Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 8 Transport and Communication

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So students, after reading this article, you will get very high marks in the exam from this chapter because all the exam-related questions are described in it, so read it completely.

I have been a 12th topper myself and I know what kind of questions are asked in the 12th exam. Presently, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written this article with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to score very good marks in Geography from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 8 Transport and Communication

Chapter No08
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameTransport and Communication
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Class 12 Geography Notes Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities

★ Types of transport — land, water, and air transport 

★ Suez Canal — The Suez Canal is the longest shipping canal.

★ Satellite communication – This satellite was launched in space on April 19, 1975, in India. * Transport – carrying useful goods and passengers from one place to another. Communication- Passing information from its source to its destination through a channel. Trade — The exchange of goods and services through a market. 

★ Highways — paved roads connecting the main cities of a country. 

★ Ropeway — A route made by ropes on rough ground. 

★ Cable route – A route made by cable (wire) on rough ground or a way to carry goods. 

★ Transcontinental railroads built across the continent and routes connecting its two ends.


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1. What is transport? 

Ans. Carrying goods and passengers from one place to another is called transport.

Q. _ 2. On what factors does the development of internal waterways depend? 

Ans. The development of internal waterways depends on the continuity of the quantity of water and its width. 

Q.3. Name the man-made waterway that connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.

Ans. Suez Canal.

Q.4. In which parts of the world is the human sister still important?

Ans. Dense forest regions, rugged mountainous regions where construction of roads is a difficult task. work, where human transport remains important 

Q.5 . When was the first railway line built?

Ans. In 1830 AD.

Q.6. What is meant by ropeway and cableway?

Ans. A ropeway is a travel route built on rough ground. Keval Marg refers to the path of travel made by Kevil (Tar) on rough ground.

class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science

Q.7. How are railways important as compared to roads? 

Ans. Compared to roads, railways are a cheaper and more convenient means of transporting large quantities of goods over long distances. 

Q.8 . When was the first train run?

Ans. In 1825, between Stockton and Darlington in northern England, the world’s first 

Q.9. Which countries of Asia have a dense network of railways? 

Ans. India, Japan, and China. 

Q. _ 10. Where is the dense network of railways found in South America?

Ans. A dense network of railways is found in the Pampas of Argentina and coffee-growing regions of Brazil. 


Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q.1. What were the effects of the British administration connecting the port cities with the hinterland through railways?

Ans. The objective of the British administration was to connect the port cities with the hinterland through railways to strengthen the imperial administration and exploit the economic resources of the country. Due to this, many business centers of India declined. Railway junctions developed as new centers. Transport by rivers reduced. The trade centers and wharf towns situated along the river routes declined.

Q.2 . Briefly describe the factors affecting the design of railways. 

Ans. The following factors have influenced the development of railways in India- 

(i) Physical Factors Railways are more developed in the flat plains of India, such as in the northern plains, but the railways are less in the mountainous inaccessible regions. Like in Assam and Himachal Pradesh.

(ii) Economic factor- There has been more expansion of railways near big industrial, commercial cities, and major ports, but due to less economic development in Rajasthan, railways are fewer. 

(iii) Political factor- Due to the policy of exploitation of the country’s resources, the British administration connected the major ports with the interior parts of the country through railways.

Q.3. How are the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean connected with East Africa and South Asia? 

Ans. The industrialized countries of Europe, East Africa, South Asia, and South-East Asia are connected by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea through the sea waterways of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. Virtually all maritime traffic from Europe to Africa, Asia, and Australia passes through this route. Eastward-bound goods mainly consist of machinery and industrial products. Agricultural products such as cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, sugar, and mineral oils are sent to the west.

Q. 4. Why is transport an important part of the national economy? 

Ans. An efficient transport network of roads, railways, waterways, and airways is very essential for the economic and social development of a country. Development can be done in agriculture and industries in a country only on the basis of a transport system. Provides a vast market for transport machinery and industrial products. Transport means are used to transport raw materials, fuel, and machinery to factories. 

The transport system plays an important role in linking production and consumption. Many regions are rich in resources like agriculture, forests, minerals, etc., but the transport system has an important contribution. Many regions are rich in resources like agriculture, forests, minerals, etc., but they cannot be utilized without a transport system. The development of transport services leads to an increase in industrialization as it increases the demand for locomotives, motor vehicles, etc. 

