Class 12 History Notes Chapter 13 Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond

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Class 12 History Notes Chapter 13: In this post, we were given very important notes from Class 12 history Ch-13, Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and BeyondIn. this post, you get upcoming very important questions and its answer in a very simple way. In this post, we cover class 12 chapter 13 history notes in English, Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond, class 12 questions, and answers

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 13 Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond

Chapter No13
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameMahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond
Medium English / History
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

Quick Summary

In the history of nationalism, a single individual has often been associated with nation-building. For example, we associate Garibaldi with the creation of Italy, George Washington with the American War of Independence, and Ho Chi Minh with the struggle to free Vietnam from colonial rule. 
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Similarly, Mahatma Gandhi has been considered the ‘Father’ of the Indian nation.

Since Gandhi ji is the most influential and respected among all the leaders who participated in the freedom struggle. Hence the above epithet given to him is not wrong. 

However, like Washington or Ho Chi Minh, the political career of Mahatma Gandhi was shaped and controlled by the society in which he lived. 

No matter how great a man is, he not only makes history but he himself is made by history. Here the activities related to Mahatma Gandhi from 1915 to 1948 have been discussed. 

Time Line

1915Mahatma Gandhi returns from South Africa. 
1917Champaran Movement.
1918The peasant movement in Kheda (Gujarat) and the labor movement in Ahmedabad. 
1919Rowlatt Satyagraha (March-April)
1921Non-Cooperation Movement and Khilafat Movement.
1928The peasant movement in Bardoli.
1929In the Lahore session (December) Congress’s resolution on “Purna Swaraj” goes.
1931Gandhi-Irwin Understanding (March), Second Round Table Conference (December). 
1935Formation of limited representative government in the Government of India Act Assurance.
1939Resignation of Congress ministries. 
1942The quit India Movement started (in August).
1946Mahatma Gandhi visits Noakhali and other violence-hit areas to stop communal violence.

Important Facts and Events

1. Moderate leaders Gopalkrishna Gokhale, and Mohammad Ali Jinnah. 

2. Extremist leaders Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai.

3. Gandhiji’s first public appearance: in 1916 AD at Banaras Hindu University

4. 1922 AD: End of the non-cooperation movement. 

5. Gandhi Irwin Pact: Its terms included the withdrawal of the civil disobedience movement


Class 12 history
Class 12 History

Q. 1. Mention two achievements of Gandhiji in South Africa. 

Ans. (i) It was in South Africa that Mahatma Gandhi first used his distinctive technique of non-violent protest known as Satyagraha. 

(ii) There he tried to increase harmony between different religions and upper castes and Warned Indians against discriminatory behavior towards lower castes and women. 

Q. 2. Name the three main leaders of the Swadeshi movement of 1905-07.

Ans. (i) Bal Gangadhar Tilak of Maharashtra.

(ii) Bipin Chandrapal of Bengal.

(iii) Lala Lajpat Rai of Punjab. 

Q.3. Write the main reasons for the beginning of the non-cooperation movement.

Ans. Gandhiji started the non-cooperation movement in 1920. The following were the reasons for this- 

(i) Rowlatt Act- After the First World War, Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 AD. Through this, the government could arrest any person without any reason. 

(ii) Jallianwala Bagh accident A public meeting was called at the place of Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar to protest against the Rowlatt Act. 

Q.4. State the provisions of the Rowlatt Act. 

Ans. (i) The Rowlatt Act was passed by the British Government in 1919. this act

Under this, any person can be arrested at any time. 

(ii) In fact this act was passed to stop any movement of Indians. As a result, there was a strong reaction among other leaders including Gandhiji.

Q5. Why did Gandhiji start the Champaran Satyagraha? 

Ans. (i) In Champaran (Bihar), the European indigo used to force the farmers here to cultivate indigo and used to do many kinds of atrocities on them. They did not get fair prices for their produce.

(ii) Mahatma Gandhi wanted to repeat the experience of his African movement in Champaran. That’s why I am assured to help the farmers there. 

Q.6. What was the plan of the non-cooperation movement of 1920?

Ans. It was a plan propounded by Gandhi that until the Punjab and Khilafat-related atrocities are compensated and self-rule is not established, non-cooperation with the government should be done. 

