Class 12 History Notes Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives

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Class 12 History Notes Chapter 10: In this post, we were given very important notes from Class 12 history Ch-10, Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives. In this post, you get upcoming very important questions and its answer in a very simple way. In this post, we cover class 12 chapter 10 history notes, class 12 history chapter 10 notes in English, Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives, class 12 questions and answers

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 10 | Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives

Class12th 
Chapter No10
Chapter NameColonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectHistory
Medium English / History
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

Quick Summary of Class 12 History Notes Chapter 10 | Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives Notes

The situation of colonialism arises under imperialism. Under colonialism, a powerful nation takes over a weak nation and starts using its resources arbitrarily. Britain had made India its colony. 
MCQ Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside with Answers Q18
NCERT SOLUTION

Along with the city, the countryside was also occupied. The British East India Company treated different castes living in the countryside in different ways. The policies of their governance and revenue were different. The laws enacted by the state or the government affected the people in different ways. 

Some became richer and some became poorer. Some got more land than most got nominal land. People were not afraid to oppose such laws, which they considered unjust, even when they were forced to follow the laws. 

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SAMAGRA

The sources of colonial-era history are revenue records, surveys, journals and travellers’ accounts. The East India Company was established in 1600 by a charter approved by Queen Elizabeth. The East India Company was the first British colony in Bengal. was established.

After the Diwani rights of the provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa were obtained in 1765, the affairs of the East India Company began to attract the attention of the British Government. 

In the British Parliament, sharp questions were raised about the inconsistency in the exercise of political control by the Company and the resulting administrative anarchy, and the misappropriation of money by Company officials. 

The government of Lae North constituted two committees to investigate the activities of the Company. Based on the recommendations of these committees, it was decided to establish government control for the enforcement and regulation of the company’s rights. 

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GETTY IMAGE

For this purpose, the Regulating Act was passed in 1773. After this, through the Pitt’s India Act of 1789 and the Charter Acts of 1793, 1813, 1833 and 1853, the British Parliament increased its control over the Company’s rights and its stranglehold on India continued to tighten. 

The British administration in India was based on three pillars – civil service, army and police. Law and order were handed over to the police. On the other hand, extensive changes were also made in the land revenue policies. 

The policy of collecting maximum rent was adopted through Permanent Settlement, Mahalwari and Ryotwari. The means of communication like rail, post and telegraph, roads, telegraph etc. were developed. Those developments were also done with the intention of commercial benefits. make English the medium of instruction

Timeline

1765The English East India Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal. 
1773Specific to regulating the activities of the East India Company The Regulating Act was passed by the Yeomanry. 
1793Permanent Settlement in Bengal.
1797when the present king started selling his estates, the company got it done. This is considered a public event. 
1800sSanthals started coming to Rajmahal hills and they settled 
1818First revenue settlement in Bombay Deccan.
1820s Agricultural prices began to fall. 
1840s and 1850s BombayThe slow process of agricultural expansion in the Deccan.
1855-56Revolt of the Santhals. 
1861Beginning of boom in cotton.
1875Ryots rebelled in the villages of the Deccan.

Important Facts and Events

  1. Colonialism – When a powerful nation takes over a weak nation and takes over resources, then this ideology is called colonialism. 
  2. Paharia and Santhal both these tribes live in the hills of Rajmahal. 
  3. Charles Cornwallis – It implemented the Permanent Settlement in Bengal in 1793 AD, at that time it was the Governor of Bengal.
  4. Talukdar was the manager of a territorial unit and used to collect revenue. 
  5. Sunset law Under this law the zamindar had to collect the revenue by the sunset of the fixed date otherwise his land was auctioned. 
  6. Amla – It was an officer of the zamindar who collected the revenue from the village.
  7. Rait – It means farmer but he himself did not do farming but used to give land on lease to Bhikmi Rait.
  8. Havaldar – In Bengal, rich farmers and headmen were called Havaldars. In some other places, they were called Gotidars or Mandals.
  9. Fifth Report – The report on the administration and activities of the East India Company was called the fifth report.
  10. Benami – This term is used for deals that are done in the name of a fictitious or relatively unimportant person.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q. 1. What is meant by colonialism? Explain with examples.