The development of a transport system is necessary for the economic development of developing countries like India. The economic progress of a country can be measured only by its transport. 

Q.5. What is a communication system? Where is it used?

Ans. Humans have adopted different mediums to send messages. Modern technological advances have not replaced direct contact with humans as a means of communication. The first invention in the communication system was telecommunication. At the end of the nineteenth century, the telegraph became the medium for the colonization of Western America. telephone in the urbanization of America 

This was a decisive factor as it made possible the concentration of operations at the headquarters of large companies and their branches were established in smaller towns. Fire is also the most important medium of telecommunication.

Q.6. What is the importance of the development of railways?

Ans. Importance 

  • 1. Railways help in the development of minerals in all regions. 
  • 2. Railroads help in the distribution of raw materials and finished goods in industrial areas. 
  • 3. Railroads promote trade. 
  • 4. Railways contribute in bringing political unity and stability. 
  • 5. Railways are important in providing assistance in times of crisis. 
  • 6. In regions with less population, railways become the basis of population growth.
  • 7. Railways have played an important role in connecting long distances. In fact, in the development of railways, man has conquered distance and time.

Q.7. What are the advantages of railways? 

Ans. Railways have the following advantages-

  • (i) The railway is a means of fast-speed transport at the site. 
  • (ii) Railways can carry a much greater load than motors. 
  • (iii) Railways are more suitable means of covering longer distances.

Q.8. What are the famous pipelines of USA? Mention four advantages of pipeline transport.

Ans. The name of the largest pipeline in the United States is Big Inch. Advantages – 

  • (i) The pipeline can be laid underwater on rough ground.
  • (ii) Their operation and maintenance cost is less. 
  • (iii) Through them water, mineral oil, and gas can be carried over long distances.

Q.9 How did the development of railways progress in the middle two decades of the nineteenth century? 

Ans. Revolutionary progress in the development of railways took place in the middle decades of the nineteenth century. 

  • (i) With the development of railways, it has become very easy to carry heavy goods and large quantities of goods on the ground. 
  • (ii) Railways have provided facilities for carrying passengers, various products and mail. 
  • (iii) The pace of industrialization has accelerated with the help of railways.

Q. 10. Why is road transport convenient? 

Ans. Road transport is convenient because 

  • (i) It is easy to construct a road. It can also be made in rugged areas. 
  • (ii) Construction of roads is less expensive. 
  • (iii) By road transport goods can be transported from the door of the producer to the door of the consumer. 
  • (iv) Goods for road transport do not have to be loaded or unloaded repeatedly. 
  • (v) Road transport is particularly convenient for short distances. 
  • (vi) It is more convenient to carry perishable goods. 
  • (vii) Maintenance of roads is also easy. 

Q.11 Which is the busiest sea route in the world?

Ans. The North Atlantic Oceanic waterway is the most important and busiest waterway in the world, because this route is the route of contact between the eastern coastal part of the United States and western Europe. On both sides there are industrially developed countries whose trade has a huge contribution in their economy. 

Q. 12 State the difference between National Highway and State Highway.

Q.13 State the difference between a port and a harbor

Ans. Harbor is a place for the safe stay of ships on the beach. Ships stop here to take coal etc. or to avoid storms. There are two types of shelters – natural shelters and artificial shelters. The cost of natural shelters is torn apart, where calm water is available for the vessels to stay safe. Its coastline is well closed or protected by natural landforms. India’s Mumbai harbor is a good example of a natural harbor, artificial harbors are man-made. Their bays have to be deepened and breakwaters have to be made to keep the vessels safe. The Chennai harbor is an artificial harbor in India.

Q. 14 Name the important sea waterways of the world. 

Ans. Following are the important sea routes of the world- 

  • 1. North Atlantic Oceanic Route. 
  • 2. Maritime waterways of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. 
  • 3. Cape Waterway. 
  • 4. The waterway of the South Atlantic Ocean. 
  • 5. North Pacific Ocean Waterway. 
  • 6. South Pacific Ocean Waterway. 
  • 7. Suez Canal Waterway and 8. Panama Canal Waterway.