Q. 7 Why did Gandhiji withdraw from the non-cooperation movement in 1922?

Ans. Gandhi ji was about to follow the path of non-violence. But, during the non-cooperation movement in 1922, some mob attacked the police station at a place called Chauri-Chaura in which 22 policemen were killed. Saddened by this, Gandhiji withdrew from the non-cooperation movement.

Q.8 Why was the All India Prajamandal Movement started? 

Ans. The social, economic, and political condition of the people in the princely states was extremely poor. The king did not pay any attention to the health and education of the people. They used the resources of the state for the opulence of the princes. All India Prajamandal movement was started to improve this rectifiable condition.

Q.9 Why were the people of the royal families included in the national movement? 

Ans. (i) The subjects of the native states were included in the national movement because

India was not complete without about 563 states. (ii) The Congress considered the royal houses as an integral part of the country.

Q10. Why did the Congress ministries in the provinces resign?

Ans. In 1939 AD, the Second World War started. England was involved in this. The Viceroy of India, Linlithgow, included India in this war without asking the Indians. Angered by this, the Congress ministries resigned.

class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science

Q11. Why did the Cripps Mission come to India?

Ans. Japan was getting failure in the war. Here in India, the individual Satyagraha movement was going on. Therefore, to turn the situation in its favor, the British government sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India.

Q.12.What is meant by the Praja Mandal movement? 

Ans. In the Indian princely states (563), the public launched a movement regarding the question of independence and other facilities, lack of land tax, and bonded labor.

Q.13 How did India get independence?

Ans. After Italy’s announcement, the Muslim League strongly raised the demand for Pakistan.

Introduced from There were riots at various places. Eventually, the nationalists had to split. Therefore, on August 15, 1947, India became independent and India was divided into two pieces. 

Q. 14 Why is Mahatma Gandhi compared to Abraham Lincoln? 

Ans. (i) America’s ‘Time magazine has compared Gandhi’s sacrifice with that of Abraham Lincoln. 

(ii) The magazine said that a charitable American killed Lincoln because he believed in the equality of all human beings regardless of race or color and another fanatic Hindu killed Mahatma Gandhi because he believed in brotherhood. were campaigning.


Class 12 history
Class 12 History

Q. 1 What do you understand about the Swadeshi movement?

The demand has almost ended. Its effect was also bad on the industries there in England. Congress

The party gave firm support to the Swadeshi movement in its sessions in 1905. Congress from

Changes that were visible in the programs and policies of the Students contributed a lot in making this movement successful. He himself started using indigenous goods by boycotting foreign goods. 

Q. 2. What was the contribution of Bal Gangadhar Tilak to the freedom movement? Mention the important work. 

Ans. Lal, Bal, and Pal were three great figures in the national movement who are known as the top leaders of the Garam Dal. Wal means Bal Gangadhar Tilak did 

Two of his major contributions are described here-

(i) Propagation of Nationalist Ideas- Wal Gangadhar Tilak took the help of songs, articles, and speeches to propagate nationalist ideas. He brought out ‘Maratha’ and ‘Kesari’ newspapers which contained the ideas of nationalism. 

(ii) Establishment of Home Rule League with the help of Annievesant as soon as he was released from jail. Tilak ji campaigned vigorously for Home Rule in the country. 

Q. 3. Discuss the Indian response to the Rowlatt Act.

Ans. The British Government enacted the Rowlatt Act in 1919 AD. A national leader from the Chelmsford Reforms

Were disappointed. There was discontent among the national leaders. Therefore, to suppress this discontent, the government

For this, repressive steps were taken under this act. This act gave two rights to the government-

(i) The Government may imprison any person without conviction or trial in a court of law; I can shut down. 

(ii) The government can suspend the right of habeas corpus. Public anger increased against this act, demonstrations started and meetings were also held at various places. 

Q.4. What is the Khilafat Movement? Give its importance

Ans: In this war, he also obtained the cooperation of Indian Muslims. The Muslims defeated the British supported on the condition that after the war he treated the Sultan of Turkey Will go But at the end of the war, the British treated the Sultan very badly. The Muslims considered the Sultan of Turkey as their Khalifa (religious leader), 

so they became angry with the British and started a movement against the British. This movement is called the Khilafat Movement. 