Ans. (i) Colonialism is the ideology in which a powerful country takes over another weak country and starts using its resources arbitrarily. 

(ii) India was once a colony of Britain. It was because of British colonialism that India became enslaved and its resources were exploited.

Q.2. When, by whom and where was the Permanent Settlement implemented? What arrangements were made in this?

Ans. (i) The Permanent Settlement was implemented in Bengal province in 1793 AD by the Governor General of Bengal, Charles Cornwallis.

(ii) Under this settlement, the entire cultivable land of Bengal was given to the zamindar. Land revenue was fixed on this estate, which was deposited by the zamindars to the government at certain times, otherwise, their land was auctioned.

Q. 3.  Why did the rural economy of Bengal deteriorate in the 1770s? 

Ans. (i) There were frequent famines in Bengal and agricultural production was decreasing. 

(ii) Government was not making any investment in the development of agriculture and the rate of revenue was increasing. 

Q.4. Who were the taluqdars?

Ans. (i) Talukdar literally means a person with whom there is a relation or relation. ● Later on, the meaning of taluk became a territorial unit. The taluqdar is the owner of the territorial unit. 

(ii) The British Government made Istmrari Bandowasa with the Rajas and Talukdars of Bengal.

Q. 5. What is sunset law?

Ans. (i) Whether the crop was good or bad, timely payment of revenue was essential. According to this, the payment should be done by sunset on the fixed date. 

(ii) If this were not so, the zamindari could have been auctioned. Thus the landlord law had to wash its hands off the land.

Q.6. Why were the Jotdars and Mandals not afraid of the Zamindar?

Ans. (i) The jotter was a wealthy raiyat while the Mandal was the headman of the village. Both were subordinate to the landlord, but were not afraid, and were happy to see him troubled. 

(ii) In fact the zamindar could not easily exercise his power over them. The zamindar could prosecute the waiters, but the judicial process was long. 

Q.7. What was the result of the decline of the handicraft industry in India? 

Ans. (i) The pressure of population on the cultivable land increased. 

(ii) There was excessive ruralization of the country.

Q8. Why did the weavers leave their business in Bengal? 

Ans. The British had established a monopoly on the Indian handicraft industry. 

Q.9. Mention two shortcomings of the fifth report. 

Ans. (i) The writers of the fifth report were bent on criticising the misadministration of the Company. That’s why the description of the decline of traditional zamindari power in the fifth report is exaggerated.

(ii) The loss of land by the zamindars has also been exaggerated. Even when the zamindaris were auctioned, the zamindars would save their zamindaris by adopting new tactics. 

Q. 10. Who was the Governor General of India during the Revolt of 1857?

Ans. Lord Canning (1856–62).

Q.11. When was the Indian National Congress established?

Ans. in 1885

Q.12. Who was the last Governor General of the East India Company?

Ans. Lord Canning (1856–62).

Q.13. What were the means of livelihood of the Paharias? 

Ans. (i) In the Rajmahal forests, the Paharias used to collect mahua flowers for food, silk cocoons to sell, and resin and wood to make charcoal. 

(ii) Their animals survived on the grasses that froze under the trees and became pasturage for the animals.

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Q.14.How did the Sanghal people reach the hills of Rajmahal? 

Ans. (i) The Santhals were responsible for preparing and cultivating new land for the zamindars in Bengal.

(ii) In fact the British were not satisfied with the agricultural work of the hills. Santhals were industrious and used to clearing the forest quickly and preparing the fields and used to plough the fields well.

Q.15. Describe the Supa movement of farmers.

Ans. (i) The farmers were annoyed with the traders and moneylenders. He started the movement in Supa village of Poona district. There was a market here where many traders and moneylenders lived. 

(ii) On May 12, 1875, farmers from the surrounding rural areas gathered. They attacked Marias and cars and burnt books and debentures. their Looted the money and in some cases even set fire to the houses of the moneylenders. 

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q. 1 State the importance of the Regulating Act 1773. 

Ans. Through this act, an attempt was made to establish an honest and efficient government in Bengal, Madras and Bombay. A Supreme Court was established in Calcutta for the purpose of preventing the Company’s officers from misusing their powers. Thus this act was a vigorous effort towards establishing a better administration. This act continued for 11 years. Warren Hastings was the only Governor General who administered India according to this act. 