Q. 15. Why is the sea waterway relatively cheaper? 

Ans. Sea waterways are cheaper than land routes because-

  • (i) Routes are not required to be made for sea waterways like roads and railway tracks. 
  • (ii) Apart from the capital expenditure, no more capital has to be invested in making the port. 
  • (iii) Oceanic waterways do not face any obstruction other than ice floes, storms and fog which hinder traffic.
  • (iv) Sea waterways can carry more goods than land routes. 

Q. 16 Tell the means of transport used in the world. 

Ans. Means of Transport The following means of transport are being used in the world- (i) Human beings and animals as carriers and drafters (ii) Land transport, such as road and railways (iii) Water transport, rivers, oceans and ocean (iv) pipeline. 

Q.17. Despite being expensive, road transport is very important nowadays, why so? Or, why are roads more important than railways and waterways? 

Ans. Roads are more important than railways and waterways because-

  • (i) Although road transport is costlier than railways and waterways, it is convenient to travel and carry goods. 
  • (ii) Goods can be transported from the producer’s door to the consumer’s door by road transport, which is not possible by railways. 
  • (iii) In road transport, repeated loading and unloading of goods is not required, as is done in railways. 
  • (iv) Road transport is convenient for short distances. 
  • (v) Transport facility in villages is best available by road. The villages are connected to each other by roads. (vi) Roads can be built in rugged areas where it is not possible to build railways. 
  • (vii) Roads cover more area than railways. (
  • viii) Goods and passengers reach safely and quickly by road transport.

Q. 18. By which routes is the transportation done at the site? 

Ans. For transportation on-site, transportation is done by footpaths, unpaved and paved roads, railways, cable routes, and pipeline routes. Ropeways and on-site oil transportation should be through pipelines. Rough and cut-and-torn regions, ropeways, and cable routes are used. Goods and passengers are carried in large quantities by road and railways. 

Q.19. In which parts of the world is the road transport network dense?

Ans. The developed economies of the world such as European countries and North America have a dense road transport network. Every city and port of Europe is connected to each other by highways. Similarly, the cities located on the western and eastern coasts of North America are connected by highways. Additionally, Canada in the north is connected by roads to Mexico in the south. Other major highways of North America are—

The Trans Canadian Highway – This highway connects St. John’s Town in Newfoundland to Vancouver City in Colombia. The Alaska Highway—This highway connects the city of Edmonton in Canada to the city of Askrange in Alaska.

Q.20 . What do you understand by the transcontinental railroad? Answer with examples. 

Ans. Transcontinental Railways – The railways connecting one end of the continent to the other end are called transcontinental railways. They are built for economic and political purposes. For example, the Canadian Pacific Railroad was built for political purposes, while the Trans-Siberian Railroad was built for economic purposes.

Q. 21. Name the shipping canal of Egypt. Also write its four characteristics? 

Ans. The name of the shipping canal of Egypt is Suez Canal. it has four characteristics 

  • 1. This canal is 165 km. It is long, 60 meters wide and 10 meters deep.
  • 2. 15% of the world’s trade is done through this canal. 
  • 3. It establishes contact between the industrialized countries of Europe and the developing countries of Asia. 
  • 4. By adopting this route, about 8,000 km has been added to reach Britain. Distance is saved.

Q.22 . What are the goods transported by pipeline? Name the major pipelines.

Ans. Pipelines are a very innovative means of transportation of goods. It mainly transports petroleum, gasoline, fuel oil, natural gas, and water. In most petroleum-producing regions of the day, pine lines transport crude oil from oil fields to ports on the coast where it is refined or exported overseas in crude form.

The United States has the largest number of pipelines in the world. The oil-producing countries of the Middle East have long pipelines that cross the desert and connect the port of Trieste on the Mediterranean Sea to Iraq’s oil fields. Similarly, the Trans Arabian Pine line joins Satnore (Arab) to the plain.

Oil transportation line has also been built in India. Here the vast quantity of oil from the oil fields of Assam is sent through pipelines to Varauni (Vihar) and Noonmati (Assam) refineries. A pipeline has been built from Bombay High Oil to Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) refinery. This is the longest pipeline of the country.

Q.23. Which two factors determine the flight routes?

