Class 12 History Notes Chapter 12 Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning, and Architecture

WhatsApp Group (Join Now) Join Now
Telegram Group (Join Now) Join Now

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 12: In this post, we were given very important notes from Class 12 history Ch-12, Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning, and Architecture. In this post, you get upcoming very important questions and its answer in a very simple way. In this post, we cover class 12 chapter 12 history notes in English, Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture, class 12 questions, and answers

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 12 Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning, and Architecture

Chapter No12
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameColonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning, and Architecture
Medium English / History
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

Quick Summary

The three big cities – Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay were originally fishing and weaving villages. They became important centers of trade due to the trading activities of the English East India Company. The company's agents settled in Madras in 1939 and Calcutta in 1690. In 1661, Bombay was given to the Company by the King of Britain, which he had received as his wife's dowry from the ruler of Portugal. The Company established trading and administrative offices in these three settlements.
Getty Images

By the middle of the nineteenth century, these towns had grown into large cities from where the new rulers controlled the entire country. Institutions were established to control economic activities and to show the dominance of the new rulers. Indians experienced political dominance in these cities in new ways. The layouts of Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta differed substantially from other old Indian towns and the buildings built in these cities clearly bore the stamp of their colonial origins.

gettyimages 1353104496 612x612 1
Getty Images

During the British colonial period in India, some such steps were taken to protect the imperialist interests, due to which the development of towns and cities took place at a rapid pace. Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta were considered the most suitable places for the protection of the British factory, and presidencies were also established here. These three cities had strategic importance as well as economic importance. 

The boom in business activities had caused an unprecedented increase in the rate of import-export. Due to the proximity of these three cities to the sea, it was very easy to do foreign trade from here. Since the English Navy was invincible at sea, they did not see any danger here. In the middle of the 19th century, there was a rapid development of transport and communication mediums. Rail lines were laid in large quantities, roads were built, and post and telegraph systems started. 

This spurred economic growth and had an impact on the cities. High standards of living, facilities for business, accessible means of transport, electricity, water, houses, roads, etc. made the process of urbanization extremely rapid in Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay. 

As a result, these three cities became the biggest cities in the country. It was from here that the administrative, military, and economic activities of the British government began to be conducted. Fort William in Calcutta, Fort St. George in Madras, and Fort St. Thomas in Bombay were established which were symbols of British imperialism.

gettyimages 1295076220 612x612 1
Getty Images: Illustration of Public buildings on the Esplanade in Bombay

The Plassey war of 1757 has immense historical importance. This war paved the way for British authority over Bengal and eventually the whole of India. The victory of this war made the British stand in the queue of the main claimants of the Indian Empire. With the help of the revenue received from Bengal, the British prepared a powerful army and from this, they financed the conquest of the rest of India. The exodus of property started and the immense wealth of Bengal started reaching England. Which became the basis of the industrial revolution there. The Battle of Buxar was one of the most decisive battles in Indian history. 


1500-1700European trading companies establish their bases in India. The Portuguese set up their bases in Panaji (1510), the Dutch in Machilipatnam (1605), the English in Madras (1639), Bombay (1661), and Calcutta (1690), and the French in Pondicherry (1673).
1757The British get a decisive victory in the Battle of Plassey. he would have become the ruler of Bengal. 
1773Establishment of the Supreme Court in Calcutta by the East India Company. 
1803Minutes are written by Lord Wellesley on Calcutta Municipal Reforms.
1818The rail line was laid from Bombay to Thane.
1853The rail line was laid from Bombay to Thane.
1857Establishment of the first Spinning and Weaving Mill in Bombay. 
1857Establishment of universities in Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta.
1870sElected representatives started being included in the municipalities.
1881The construction of Madras Harbor was completed.
1896The film was shown for the first time at Watsons Hotel in Bombay. 
1896The plague starts spreading in big cities.
1911Delhi is made the capital instead of Calcutta.
1661The King of Britain gave Bombay to the Company.
1857Dada Gangadhar Nehru: Grandfather of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and Delhi before the Revolt. Regional Capitals Lucknow, Hyderabad, Seringapatam Poona, Nagpur Baroda, Tanjore Ganj: A small permanent market is called Ganj.
1510The Portuguese started to trade in Panaji. 
1605Dutch started trading activities in Machilipatnam.
1639British started trading activities in Madras. 
1673The French started to trade in Pondicherry.
1800Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta became the largest populated cities of India.
1872AD First census attempt in India:.
1878A survey of India was formed. 

Short Answer Type Question

Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q.1. When was the foundation of British colonialism laid? 

Ans. The foundation of British colonialism had already been laid in the second half of the 18th century.