Q.2. How did Dadabhai Naoroji explain the exodus of wealth?

Ans. Dadabhai Naoroji was the first and most prominent exponent of the theory of ‘drain of wealth’. He first mentioned wealth and migration in his famous article England’s Debt to India. According to him the flight of wealth is the root of all evils and the main cause of Indian poverty. He said that India’s exports are very sad. That condition is like that of a master and a slave, but the biggest problem is that the country is continuously being looted by the looters and the looted goods are going out of the country very cleanly.

Q.3. Write the salient features of the Charter Act of 1813.

Ans. The Charter Act of 1813 ended the East India Company’s monopoly on Indian trade, and the Company’s monopoly on trade with India was retained by all British citizens. The Government of India and its revenue remained in the hands of the Company. 

Q. 4.What reforms were done in the judicial system during the period of Lord Bentinck? 

Ans. During this period the Appellate Provincial Courts and Tour Courts established by Cornwallis were abolished and in their place, Divisional Commissioners of Revenue and Tour Courts were appointed. 

For the convenience of the people of the Northern Provinces, permanent Diwani and Nizamat Adalats were established at Allahabad and the option of using vernacular language was given for filing cases. The Indian judges in the city and district courts were known as Mushishas. 

Q.5 What were the main recommendations of Wood’s Despatch, 1854?

Ans. (i) Anglo-Avuncular schools in every district and colleges should be established in important cities. 

(ii) Universities should be established in all the three presidencies (Calcutta, Bombay and Madras) on the lines of London University. 

(iii) Indian languages ​​should be made the medium of instruction. 

Q.6 Mention the development of post and telegraph in British India.

Ans. In 1854 India’s first telem green was laid connecting Calcutta to Peshawar. Soon Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and other important places of the country were also connected by telegraphic communication systems. In 1854 itself, a new Post Office Act was passed, under that act a Director General was appointed. The uniform value of postage stamps was fixed and in 1854 the circulation of the first postage stamp started. 2012. 

Q.7. What changes were brought in the judicial system by the ‘Cornwallis Code’? 

Ans. The District Collectors were deprived of judicial and judicial powers by the Cornwallis Code. A new post of District Judge was created to preside over the District Civil Courts. Courts were set up in a hierarchical manner, with the Munsif being the youngest judge. Minor cases were decided by the district judge, while serious cases were handed over to the visiting courts. The Governor-General was empowered to pardon and commute sentences.

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Getty images: Antique photograph of British Navy and Army: Bombay infantry, Baluch Battalion

Q.8. What were the main provisions of the Indian Council Act, of 1892? 

Ans. The Act of 1892 expanded the Governor-General’s Executive Council for the purposes of the Bill. A method of indirect election of non-official members in the Council was devised. The executive powers of these councils were expanded. For the first time, the executive councils were given the right to ask questions and discuss the budget, but the official majority was maintained in the Supreme Legislative Council and provincial councils.

Q.9. What was the contribution of Mayo’s proposal to the development of local self-government? 

Ans. The policy of statutory decentralisation was initiated by the Indian Councils Act, of 1861 and Mayo’s proposal of 1870 for financial decentralisation was its natural corollary. By Mayo’s proposal, the control of some departments including education, health services, and roads was given to the provincial governments. As a result of this ‘local finance’ started. Provincial governments were allowed to levy local taxes to balance their budgets, and the rest came from the central fund.

Q.10 What were the main provisions of the Indian Council Act, of 1909? 

Ans. The Act increased the number of elected members in the Imperial Legislative Council and the Provincial Councils. But most of such members were elected indirectly, i.e. by the Provincial Councils in the case of the Imperial Council and by the Municipalities and District Councils in the case of the Provincial Councils. Some seats were reserved for the zamindars and British capitalists living in India. . The powers of the council were increased. Members could also debate the budget, but they could not vote. 

Q.11. Why was the Charter Act of 1853 important?