Ans. The ventilation portions are determined by the following factors- 

(i) Facilities available on the ground for aircraft operation such as-airport, meteorological information services and technical inspection and maintenance services,s, etc.

(ii) Availability of sufficient number and material.

Q.24 What are the advantages of air transport? 

Ans. Air is the fastest but costliest mode of transport. It is used for the transport of expensive goods and passengers. Valuable goods can be transported globally quickly by air transport. Due to its high speed, it is used for long-distance travel. Air transport is a very important and useful means for rugged areas, mountainous and plateau areas, marshy areas, and areas covered with dense forests. 

Q.25. Write a note on two major inland waterways of North America. 

Ans. There are two inland waterways in North America— (i) The Great Lakes is the St. Lawrence waterway. and (ii) the Mississippi Waterway.

(i) Great lakes St. Lawrence Waterway It is a unique waterway developed in the northern part of that America. The development of the port located on this route has happened like all the convenient seaports. Therefore, large ocean-going ships can pass through the Lawrence Estuary, set south of Quebec, a considerable distance (3760 km) into the continental interior. This waterway has greatly helped in the industrial and economic development of this part.

(ii) The Mississippi Waterway The Mississippi-Ohio waterway connects the interior of the United States to the Gulf of Mexico in the south. Large cargo steamers can go to and from Minneapolis by this route.

Long Answer Type Questions

Class 12th geography
Class 12th geography

Q. 1 Explain the importance of pipelines as a means of transport. Write the name of any three pipelines of the world.

Ans. Pipeline as a means of transport is a new and important means of transport. It transports petroleum, gasoline, oil, natural gas, and water. Pipelines from most of the world’s oil-producing countries transport crude oil from oil fields to coastal ports. From their oil is exported to foreign countries by being crude or cleaned. The United States has the largest number of pipelines in the world. Pipeline refers to pipelines of oil or gas. Following are the major pipelines of the world-

  • (i) ‘Wig Inch’ – This pipeline is in the United States of America, and transports oil from the coastal wells of the Gulf of Mexico to the northeastern part. 
  • (ii) ‘Tape Line’ its a diameter is 750 mm. is meter. This pipeline is about 1600 km to the American Oil Company’s wells near the Persian Gulf. The distant location connects to a city called Sidon. 
  • (iii) Comecon- transports oil from the oil wells of the Volga and Ural region of the former Soviet Union to the countries of Eastern Europe. 
  • (iv) H.B. J. The pipeline will transport gas to Hazira in Gujarat – Vijaipur (Madhya Pradesh) and Jagdishpur (Uttar Pradesh) in India. Its length is 1700 km. Is. 

Q.2. “Means of transport and communication have made the world smaller.” Explain this statement. 

Ans. With the modern development of means of transport and communication, the world has started to appear smaller, because by means of transport and communication man can go to the man living at remote places or can establish contact with him. Modern means of transport are road, rail, waterways, and airways through which travel and goods reach the places where they are needed in a very short time. 

Secondly, with the development of modern means of transport and communication, specialization has developed in production, and through these facilities have been made available for the exchange of specialized products. In this way, with the development of means of transport and communication, the countries of the world have been threaded into an international thread and have been made dependent on each other.

Through modern means of transport and communication, relations between distant countries have been established and their cultural and economic development has been promoted. In this way the world today has started appearing smaller and in the form of one family. 

Q.3 . Give a comparative explanation of the economic importance of the Suez Canal and Panama Canal routes.

Or, State the comparative, commercial, and economic importance of the Suez and Panama canals. 

Ans. Suez Canal—

Location—It is the world’s largest navigable canal inside the United Arab Republic (UAE). It has been built to join the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea by cutting the Swaj Isthmus. Port Said (on the Mediterranean) and Suez on either side of the city

(on the Red Sea) are major ports. The work of its construction was given to the famous French engineer Fed Tips (Ferdinand De-Lesseps).

