,

(ii) Non-geographical factors. 

Q.7. What is the difference between industrial investment and production?

Ans. Industrial Inputs Raw material, power, capital, labor, and machinery are required to establish a modern manufacturing industry. The producer manufactures the desired goods by applying all these factors in his industries. All these factors are called industrial inputs. The raw materials may be of different types for each industry, but labor and capital are essential inputs for all types of industries.

Outputs The finished goods made in a manufacturing industry are called the production of that industry. It is done on large scale by machines and at a low cost so as to get maximum profit. Production quality and cost depend on a good advantageous location where raw materials, power sources, skilled labor, market, and transport facilities are available for that industry.

Q. 8. Classify the industries on the basis of size. What are the characteristics of cottage industries?

Ans. On the basis of size, industries can be divided into three categories- 

  • (a) Cottage industries
  • (b) Small-scale industries / small-scale industries 
  • (c) Large scale industries

Characteristics of the Cottage Industry: Those industries in which useful goods are manufactured by using local raw materials are called cottage industries. These industries are run at home with the help of family members. Machines are not used in these but efficiency and skill are used with the help of human labor.

This skill and efficiency can be seen from generation to generation. The goods produced can be sold in the local market. The goods produced are sold in the local market. The biggest advantage of this industry is that farmers in rural areas get an opportunity to utilize their free time. Cottage industries are of great importance in many countries of Asia and Africa. Handicraft products made in these industries are in great demand in developed countries. Beedi making, carpets, cotton-silk jute items, porcelain toys, ropes, ivory items, and precious stones and ornaments are made in this industry. 

Q. 9. Classify industries on the basis of the nature of products. What are the characteristics of the consumer goods manufacturing industry? 

Ans. On the basis of the nature of products, industries can be divided into two parts-

  • (a) Basic Industries 
  • (b) Consumer goods industries.

Characteristics of Consumer Goods Industry: The industries whose products are used for self-use are called consumer goods industries. These are also called basic industries because the products of these industries are not raw materials for any other industries but are manufactured goods for the consumption of the consumers. Examples are soap, tea, bread, biscuits, toffee, bread, cosmetics, radio, television, pottery, furniture industry, etc. 

Q. 10. Write a note on agro-based industries.

Ans. Agro-based industries—those industries which are based on the raw material obtained by agriculture, animal husbandry, and fishing are called agro-based industries. The products obtained from agriculture are the raw material of these industries. Industries convert this raw material into more useful items and increase their value. Agriculture-based industries are very important in developing economies because most of people are engaged in agriculture. Agriculture and its related industries are the main basis of livelihood of crores of people. These industries contribute a lot to increasing the national income of developing countries. Examples of these are cotton textile, jute, sugar, tea, vegetable oil industries, etc. 

Q. 11. Write a note on Chemical Industry.

Ans. Chemical Industry- Chemical industry is a very important industry of the modern era because its products are used in agriculture, metallurgy, textile, leather, paper, glass, ceramic utensils, soap, food processing etc. Some chemical products like salt, potash, sulfur, limestone, coal, petroleum, etc. are obtained from minerals. And some are found as by-products. Chemical industries can be divided into the following categories-

(i) Heavy Chemical Industries: These industries are mainly established near mineral deposits because in these mineral deposits like salt or sulfur and industrial products are used as raw materials. The heavy chemical industry produces sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, caustic soda, soap, glass, paper, and cement. (ii) Petrochemical Industry—In this industry mainly coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.

The obtained chemical substances are used as raw materials. Explosives, fertilizers, plastics, synthetic fibers, and synthetic rubber are made in this. household items

Articles such as artificial ornaments, shoulders, linoleum for flooring, colors, etc. are also made. 

Q. 12. Differentiate between chemical and petrochemical.

Ans. Chemical—Chemicals are used in many industries for smelting ores, refining metals, making fertilizers for farms, manufacturing textiles, dyes, paper, soap, glass, explosives, artificial rubber, artificial fibers, etc. goes. Washing soda, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, etc. are some examples of chemicals.

Petrochemical — It is a substance derived from coal, natural gas, petroleum, etc. It is used in the manufacture of gallstones, fertilizers, plastics, synthetic fibers, and synthetic rubber. Home utensils, agriculture, jewelry, boxes, colors, etc. are made from it.

Q.13. State the difference between heavy and light industries.