Ans. The Board of Control was authorised to frame rules and regulations governing appointments to administrative services in India. As a result, the Indian Civil Service Examination was opened to Indians and entry into the service was made possible through an open competition. The most notable provision of this Act was the expansion of the Governor-General’s Executive Council for legislative purposes.  

Q. 12. What were the main provisions of the Indian Council Act, of 1892? 

Ans. The Act of 1892 expanded the Governor-General’s Executive Council for the purposes of the Bill. A method of indirect election of non-official members in the Council was devised. The executive powers of these councils were expanded. For the first time, the executive councils were given the right to ask questions and to discuss the budget, but the official majority was maintained in the Supreme Legislative Council and provincial councils.

Q-13. Explain the condition of the Jotedars in the second half of the 18th century.

Ans. Status of Jordans in the second half of the eighteenth century – 

(i) The farmers of the Dinajpur district of Bengal have been called Jotdars. 

(ii) They also controlled the local trade and money lender business and thus exercised extensive power over the poor peasants of the area. 

(iii) A large part of their land was cultivated through sharecroppers and they Got half of the produce. 

(iv) The power of the Jotedars in the villages was more effective than the power of the Zamindars. In fact, they lived in villages and were not popular in the mind. On the contrary, they lived in zamindari and had no respect in the villages.

(v) The Jotdars used to incite the villagers against the Zamindars and persuade them not to pay the land revenue, clearly, they were not afraid of the Zamindars. 

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q. 1. Discuss the merits and demerits of provisional settlement.

Ans. Qualities or characteristics of the permanent settlement – 

1. Increase in the administrative capacity of the company, revenue from the farmers was the main source of income of the company. Therefore, the most capable employees of the company had to be employed to collect this revenue. 

2. Reduction in the expenditure of the company- The government used to spend a lot of money in managing the land again and again. 

3. Increase in the interests of the Zamindars were legally recognized as the permanent owners of the land. He got maximum benefit from this system. 

4. Encouragement to farmers – The farming class got a lot of encouragement from this system. He had got the patta of his farm on which the measurement of the land and the rent was written. 

5. Industry and business progress – Sufficient progress in the field of business due to permanent management. 

6. Prosperity of Bengal Province – This system led to substantial progress of agriculture in Bengal. 

7. Rise of pro-British class- Politically, the British benefited a lot from the system. The landlords had become the owners of the land. 

Disadvantages of Permanent Settlement – 

1. Adverse effect on landlords Although the permanent arrangement ultimately proved beneficial for the landlords, yet its effects at that time proved disastrous for them. 

2. Restrictions on future income growth of the state – This permanent arrangement disregarded the interests of the state. After some time the yield of the land increased because of the landlords. 

3. Neglect of the interests of the farmers – Cornwallis’s objective was actually to increase the income of the Company.

4. Tyranny of landlords’ workers – Another drawback of this system was that Gradually all the rights came in the hands of the servants of the landlords. 

5. Burden on other provinces Thus we see that the province of Bengal became a loss-making province while the expenditure of the state government was increasing day by day. Therefore, the burden of this expenditure was put on other provinces.

Q. 2. Discuss the reasons for the poverty of Indian farmers during British rule. 

Ans. Due to the poverty of the Indian farmer, the poverty of the Indian farmer

For this, it is necessary to understand the following things- 

1. New arrangements of land- After gaining authority over the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, the British took measures to get more and more money through revenue. In these, there were various land systems practised by them. 

2. Feeling of insecurity among the farmers Due to various arrangements of the land, the farmer was always in fear of whether his land would remain with him or not.  

3. Farmers also neglected the land. Due to the feeling of insecurity, the farmers neglected the land and did not pay more attention to increasing the yield. 

4. Landlords exploited a lot In permanent land management, the landlords who got the land had the patronage of the rulers. 

5. Division of farms into small parts – Due to the destruction of industries in cities, artisans went to villages and this increased the burden on agriculture. The land of the farmer was divided into small pieces. The growth of the population further accelerated the process of shrinking farms. 

6. Neglect of the government The economic condition of the farmers was deteriorating, but the foreign government never tried to improve their condition. 

7. Exploitation by moneylenders Moneylenders also took advantage of the weak condition of the farmers. He could not manage farming without taking a loan from a moneylender. 