Q5. Why was the non-cooperation movement launched and why did it fail? 

Ans. Reasons for starting the Non-Cooperation Movement – This movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi in the year 1921. 

The objective of this movement was non-cooperation with the British Government. There were many reasons for this, in which the following four reasons were major-

(i) To protest against the killing of innocent people in Jallianwala Bagh and unjust actions in Punjab.

(ii) In 1919, bypassing the Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act, the British government implemented a diarchy in the provinces of the country and canceled the hopes of the Indian people. 

(iii) The British government had promised to give independence to India, but it could not be fulfilled. Look. would have

(iv) To end the British injustice towards the Turkish Empire.

Q.6 What are the main recommendations of the Nehru Report? Who prepared this report? 

Ans. Major recommendations of Nehru report Nehru ji in his report in 1928 placed before the British Government. In this, the following recommendations were made-

(i) Dominion status should be given to India. 

(ii) Autonomous government should be established in the provinces.

(iii) All the princely states should join the Indian Union. 

(iv) India should be a secular country.

(v) New election system should be started in the country.

(vi) There should be such a government at the center which is responsible to the people.

(vii) Fundamental rights should be given to the public.

Q. 7 Why was the Civil Disobedience Movement started? 

Ans. The Civil Disobedience Movement started in 1930 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. It started on March 12, 1930, with Gandhiji’s Dandi March. This movement was launched with the following objectives-

1. Opposing the repressive policies of the British Government – 

  • In 1928, ‘Simon Commission’ came to India. Due to the opposition of the Indians, this commission Despite this published his report. 
  • The government did not accept the terms of the Nehru Report. 
  • Gandhi ji put some conditions in front of the government, but Vasrao did not accept them. 

2. Opposing the unjust laws of the government– The British government had a salt effect on the people. Gandhiji wanted the government to pass this law and many other unjust laws. He wanted to show the government that the public would not follow any of its wrong laws.

3. Getting more and more cooperation of the common people in the national movement – Gandhiji understood the power of the common people. He knew that no movement can be successful without the cooperation of the general public. 

4. Impact of the Civil Disobedience Movement on the Development of the National Movement – The Civil Disobedience Movement was in fact the biggest mass struggle of that time. All parts of the country and all classes participated in this movement with great enthusiasm. 

Q 8. Why was the Civil Disobedience Movement started? What is its importance?

Ans. Civil disobedience or civil disobedience movement started in 1930 under the leadership of Gandhiji. This movement went on in two phases and continued till the end of 1933 AD.

The reasons for this and the importance of its progress are described as follows – Reasons – 

(i) In 1928, ‘Simon Commission’ came to India. This commission published its report despite the protests of the Indians. This caused discontent among the Indians.

(ii) The government did not accept the terms of the Nehru Report. 

(iii) The success of Bardili’s peasant movement inspired Gandhiji to launch a movement against the government.

(iv) Gandhiji put some conditions in front of the government, but the Viceroy accepted these conditions.

Q.9. Briefly describe the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. 

Ans. The anti-Rowlatt Act movement was especially strong in Punjab. These days Punjab was beset by the effects of wartime depression, forced conscription into the army, and the influence of revolutionaries. 

Due to this movement, there were hartals and incidents of violence in different parts of Punjab. Within a week of the hartal on 6 April, most of Punjab was incinerated and the authorities took such measures to suppress the rebellion as no civilized government could ever do against its own subjects in modern times. 

Q. 10. What was the impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Ans. The sudden suspension of the Non-cooperation movement put an end to the issue of Khilafat and Hindu-Muslim unity was also dissolved. 

Soon after the suspension of the movement, communalism prevailed in the whole country and fierce communal riots took place in many places. 

The Moplah peasants of the Malabar region in Kerala staged an anti-landlord rebellion against the Hindu landlords and moneylenders, causing great bloodshed. During 1921-27 communal tension increased more than ever.

Mahatma Gandhi’s promise of achieving Swaraj within one year of the movement was also not fulfilled. The injustice done in Punjab was also not redressed. 