The construction work started in 1850 AD and ended in 1869 AD. At first, the work remained under English and French companies, but later Egyptian President Nasser nationalized the canal. In the year 1967, due to the outbreak of war between Egypt and Israel, there was a hindrance in the traffic, and in the year 1975, the traffic started again. Dasha

This city is about 165 km long, 60-65 meters wide and 10 meters deep. The cost was around INR 80 lakh. It takes about 12 hours to cross the canal. The canal is constructed by joining Little Wither, Great Wither, and Timshab lakes. Total

Geographic and trade importance of the Suez Canal—

  • 1. The Suez Canal route passes through the heart of the Old World. Therefore, it has contact with most parts of the world, due to which about 15 percent of the world’s trade takes place. 
  • 2. It establishes contact between the industrialized countries of Europe and the developing countries of Asia.
  • 3. Before the construction of this canal, ships going from Europe to Asia had to pass through the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, but on adopting this route, the distance between North-Western Europe and Asia is 800 km. decreases.
  • 4. Great Britain has benefited the most from this canal because, with its construction, Great Britain has been connected with India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, India Asia, Australia, New Zealand, etc.

Due to the double gate system, both sides of the canal can be used for traffic. Geographical and Trade importance -.

  • 1. Before the construction of this canal, the East and West Coast ships of North America
  • South America had to come through Cape Horn, but on adopting the canal route, about 400 km. The distance has decreased. This increased trade between the eastern and western parts of North America. 
  • 2. Australia and New Zealand came close to North America in their formation.
  • 3. It also reduced the distance between the ports of Japan and the North Atlantic coast. 4. Hereby the U.S.A. And relations between China and Japan increased.
  • 5. East coast ports and west coast ports of North and South America came close to each other. Panama is situated on the Pacific coast of this canal and Collin city is situated on the Atlantic coast. International trade benefited greatly from the Panama Canal. Although the canal is a boon for North and South America. By this China, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand The business has also increased.

Q.4. The importance of sea traffic is highest in international trade as compared to other means of transport. Why? 

Ans. Importance of Ocean Transport – Modern

The importance of sea transport in the era of international trade compared to other means of transport is highest in-

  • 1. The continents are connected to each other by seas. 
  • 2. Sea transport is the cheapest means of transport because there is no expenditure on the maintenance and construction of sea routes. Slightly less than other means of transport for long distances.
  • 3. Modern ships are very large in which a large amount of cargo can be carried and a large number of passengers can travel.
  • 4. The facility of cold storage is available in modern ships. Due to this, it has become convenient to send perishable goods such as meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, and milk and milk products.
  • 5. Large tanker ships carry petroleum in large quantities.
  • 6. Modern ships are equipped with radar, wireless wires, and other communication equipment. Now they maintain their speed even in the time of storms etc.
  • 7. Like trains, ships also reach their destination on time. 

Q.5 . Give the definition of highway and describe the importance of highways by giving three examples from different parts of the world. 

Ans. The metalled roads connecting the main cities of a country are called highways. As

Sher Shah Suri Highway in India. Importance — Roads are being used since ancient times for various works in land routes. According to the surface of the land, many natural routes are found which have been used for traffic. In the modern era, the importance of bitumen and cement roads has increased. Roads sow the seeds of civilization. It is an easy means of transport. This is the basis for the development of industry and trade. The major roads are- Trans Canadian Highway, from Beijing to Shanghai in China, as in Australia, Stuart Road meets Eastern, Southern Western Australia.

Q.6. Write a short essay on Trans Siberian Railway. 

Ans. Trans-Siberian Railway – These railways are Khoysark, Irkutsk, Chita, and Savarovsk of the world. It was built with the aim of the social and economic development of Siberia. Economic importance: With the formation of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the social and economic development of Siberia took place rapidly. Its formation made possible the development of mineral and agricultural resources in Siberia. Thus the population of Siberia increased. Through this, it became easy to travel and transport goods from one sea to another. 

Goods for branch lines and navigable river routes are also brought from the Trans-Siberian Railway and the goods brought by these routes are also carried by this railway. This railroad carried manufactured goods such as machinery and lumber westward to the central industrial area of ​​the former Soviet Union. Coal, oil, timber, industrial products, and agricultural products are transported between Siberia and the Far East. 

This train also crosses many navigable rivers of Russia like Volgo, Abe Yenisei, Irtysh, and Amur. The places where railways cross rivers are important transit points. Goods brought by rail from these places are carried by rail. Apart from goods, this railway also provides transportation services to passengers.

Q.7. Describe the major internal waterways of the world. 