Q. 3. How did the railways develop in India? What are the motives of the British behind this?

Ans. The first suggestion for laying a railway line in India came in 1831 in Madras, but the coaches of this train were to be pulled by horses. The first proposal for steam-powered trains in India was made in 1834 in England. After the proposal was passed, the first railway line between Bombay and Thane was opened for traffic in 1853. 

Lai Dalhousie, who became the Governor-General of India in 1849, was a staunch supporter of the rapid laying of railways here. More than 4,000 miles of lines had been laid. But this system proved to be too expensive and slow. So in 1869, the Government of India decided to lay new railway lines as a government enterprise. 

But the pace of expansion of railways was still limited by the officials of India. And could not satisfy the businessmen of Britain, because their profits according to the investment were very low. 

After 1890, both private companies and government companies laid the railway line. As a result, by 1905, about 28,000 miles of railway lines had been laid.

The imperialist interest of the British lay behind the development of railways in India. Rail lines were mainly laid to connect the raw material-producing areas located in the interior of India with the exporting ports. 

Rail fares were fixed in such a way that import-export was encouraged and internal movement of goods was discouraged. To fulfil the imperialist interests of Britain, many railway lines were laid at huge cost in Burma and North-West India.

Q4. Discuss the nature and source of migration of wealth till 1857. 

Ans. Exodus of wealth meant the transfer of wealth and goods from India, in return for which India did not receive any equivalent economic, commercial or financial return. Thus, from the Indian point of view, the drain of wealth meant more exports than imports.

The most important component of this exodus was the remittance of a part of the salary, income and savings of British administrative, military and railway officers and the payment of pensions and leave allowances of British officers by the Government of India to England. 

Q. 6. How did the exodus of wealth take place after 1857? 

Ans. After the Revolt of 1857, when the rule of India came under the British Imperial Crown, there was an unprecedented increase in the exodus of wealth from India. Europeanization of services, a larger army, more investment, more purchase of railway equipment, payment of more and higher salaries, etc. 

(ii) the administrative expenses of the India House in London,

(i) expenses related to the transfer of power in India from the Company to the British Imperial Court, 

(iii) the expenses of the wars with China, 

(iv) the expenses of the regiments of the Indian army in England before they were sent to India.Expenditure on training, 

(v) Expenditure on the reception of the Sultan of Turkey in London,

(vi) the value of gifts made to the Jangiwar Mission,

(vii) the full cost of laying telegraph lines from England to India,

(viii) Part of the fixed expenditure of the Mediterranean Fleet

Q. 7 Write a note on the Government of India Act, 1935.

Ans. The Act was the result of the Simon Commission report, the discussions held at the Round Table Conference and the White Paper presented to the British Parliament in 1934. This was the longest and last constitutional provision made by the British government in India. In this, there was a provision for the establishment of an Indian Union consisting of provinces and princely states governed by the Governor. 

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Getty images: Engraving From 1882 Of The Signing Of The Declaration Of Independence By The American Founding Fathers.

The dual government system introduced in the provinces by the 1919 Act was abolished and in its place, provincial autonomy was established, which would be called a major feature of this act. Applicable

The diarchy system abolished in the provinces was imposed at the centre. This meant that some federal subjects, such as defence, foreign affairs, tribal affairs, etc. were to be ‘reserved’, which were to be ruled exclusively by the Viceroy and the Governor General. There was to be a Council of Ministers, not more than 10 in number, to aid and advise the Governor-General in the administration of the federal subjects. The federal ministry was to be formed on the traditional cabinet line.

The federal legislature was to be bicameral consisting of the Federal Assembly and the Council of States. The State Council should be a permanent body with 1/3rd of members retiring after every three years. 

Q.8. How was agriculture commercialised in India during the British period? 

Ans. One of the consequences of the implementation of new land relations and the land revenue system of payment of fixed money was that the old purpose of rural agriculture, that is, production for the consumption of the village, was now replaced by production for the market. Production and products were determined for the purpose of nub sale and thus their nature itself changed.

Under the new system, farmers began to produce mainly for the market, for which they had more opportunities to access the ever-developing means of transport and commercial capital under Tisch’s rule. They did this mainly with the aim of getting the maximum amount of cash so that they could pay the state the amount of land revenue fixed at very high rates and satisfy the claims of the moneylenders in whose clutches they were trapped for many reasons.