Q. 11 What type of activities did the Indian revolutionaries in foreign countries

Ans. Revolutionary activities and propaganda work were carried out by Indians settled abroad, especially in Britain, the USA, France, Afghanistan, and Germany. The Indian Home Rule Society, the oldest revolutionary society outside India, was founded by Shyamji Krishna Varma. He settled in London in 1897. He had a group of Indian revolutionaries, the most prominent of whom were V.D. 

Savarkar, Hardayal and Madan Lal Dhingra. Shyamji Krishna Varma founded the Indian Home Rule Society with the aim of achieving self-government for India. For this purpose, he took out a paper called Indian Sociologist and established India House in London. 

The increasing revolutionary activities of Shyamji and his associates attracted the attention of the British Government and were published in The Times of London and other newspapers.

Q.11, Write a short note on Pana Samjhauta. 

Ans. In the Round Table Conference, Mahatma Gandhi proposed separate electorates for the Depressed Classes.

He strongly opposed the idea and declared that he would resist it even with his life. Regarding the reality of his resolution, Gandhiji wrote to the British Prime Minister on August 18, 1932, that he would start a fast unto death on September 20 in Yerwada Jail, where he was kept prisoner, and it would end only when this plan was implemented.  The review will be done and the General Electoral Board will be re-established.

Q. 12. What was the Communal Award? 

Ans. In the Second Round Table Conference, no agreement could be reached on the subject of a separate electorate for different communities and depressed classes, so the conference authorized British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald to solve this problem. Accordingly, on August 16, 1932, Ramsay MacDonald announced his Communal Award. 

According to this award, Muslim, European, and Sikh voters would elect their candidates by voting in separate communal electorates. There was a provision for separate electorates for the depressed classes as well. Officially Dalits were accepted as a separate community in the name of Scheduled Castes. Macdonald, however, promised to accept any alternative scheme prepared by mutual consent among the Hindus and the Depressed Classes.

Q.13 How did Bengal become the center of the revolutionary movement? 

Ans. Bengal was at the forefront of revolutionary terrorist activities. The revolutionary movement in Bengal got inspiration from the writings of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee and the statements of Swami Vivekananda and Aurobindo Ghosh. Anushilan Samiti was the main among the early and well-known revolutionary committees of Bengal. 

The role of Satish Chandra Bose and Pramathnath Mitra was prominent in the establishment of this committee. Sister Nivedita, an Irish disciple of Aurobindo Ghosh and Swami Vivekananda greatly encouraged and supported it. 

The second Anushilan Samiti was established in Dacca. It was led by Pulin Bihari Das. It has about 500 branches in East Bengal. Another revolutionary organization of Bengal was the Atmanonti Samiti founded by Bipin Bihari Ganguly.

In this, the Marathi scholar Sakharam Ganesh Deoskar, who was also proficient in Bengali, acted as a link between the revolutionaries of Bengal and Maharashtra. 

Q.14 Why did the Simon Commission come to India? Why was it opposed in India?

Ans. In 1927, the Government of England appointed a commission. Its president was Sir John Simon. so this. The commission is called the Simon Commission. This commission reached India in 1928 AD. Its purpose was to examine the results of the reforms of 1919. There was no Indian member of this commission. 

For this reason, it was opposed in India from place to place. Wherever this commission went, it was welcomed with black flags. Slogans of ‘Simon Commission go back’ were raised at various places. The government dealt with this peaceful protest of the people very harshly. 

Due to opposing this commission in Lahore Lala Lajpat Rai was lathi-charged due to which he attained martyrdom. All the political parties of the country strongly criticized this policy of the government.


Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q. 1 Mention the role of Gandhiji in the freedom movement. 

Ans. From 1919 to 1948, the Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi dominated the Indian political scene so much that this era is called the Gandhi era of Indian history. His immortal message of peace and non-violence influenced mankind all over the world. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat.

In 1891, he passed a law from England and started practicing first in Rajkot and later in Bombay. In 1893 he got a chance to go to South Africa. There he opposed the policy of apartheid by the whites. Gandhiji formed the Natal Indian Congress in South Africa. There he started the non-violent civil disobedience movement. His efforts caused the government of South Africa to repeal the repressive act. 