Q. 2. What was the first name of Chennai?

Ans. The first name of Chennai was Madras.

Q. 3. Who discovered India?

Ans. India was discovered by Vasco da Gama.

Q. 4. Write the name of the foreign traveler who came to India again in 1502. 

Ans. Vasco Da Gama. 

Q.5. Who was Albuquerque?

Ans. Albuquerque was the Portuguese governor who visited India in 1509-15 AD.

Q.6. When did the Battle of Plassey take place?

Ans. In 1757 AD.

Q.7. Write the name of the traveler who completely opened the sea route from Europe to India. 

Ans. Vasco Da Gama.

Q.8. When was the French East India Company established? 

Ans. The French East India Company was established in 1664 AD.

Q9. Who was Sir Thomas Roe? What facilities did he get from the Mughal emperor? 

Ans. Sir Thomas Roe was the English ambassador. In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe came to India as an ambassador and Emperor Jahangir obtained many facilities with the help of Prince Khurram, as a result of which the Company got the right to trade in Surat. After this, the company established its factories in Bahich, Agra, and Ahmedabad.

Q10. What was Dupleix’s ambition in India? 

Ans. In 1972, Dupleix came as the governor of the French East India Company. He wanted to establish the French Empire in India. For this, he considered the British as the biggest obstacle. Due to this ambition of his, there were three wars between the two companies, which are famous as the Buddhas of Karnataka.

Q11. How was the Madras (Chennai) Presidency formed?

Ans. (i) Lord Dalhousie imposed a new treaty on the Carnatic Pittu Nawab in 1801 and Forced him to take a pension and hand over his state to the company. 

(ii) In this way, the areas which were snatched from Mysore including Malabar, Madras Presidency was formed by including Karnataka, which continued till 1957.

class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science

Q.12 What do you understand by gait?

Ans. (i) Keeping in mind the shortage of space and overcrowding in Bombay, special types of buildings were made, which were called chawls. 

(ii) These were multi-storied buildings in which dwelling units of one room each were made. All the rooms in the building had an open verandah or corridor in front and I used to have a hall. In such buildings, many members of many families lived in small spaces. There was unity among them.


Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q.1 Explain the difference between rural areas and doing.

Ans. Difference between rural area and town- 

(i) In rural areas, they lived by farming, gathering in bungalows or animal husbandry. 

(ii) Towns were dominated by the rural population and flourished on the basis of taxes and surpluses from agriculture. The rural people depended on the produce of agriculture. 

(iii) Towns and cities were often fortified during the British period, making them rural Can be kept separate from the areas.

(iv) The villagers used to gather in the towns during times of famine. Similarly, when there were Kartho attacks, people often took refuge in rural areas. 

(v) Merchants and hawkers used to sell goods from towns to villages through which spread and new styles of consumption were created. 

Q2. Write the results of the Plassey battle. 


(i) The rule of the dynasty of Alivardi Khan, the ruler of Bengal came to an end.

(ii) Mir Jafar, a puppet of the British, became the Nawab of Bengal. Mir Jafar was a rubber stamp. The real power came into the hands of the British Company. 

(iii) The British got a wide area for war and politics in Bengal and got an economic base.

(iv) The Battle of Plassey made the British a strong political force in India.

(v) The British started getting a huge amount of revenue from Bengal. This revenue helped the British to increase their military force.

Q3. Write in brief the results of the Battle of Buxar. 


(i) The British tried to lay the foundation of the empire in the Battle of Plassey. The Battle of Buxar fulfilled that. Historian Smith has rightly written, “Vaxar’s victory

It was completely decisive and completed the unfinished work of Plassey.” 

(ii) In the Battle of Plassey, the British defeated only the Nawab of Bengal. But in the Battle of Buxar, they captured the Nawab of Bengal as well as Awadh. Defeated the Nawab and the Mughal emperor as well.

(iii) This war made such a psychological impact on the Indian rulers that they were unable to compete with the diplomatic and military point of view of the British.

Q.4. What was the treaty of Allahabad? 

Ans. In 1757, after the Battle of Buxar, Clive signed a treaty with the Mughal emperor Alam and Nawab Shujauddaulah of Awadh, which is known as the Allahabad Treaty. this treaty

The main points are as follows- 

(i) The province of Awadh was returned to Shujauddaulah, but the districts of Kada and Allahabad were taken from him.

(ii) The Nawab gave 50 lakh rupees as compensation to the British. (iii) The Mughal emperor Shah Alam granted the British the Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa.

(iv) The British accepted to give him an annual pension of 26 lakh rupees. Thus the treaty of Allahabad made the British the masters of Bengal.

His influence was also established on Nawab. Mention in brief the main causes of the Battle of Buxar. 