Ans. The medium of transport in internal waterways are rivers, lakes, and canals. Transport is carried out by boats and steamers in navigable rivers. The development of inland waterways depends on the quantity of water, continuity of flow, and its width. Following are the major inland waterways of the world-

1. West and Central Europe — A very good transport network has been developed including the rivers falling into the North Sea such as Son, Rhine, Elb, and the canals connecting them in Western Europe. Transport by inland waterways is more important in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the German Federal Republic. The most important river of this transport system is the Rhine. The network of the Danube and its tributaries is Europe’s second internal waterway system. 

2. Volga River System The Volga River is one of the largest water flow systems in the world and 1,200 kilometers of navigable waterways are available under this system. The Moscow region is connected to it by the Volga-Moscow Canal. The Moscow region is connected to it by the Volga Don Canal. Boats can go up to the Black Sea through the Volga Don Canal. The Volga flows into the Black Sea, the Don Canal in the upper valley on this river.

3. China’s internal waterways (Inland waterways in China) – Boating is done in Hongho and Yangtse Kiang rivers in China, but the Yangtse Kiang river has special importance. Ships can go up this river up to Han-kau, but small boats can reach Chung Cheong through the Great Gorge. A network of canals is spread in the lower valley of this river, in which boating is done.

4. Inland Waterways of North America There are two important inland waterways in North America – 

(a) Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Waterway— Through this waterway, ships can travel up to 3760 kilometers to the interior and Great Lakes is 

(b) The Mississippi waterway in the South – Through this waterway, big steamers can reach Milliapolis in the Mississippi River.

5. Waterways of Amazon —- Da river is the largest river in the world on the basis of the quantity of water. In this, the sea ship is 1,600 km. You can go inside till Manis. Small steamers go as far as Iquitos in Peru, 3,680 kilometers (2,000 miles) off the Atlantic coast. Due to the low density of the population, traffic is reduced here. 

6. Parana-Paraguay Waterway — this is an important water flow system in South America. Ships can go to Santafé, 240 km away in Paraná. Small steamers can go to the Amazon, which is 1360 km inside, via Paraguay. These rivers flow in developed areas, hence their economic importance is high.

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Geography Notes In English

MCQs Geography In English

  • Chapter 1 Data – Its Source and Compilation
  • Chapter 2 Data Processing
  • Chapter 3 Graphical Representation of Data
  • Chapter 4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
  • Chapter 5 Field Surveys
  • Chapter 6 Spatial Information Technology

Geography Notes In Hindi

MCQs Geography In Hindi

  • अध्याय 1 डेटा – इसका स्रोत और संकलन
  • अध्याय 2 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग
  • अध्याय 3 डेटा का चित्रमय प्रतिनिधित्व
  • अध्याय 4 डाटा प्रोसेसिंग और मैपिंग में कंप्यूटर का उपयोग
  • अध्याय 5 फील्ड सर्वेक्षण
  • अध्याय 6 स्थानिक सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी


Q. 1. Which are the major railway routes of Africa? 

Ans. The main railways of Africa are— 
(i) Venezuelan Railroad 
(ii) Tanzania Railways.
(iii) The railway line connecting Sthal Rudra Central African countries with South Africa.

Q.2. What is the reason for having a dense railway in South Africa? 

Ans. Due to the mining activities of gold, copper, and diamonds in South Africa the railroad is intensive.

Q.3. Which are the main stations of the Trans-Siberian Railway?

Ans. Moscow, Ryazan, Syzran, Kuibysheb, Chalyavinsk, Umsk, Novosivilsky, Greypark, Irkutrak, Chita and Khavrovsk.

Q.4. Which cities does the Canadian Pacific Railroad connect? 

Ans. The Canadian Pacific Railroad connects Halifax in the east with Vancouver in the west. 

Q.5. Which cities does the Australian Transcontinental Railroad connect?

Ans. The Australian Transcontinental Railroad links Sydney in the east to Perth in the west. The main stations on this line are Sydney, Brecon Hill, Petersburg, Port Pirie, Port Augusta, Kingoonya, Cal Gurley, and Kula Gardy.

Q. In which two main categories can the 6 waterways be divided? 

Ans. Water bodies can be divided into two categories, internal waterways, and marine water bodies.

Q.7. Which is the busiest inland waterway in the world?

Ans. Rhine waterway

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