(i) Heavy Industries – Those industries whose raw material and finished goods both are heavy and occupy more space. That’s why the transport expenditure is more on these, they are called heavy industries. Iron steel, engineering, and cement industries come under the category of heavy industries. 

(ii) Light Industries: In this industry both the raw material and the finished goods are light and in which women laborers also work are called light industries. The goods industry, electric fans, etc. come under the category of the light industry.

Q. 14. Differentiate between large-scale industries and small-scale industries.

Ans. Difference between small-scale industry and large-scale industry

large industriessmall industry
1. It is on a small scale.1. It happens on a large scale. 
2. Simple machines running on energy in these 2. Ultra-modern and energy-driven automatic machines are used in these. 
3. More capital and more labor are used in these industries. 3. These industries require less capital and less labor.
4. Raw materials are procured from distant places if they are not available in the local market.4. Raw material is obtained from distant places.
The management of small-scale industries is simple.5. Management of large-scale industries is very complex. 
6. The produce is sold in the outside market 6. The produce is sold in a distant market

Q 15. Differentiate between cottage and small-scale industries. 

Ans. Difference between the cottage and small-scale industry-

cottage industriessmall industry
(i) Cottage industries are run by the members of the family on the basis of efficiency. It goes that efficiency is a family property.(i) Run small-scale industries with the help of labor
(ii) Their products meet the needs of the family.(ii) Their products are sold in the markets through traders.
(iii) Local raw material is used in these. (iii) If the local raw material is not available in these, it is imported from far away.
(iv) Production takes place on a small scale in these.(iv) Production is medium in these
(v) In these, production is done with the help of simple tools and equipment, but now some improved and capable equipment is being used.(v) In these production is done by small moving machines
(vi) These industries are sources of income for the farmers.(vi) These industries are run by small industrialists

Q. 16. What is the difference between private industry and public sector industries? 

private industriespublic sector
(i) Money, property, and industry which is owned by a particular person. It is called private sector industries, these works run without government interference. such as paper, sugar, industry(i) The wealth and industry on which the society is dominated are called the public sector. Such as government building construction, Indian Railways, Bhilai steel factory, HMT, and Visakhapatnam shipbuilding.
(ii) Most of them contain private and borrowed capital(ii) Their products are sold in the markets through traders.
(iii) It consists mostly of small-scale industries.(iii) It includes mostly large-scale industries and basic industries.

Q. 17. Differentiate between basic and consumer industries.

basic industriesconsumer industry
(i) The industries whose products are used to obtain other types of products are called basic.(i) The industries whose products are directly used by consumers are called consumer industries.
(ii) Iron and steel industry is the best example of this.(ii) Tea, bread, radio, television, etc. are examples of consumer industries.

Q.18. “Most of Europe’s petrochemical industries are located on the seashore.” Explain.

Ans. Europe’s petrochemical industries are concentrated near areas where demand is high. Therefore, this industry has been established in the southern North Sea and the coastal region of the English Channel. The main centers of this region are the cities of Antwerp, Rotterdam, Southampton, and the Chilean valley of the Seine River. In Germany, this industry extends to the Sour Valley and in France to the port of Marseilles on the south coast in Liharwe Ruppen. 

Q. 19. Classify the industries on the basis of ownership and management.

Ans. The ownership and management of industries is based on the economy of a country, production relations, and industrial policy of that country. Therefore, classification on the basis of ownership of industries is possible only in the background of different economies, which are as follows— 

(a) Public sector industries—These industries are owned by the government or government organizations. There is government control over production, trade, etc. Indian Railways, Hindustan Machine Tools, and Bhilai Iron and Steel Center are examples of public industries.

(b) Private Sector Industries —— These industries are owned by a single individual, a few individuals, or a firm or company. Their production, trade, and distribution are controlled by a particular person, firm, or company. Weston TV, Bata Shoe Company, and Tata Iron and Steel Company are examples of private-sector industries.

(c) Joint Sector Industries Such industries that are jointly owned by the state and some people or private firms are called mixed sector industries. Like- Oil India Limited and Mysore Iron Steel Works etc. write 

Q. 20. A note on the iron and steel industry of the Great Lakes region of the United States of America

Ans. Great Lakes Region — This region is the main iron and steel production area of ​​the United States. Its base is the best quality coke from Pennsylvania. Iron ore is obtained from the mines of Masabi, Kuna, Gogevik, Menamin etc. in the Lake Superior region. Limestone is found in the Appalachian mountain regions and around Alpena on the western shore of Lake Huron. Water for cooling is obtained from local rivers and lakes. 