Q.5.How did the British make Muhammad Ali the Nawab of Karnataka?

Ans. When the British tried to get their friend Muhammad Ali the throne of Karnataka from Chanda Saheb

If they did not succeed, they used a new trick. Muhammad Ali had taken refuge in Trichirapalli after being defeated by Chanda Sahib. Chanda Sahib attacked Trichanapalli with the help of the French. At the same time, Clive besieged Arcot, the capital of Chanda Sahib. Now Chanda Saheb ran back to the capital. He was defeated and killed. 

The British made their benefactor Muhammad Ali the Nawab of Karnataka. This gave a big blow to the influence of the French. In fact, it was a great success for the British. Dupleix’s prestige and influence declined and he was recalled to France in 1754. With this success, the fear of the British got frozen again.

Q.6. What changes took place in the trading system in the 18th century? 

Ans. Changes in the trading system in the 18th century-

(i) The officials of the Mughal Empire established towns and gangs. European companies also established themselves in these urban centers. These, Portuguese, Dutch, English, and French were the main 

(ii) Along with business centers, cities were also developed here.

(iii) Capitalism and commercialism started getting encouraged in India. Medieval cities – Surat, Mahalipattanam, and Dhaka declined.

(iv) After the Battle of Plassey, English trade increased and cities like Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay were established as economic capitals. 

Q7. Discuss the merits and demerits of maps.

Ans. The merits and demerits of maps-

(i) Due to the development of surveying methods, precise scientific instruments, and British imperial requirements, maps were prepared with great care. 

(ii) Many maps were made by the Survey of India. It was formed in 1878 AD. We get enough information from the maps prepared at that time.

(iii) The discrimination inherent in the thinking of the British rulers is also exposed from the maps.

(iv) It also came to know that the blank space on the map is not suitable for other development plans.

Q8. Explain the status of industrial development in India during the colonial period.

Ans. Status of industrial development in India-

(i) With the expansion of the railway network, many cities were connected to ports from where raw materials and labor came. 

(ii) Raw materials and cheap labor became easy to come by in many cities. As a result, it became easy to set up a factory.

(iii) Indian merchants and entrepreneurs set up cotton textile mills in Bombay after the 1850s. 

(iv) Although Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras had become economically strong, their economy was not primarily based on factory production. 

Q9 Describe the social change of women in the new cities. 

Ans. Social change among women in new cities-

(i) Women got new opportunities in the cities. Journals, Biographies, and Books Middle-class women were trying to express themselves through 

(ii) When women were working outside the tradition. Hence there was discontent among the conservatives.

They feared that this might endanger the existence of men.

(iii) Even the reformers did not want to see women highly educated when He was a supporter of education. 

(iv) Later on, the presence of women in public places started increasing. 


Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q1.Describe the development of Bombay or Mumbai city.

Ans. Development of Bombay or Mumbai city – The name of present-day Mumbai is derived from the name of Mumbadevi. This city has developed by combining seven islands. It is said that the first traders and farmers settled in Mumbai in the middle of the fourteenth century. 

The Elephanta Caves and a part of the Baleshwar temple building was built during this period. Francis Almeida, the governor of the Portuguese settlements in India, in 1534 AD.

In 1500 AD, the main island of Bombay was snatched from Bahadur Shah, the ruler of Gujarat. He built a fort at the place of Bassein. St. Andrew’s Church in Bandra was also built during this period. 

In 1661 AD, Emperor Charles II of England got the island of Mumbai as a dowry when he was married to Princess Catherine of Brarangaza of Portugal. The British East India Company received the territory of Mumbai from Charles II. 

The East India Company laid the foundation of the modern city of Mumbai. George Oxendon was appointed as the first Governor of Mumbai city. Gerald Aungier, the second governor of Bombay, developed the island as a trading center. He provided many concessions to skilled workers and traders to settle in this British settlement. 

Q2. Mention the causes and consequences of the Battle of Buxar. 

Ans. The following reasons were responsible for the Battle of Buxar in 1764- 

(i) To strengthen his military power, he trained his army in the European way. The British did not like this work.

(ii) The British were misusing the Farman of 1717. They were harming the revenue of the state by claiming the goods of Indian traders as their own.

(iii) Company officials were torturing the Indian public. The artisans were forced to sell their goods cheaply.  

he fought with the British in the field of Buxar by joining Shujauddaula, the Nawab of Awadh and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam with diplomacy and ability, which resulted in the following results-

(i) Defeat of Mughal Emperor – Along with Mir Kasim, Shujauddaulah, the Mughal emperor was also defeated by the British in the field of Buxar. In this victory, the British took possession of the northwestern frontiers of Bengal.