Due to this, the prestige of Gandhiji started increasing. He returned to India in 1914. In 1917, he launched a movement against the indigo farmers in Champaran (Bihar) and was successful. His fame started increasing with the Kheda Satyagraha and the Ahmedabad movement. After the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919, he decided to take an active part in Indian politics. 

Q. 2. Explain Gandhi’s message of truth and non-violence. 

Ans. As a true worshiper of Truth, Gandhiji believed that Truth is God and God is Truth. Gandhiji made the dreams of truth and non-violence the basis of the new society. Freedom in his view meant freedom from violence, greed, lust, and aspirations.  He wrote in the magazine Young India – “The sages who discovered the principle of non-violence in the midst of violence were men of more intense intellect than Newton, they were braver warriors than Wellington himself. Knowing the use of weapons themselves, they Realized its futility, he told the sad world by mouth that it is only through non-violence. Fearlessness was an essential part of his Satyagraha. from the heart of the people

Q3.Describe in detail the Swadeshi movement. 

Ans. The partition of Bengal came into effect on 16 October 1905. The announcement of the partition of Bengal created such a political storm that brought together people of different ideologies and political leaders on one platform. Many anti-sabhas were organized against the partition. 

Overnight Vande Mataram became the national anthem of the entire country. The day this Vima came into force i.e. 16th October 1905 was observed as a mourning day in Bengal. All the shops and markets were closed. On the suggestion of Rabindranath Tagore, Partition Day was celebrated as Raksha Bandhan Day. vehemently oppose the partition of Bengal

Q4. Write an essay on the Partition of Bengal. 

Ans. India under Lord Curzon’s Viceroyalty A high point of British imperialism Curzon saw India as a country “where the British must maintain a permanent monopoly of all power and always have this end in mind.”

He believed that “the only duty of Indians is to be governed and to think of anything other than this would be tantamount to breach of decorum.” It was the Partition of Bengal in 1905, which was a blatant attack on Indian nationalism.

The Bengal Presidency was the most populous province of British India. It included not only West and East Bengal (modern Bangladesh) but also Orissa and Bihar. 

Q5. How did the Khilafat movement affect the freedom movement? 

Ans. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place at a time when Indian Muslims were highly agitated about the Pan-Islamic Khilafat issue. This question arose because of Turkey’s entry into the First World War as an ally of Germany against Britain. The Sultan of Turkey, who ruled the vast Ottoman Empire, was the Caliph of the entire Islamic world. 

Turkey was defeated in World War I, the Ottoman Empire disintegrated, and the Sultan of Turkey was deprived of the exercise of his power even in his remaining territories, as he was completely subordinated to a High Commission appointed by the Allied Powers.

The Muslims of India saw this treatment of Turkey as a great betrayal on the part of Britain and other allied countries and in the early 1920s Indian Muslims pressured Britain to change its policy towards Turkey. The vigorous movement to pour became more powerful. 

Chapter NoChapter SolutionMcq
1Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan CivilisationClick here
2Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and EconomiesClick here
3Kinship, Caste and Class Early SocietiesClick here
4Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural DevelopmentsClick here
5Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of SocietyClick here
6Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional TextsClick here
7An Imperial Capital: VijayanagaraClick here
8Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal EmpireClick here
9Kings and Chronicles The Mughal CourtsClick here
10Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official ArchivesClick here
11Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its RepresentationsClick here
12Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and ArchitectureClick here
13Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and BeyondClick here
14Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, ExperiencesClick here
15Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New EraClick here


Q.1 Why and when did Gandhiji establish the Sabarmati Ashram near Ahmedabad? 

Ans. Gandhiji started living in Sabarmati Ashram in 1916 with some of his followers. They tried to lead a simple life together without discrimination. 

Q2.  Who spread the civil disobedience movement in the Western Frontier Province? 

Ans. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. 

Q.3 When was the Khilafat movement started?

Ans. The beginning of Khilafat Movement was started on August 1, 1920.

Q.4 When did the Jallianwala Bagh massacre take place? 

Ans. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on April 13, 1919. 

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