From this, a new system emerged which is known as the commercialization of agriculture. As a result, farmers also started growing certain crops. In some village groups, depending on the suitability of the land, special commercial crops, such as sugarcane, indigo, opium, cotton, Cotton, oilseeds etc. started growing.

Due to the commercialization of agriculture, the farmers became dependent on the traders for the sale of their products, who took full advantage of their poverty. The poor farmers had to sell their produce to the Vidhilis only after harvesting. Due to the high rate of rent and the inhuman methods of collecting it, they were forced to sell their crops, which were taken advantage of by the chillies. As a result, the farmers kept getting trapped in the clutches of poverty and indebtedness.

Q.9 What steps were taken for social reform in India in the 19th century?

Ans. In the 19th century, almost all the social reform movements in India mainly focused on the problems of women and untouchable castes. Sati System Abolition Act of 1829 was passed in The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act, of 1856 was a landmark event in bringing religious reforms in the condition of Hindu women. 

Under this, the remarriage of widows was legalised. This was the result of the tireless efforts of Swarchandra Vidyasagar. In western India, Vishnu Shastri did wide publicity to implement this reform. In 1896 D.K. Karve established the Widow Ashram.

Under the Indian Penal Code effective in Poona 1860, keeping slaves or buying or selling slaves was declared a crime. Slavery was banned in 1865. By the act of 1872, the practice of polygamy and child marriage of minor girls below the age of 14 years was banned and inter-caste marriages and widow remarriage were approved. 

As a result of increasing social consciousness, social evils like the Devadasi system ended. The contribution of Christian preachers in the direction of women’s education was commendable. Ishwar Chandra Tar established about 25 schools in Bengal in 1857-58. Pro. Why did Maharashtra establish educational institutions, including India’s first woman’s institute in Chamba?

Chapter NoChapter SolutionMcq
1Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan CivilisationClick here
2Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and EconomiesClick here
3Kinship, Caste and Class Early SocietiesClick here
4Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural DevelopmentsClick here
5Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of SocietyClick here
6Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional TextsClick here
7An Imperial Capital: VijayanagaraClick here
8Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal EmpireClick here
9Kings and Chronicles The Mughal CourtsClick here
10Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official ArchivesClick here
11Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its RepresentationsClick here
12Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and ArchitectureClick here
13Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and BeyondClick here
14Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, ExperiencesClick here
15Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New EraClick here

FAQs

Q.1. Who is considered the originator of local self-government in modern India?

Ans. To Lord Ripon (1880-84) 

Q.2. When did the Ilbert Bill controversy take place?

Ans. In 1883-84 (during the regime of Lord Ripon).

Q. 3. What is the Ryotwari revenue system? 

Ans. (i) Ryot means a farmer. This system was a system of revenue settlement between the company and the ryot.
(ii) This revenue system was implemented in Madras and Bombay Presidencies.

Q.4 Mention the demerits of the Mahalwari system. 

Ans. Defects- There were the following defects in this land system-

(i) Privileges of Nambardar– Nambardar and other special people had access to the government because only they used to sign agreements with the government. of this situation, they Used to misuse it for selfishness. Therefore, the person who mediates in this system also were present.

(ii) Pathetic condition of small farmers– Big landlords and recognized persons of the village used to oppress the small farmers by taking advantage of their position. Used to take wages from them, used to take possession of the land of these farmers and eventually they were forced to work as servants of big farmers. So their condition had become pathetic.

Q.5. When was the Cotton Supply Association established in Britain? What were its objectives? 

Ans. (i) The Cotton Supply Association was established in Britain in 1857.
(ii) Its objective was to encourage the production of cotton in every part of the world so that the Manchester Cotton Company of England could develop. It is noteworthy that India was considered favourable for this and cotton farmers were given a lot of loans for encouragement.

Q.6. Why was the Deccan Riots Commission established? 

Ans. (i) The commission which was established to investigate the causes of the riots in the Deccan is called the Deccan Riots Commission.
(ii) The British government was worried about the memory of the Revolt of 1857.

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