(ii) Political gain of the English – The dominance of the British in Indian politics was established by the Battle of Buxar. Mir Qasim ran away. Of. But Shujauddaulah and Shah Alam were caught. 

(iii) Control over Bengal – The British again made Jafar the Nawab of Bengal. According to the treaty with the British, a resident was kept in his court.  

(iv) The Capability of the English Soldiers proved – The Battle of Buxar proved the superiority of the soldiers. There was a psychological effect on the Indian rulers that they were unable to compete with the British in diplomacy or military force. 

Q.3. What is the significance of the Battle of Plassey in modern Indian history? In detail! 

Ans. The Battle of Plassey had no special strategic importance in the history of modern India. It was not a war but a small skirmish in which a total of 65 soldiers of the company and about 5000 soldiers of the Nawab were casualties. 

Nawab’s companions left no stone unturned in betraying. Clive, a master of foot policy, struck fear into Jagat Seth, aroused the ambitions of Mir Jafar, and won the war without any difficulty.

The Battle of Plassey is important only because of the events that followed. Bengal came under the British and could not become independent again. The new Nawab Mir Jafar depended on the British for his protection and position. 

His 6000 army was stationed in Bengal for his protection. Gradually all power passed into the hands of the Company. His inability can be gauged from the fact that he wanted to punish Dewan Rai Durlabh and Ram Narayan for their betrayal, but the company stopped him. 

The English Resident Watts had a special influence. The Muslim historian Ghulam Hussain writes that only the support of the British was necessary for promotion. Soon Mir Jafar became unhappy with the yoke of the British. He started conspiring with the Dutch people to drive out the British. 

Clive fought this conspiracy in November 1759, defeating the upper people in the battle of Bedara. When Mir Jafar refused to understand the future course of events, he had to make a way in 1760 for the Company’s nominee, Meen Qasim.

The Battle of Plassey and the loot that followed made the British the masters of infinite resources. The first installment that the British got was 8 lakh pounds which was in the form of silver coins only. 

According to Macaulay, this money was brought to Calcutta in more than one hundred boats. Bengal was the richest of India at that time and was at the forefront of industry and trade. In 1767, Verelst wrote that Bengal was the trade center of the whole of India where all the wealth was drawn. 

The things made here are sold in remote areas of India. It was with the help of this infinite wealth of Bengal that the British conquered the Deccan and also brought North India under their influence.

The condition of the company was also rejuvenated. Earlier it was one of the many foreign companies that had to pay money to Nawab’s officials. Now he got control over the business of Bengal. 

France did not get an opportunity to regain its lost position. The Dutch made one attempt in 1759 and ditched. The British moved from a trade monopoly to a political monopoly.

The Battle of Plassey had a great influence on the fate of India. According to Malleson, probably no such impressive war was fought in history. It is an exaggeration when he goes on to say that because of this war, England became the greatest power in the Muslim world. 

Due to the Battle of Plassey, England started playing a special role in the Eastern problem. Due to this, it was a very important link in the chain of conquering Mauritius and Asha Cape and colonizing them.

Chapter NoChapter SolutionMcq
1Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan CivilisationClick here
2Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and EconomiesClick here
3Kinship, Caste and Class Early SocietiesClick here
4Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural DevelopmentsClick here
5Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of SocietyClick here
6Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional TextsClick here
7An Imperial Capital: VijayanagaraClick here
8Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal EmpireClick here
9Kings and Chronicles The Mughal CourtsClick here
10Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official ArchivesClick here
11Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its RepresentationsClick here
12Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and ArchitectureClick here
13Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and BeyondClick here
14Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, ExperiencesClick here
15Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New EraClick here


Q.1. Who was Chanda Sahib? What benefit did he bring to the French? 

Ans. In collaboration with the French, Chanda Sahib captured Karnataka by defeating Anwaruddin in the Battle of Amber in 1749, and as a reward, he gave the French the territory of Pondicherry.

Q.2. Who was victorious in the Battle of Bandiwash? 

Ans. The British defeated the French in the Battle of Bandiwash in 1760.

Q3. What was Pitt’s India Act?

Ans. On the strength of Pitt’s India Act, the British government got complete control over the company’s affairs and its Indian administration. This law made the rule of India 

Q.4 What was the treaty of Srirangapatna?

Ans. Tipu Sultan was defeated by the British in 1792. According to the treaty at Srirangapatna, Tipu gave half of his kingdom to the British and their allies. 

Q.5. What was the Subsidiary Treaty System?

Ans. According to the policy of the Subsidiary Treaty system, the ruler of an ally Indian state had to keep the British army in his state, and a grant was given for its maintenance. In fact, by signing a subsidiary treaty, an Indian state almost lost its independence.

Leave a Comment