This region of the United States has a high population density. Hence skilled and unskilled laborers get mixed. There is also a large local market available due to the density of the population and demand from other industries. Iron is in high demand in the railroad industry in Pittsburgh and Youngstown, east of the lakes, and in Chicago, south of them. The demand for iron ore is high in the industries in the coastal region of this lake. To meet this, the demand for iron ore is high. To accomplish this, iron ore is brought by ships from the Lake Superior region and Labrador mines via the St. Lawrence Seaway. 

Q. 21. Why is the future of the chemical industry bright? 

Ans. The future of the chemical industry is very bright because the chemicals produced from it are used in agriculture, metallurgy, leather, textile, glass, sugar, pottery, soap, fertilizer, medicines, food industries, etc. 

Q. 22. Giving examples of the locations of modern industries, show what is the effect of raw materials on these locations. 

Ans. Generally, the traditional geographical factors responsible for the location of industries include raw materials, sources of energy, markets, and means of transport. Raw materials are the basis of manufacturing industries. More valuable production is created only by its use. In some industries, such raw materials are used which do not reduce the weight of processing. There is a 10: 1 ratio of raw material and production in making sugar from sugarcane, which is why sugar mills are established in the sugarcane production area. 

Some industries do not require a lot of raw materials, such as the clothing industry and the electronic industry. These industries can be established anywhere. The industries which are not connected with any raw material are called footloose industries. 

Due to more progress in the means of transport, now the raw material is not so important in the establishment of the industry as it was considered earlier. Multinational corporations and countries with capital obtain raw materials by using the means of transport. The establishment of Leah and steel industries in Japan and the establishment of cotton textile industries in Liverpool Manchester prove this fact.

Long Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q.1. What are industrial clusters? Name the major industrial clusters of India. 

Ans. Industrial Clusters and Industrial Group Clusters are words that convey the same meaning (Industrial Regions or complex). When a group of industries that are interrelated to each other develops, then it is called an industrial cluster.

The clusters have facilities for electricity, water, road, and rail transport. Arrangement of the bank, skilled labor, manager, financial advisor, etc. is necessary. Following are the three industrial clusters of India- 

(i) Industrial Clusters of Eastern Region: This industrial cluster extends to Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, and Orissa. Coal, iron, manganese, mica, etc. are found in large quantities in this region. Raw material, energy, transportation facilities. Therefore, iron-steel centers like Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Bokaro, Rourkela, etc. have been established here. Mineral oil and tea are also available here.

(ii) Clusters of Western Region – Cotton textile industry has developed in vast areas of Mumbai, Surat, Bhinch, Baroda, and Ahmedabad. Chemical and petrochemical industries have also developed here. 

(III) Cotton, textile, electrical goods, and leather industries have developed in the southern industrial region up to Chennai, Madurai, and Bangalore. Machine tools, airplanes, telephones, Jayet manufacturing in Visakhapatnam, and oil refineries in Cochin have been established in Bangalore. 

Q.2. With examples, confirm which type of industries get established in one place.

Ans. The localization of industries depends on the physical, economic, political, and social conditions of a place. Some industries are established on the basis of the raw materials available here, some on the means of power, and some on the basis of means of transport and facilities of the market. Considering these things as the basis, any industry gets established someplace. Like jute industry in Dugli valley, the cotton textile industry in Mumbai, and Ahmedabad, U.S.A. Industries for the manufacture of automobiles, motorcars, and agricultural machinery have also been established in the lake region.

This localization of industries also encourages other small industries, that is, many small and big industries based on the same industry start at the same place because this type of centralization presents other facilities like labor, raw material, and market, etc.. The secondary industry obtains raw materials from its parent industry at a cheaper price. Therefore, it is true that only the establishment of a large industry at a place helps in the establishment and development of a small industry.

Q.3 What is deindustrialization? What are the reasons for this?

Ans. The manufacturing industry decline is referred to as deindustrialization. The following are the factors responsible for deindustrialization in developed countries:

1. Use of machines in place of humans in most of manufacturing industries. 

2. Competition from industrial products produced abroad at very cheap rates.

3. The cost of these products will be higher as a result of lower economic productivity and lower investment for machines. 

4. More choice in giving preference to tertiary and quaternary sector work by highly qualified people. 5. Due to high-interest rates, goods bought from abroad become costlier.

Q.4. What are the characteristics of reindustrialization in highly developed countries? 

Ans. 1. Growth of reindustrialization industries – These are industries where over-generated products are produced based on high scientific research and development. such as medicines and microelectronic goods 

2. New industries that set up manufacturing on a low labor force basis with high efficiency.

3. These new firms which are located in relatively less industrial areas or on the fringes of the metropolitan cities. 

Q.6. “Most of the iron and steel centers of the world are located in the coastal areas. To what extent is this true?

Ans. The iron and steel industry requires a large amount of coal to melt, refine and shape the metal. Coal is a heavy and volatile substance. By taking it in place of iron ore, the production value of steel increases in making steel. 

Therefore, instead of starting the industry by sending coal to the iron sector, the industry was established by transferring iron from the coal sector. Apart from this, for the manufacture of steel, about two and a half times more coal is required than that iron. Therefore, there was a need to establish industry by transporting iron to the coal area.

In the Carboniferous era, the coastal parts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans were covered with forests. Over time, these forests got buried under the layers of rocks and due to internal heat and pressure, these forests were converted into coal inside the layers of rocks. For some reason, the world’s Coal regions are found in the coastal areas. These coal regions became industrial centers of steel due to the feeling of economic benefits.

Apart from the deposit of coal in the coastal parts, one of the reasons for the transfer of industries towards the coastal parts in the present time is that these parts are helpful in the expansion of the foreign market. Produced goods can be sent out by sea transport and raw materials etc. can be imported because sea transport is cheaper and easier than land transport. The established industries in Great Britain, New South West, and territories are taking full advantage of sea transport. The same is true for Japanese industries as well. 

All the industrial clusters of Japan are located in the coastal areas. The steel centers of America’s lake region like Chicago, Gary, Detroit, etc. are connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Lake and St. Lawrence routes. Similarly, the industrial cities of Pittsburgh and Cleveland have also been merged with the Atlantic by the Hudson River. Apart from this, Shanghai in China, Cassil in Australia, Hamilton in Canada, U.S.A. San Francisco and Newcastle, Glasgow, and Edinburgh in Great Britain, etc. present such examples that most of the steel industries of the world have been established in the coastal parts only.

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Geography Notes In English

MCQs Geography In English

  • Chapter 1 Data – Its Source and Compilation
  • Chapter 2 Data Processing
  • Chapter 3 Graphical Representation of Data
  • Chapter 4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
  • Chapter 5 Field Surveys
  • Chapter 6 Spatial Information Technology

Geography Notes In Hindi

MCQs Geography In Hindi

  • अध्याय 1 डेटा – इसका स्रोत और संकलन
  • अध्याय 2 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग
  • अध्याय 3 डेटा का चित्रमय प्रतिनिधित्व
  • अध्याय 4 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग और मैपिंग में कंप्यूटर का उपयोग
  • अध्याय 5 फील्ड सर्वेक्षण
  • अध्याय 6 स्थानिक सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी


Q.1. What is meant by industries based on forest products? 

Ans. These industries which use forest products as raw materials are called forest-products-based industries. For example, the paper industry, furniture industry, etc.

Q.2. What is meant by private sector industries? 

Ans. Those industries which are owned by some individuals or firms are called private industries.

Q.3. What is meant by public sector industries?

Ans. Those industries which are owned by the government or any organization of the government are called public sector industries.

Q.4. Give two examples of large-scale industries. 

Ans. iron and steel industry and cement industry 

Q.5. What is meant by cottage industry?

Ans. Those industries, in which useful and beautiful things are made by family members sitting at home, are called cottage industries. In these industries, raw materials are obtained from the surrounding environment. In these, the use of human labor is more.

Q. 6. Give two examples of the cottage industry. 

Ans. Basket making, bidi making, and flower making are examples of cottage industries.

Q. 7. What are the three special features of modern industries?

Ans. There are three special features of modern industries-
(i) Large-scale production takes place in these industries.
(ii) Work is done by big and modern machines.
(iii) They work with electricity.

Q. 8. Which human factors affect the localization of industries? 

Ans. Man’s personal choice regarding the industry, man’s perceptions, and final decision are such human factors that affect the localization of industries.

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