Class 12 History Notes Chapter 14 Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, Experiences

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Class 12 History Notes Chapter 14: In this post, we were given very important notes from Class 12 history Ch-14, Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, Experiences. this post, you get upcoming very important questions and its answer in a very simple way. In this post, we cover class 12 chapter 14 history notes in English, Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, Experiences, class 12 questions, and answers

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 14 Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, Experiences

Chapter No14
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameUnderstanding Partition Politics, Memories, Experiences
Medium English / History
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

Quick Summary

The partition of India took place on August 14, 1947, and both India and Pakistan became separate nations. Pakistan was separated from India on August 14, 1947, and India gained independence on August 15, 1947.

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Due to this partition, there was a black mark on independence, which had many consequences. Many people fell asleep in the lap of death, many were ruined, many changes took place in India and the former condition of the cities could not be seen. 

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This history of partition is based on experiences, and discussions i.e. oral history. Oral history is visually interesting but it also has its limitations. In fact, the interview opens such pages of the past whose information is not available from other sources. But this has to be confirmed by other sources. The problem of communalism in India cannot be solved only by Hindu-Muslim questions or Hindu-Muslim religion.

It does not seem logical to oppose the basis of the communal question is more political and less religious. Apart from these two religions, there was also a third party and that was the British Government. The British created a communal triangle by establishing themselves between the Hindu and Muslim communities. 

Time Line

1. 1930 Famous Urdu poet Muhammad Iqwat proposes the idea of ​​the need for a North-Western Indian Muslim Raj within a unified loose Indian federation.

2. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, a Punjabi Muslim youth studying in Cambridge in 1933-35 introduced the name Pakistan or Pakistan. has

3. 1937-39: Congress Ministries in power in 7 out of 11 provinces of British India 

4. 1940 Muslim League in Lahore brought some degree of autonomy to Muslim-dominated areas. Makes an offer while making a demand.

5. Elections are held in 1946 provinces. In general constituencies, Congress gets spectacular success and in Muslim 8 seats, Muslim League gets great success. 

6. From March to June 1946 British cabinet sends its three-member mission to Delhi. 

7. August 1946: Muslim League in favor of ‘Direct Action’ for the establishment of Pakistan Takes decision.

8. August 16, 1946: Violence breaks out between Hindu Sikhs and Muslims in Calcutta, thousands of people are killed in this violence that lasts for several days. 

9. In March 1947 Congress’s high command decides in favor of partitioning Punjab into Muslim majority and Hindu Sikh majority and calls for the adoption of this principle in Bengal as well. After 10. In March 1947, the British started leaving India. 

10. 14-15 August 1947 Pakistan is formed, and India becomes independent. Mahatma Gandhi visits Bengal to restore communal harmony.


Class 12 history
Class 12 History

Q. 1. How was the partition of India a holocaust? 

Ans. (i) Horrible form of violence is seen in it. Lakhs of people were killed, many women were raped and abducted, crores were uprooted and overnight became refugees on foreign land.

(ii) It is difficult to calculate the loss in it. According to an estimate, 2 lahks to 5 lakh people went to die.

Q. 2. What was the difference between the violence of Partition and the German Holocaust? 

Ans. (i) There was no official campaign of assassination in the Indian subcontinent in 1947-48. While this was happening under the Nazi regime. 

(ii) The “racial cleansing” that took place at the time of the partition of India was not of government bodies but of Self-styled representatives of religious communities passed by. 

Q. 3. What is the importance of the Lucknow Pact (1916)? 

Ans. (i) This agreement was signed between Congress and the Muslim League in December 1916.

(ii) Under this agreement, Congress accepted separate electorates. The pact provided a joint political platform for the moderates of Congress, the extremists, and the Muslim League.

Q. 4. Why did the Congress cabinet resign?

Ans. Indian leaders offered to the British to cooperate in World War II.

The condition was that they can cooperate only when they are given freedom. On not getting a satisfactory answer from the British, the Congress cabinet resigned in October-November, 1939 AD. 

Q.5. Why did Congress reject the August offer of the British Government?

Ans. In the August proposal, it was proposed to give India the status of a colonial state in the future. The Congress rejected it because their demand was to get complete independence.

Q. 6. Why did the Indian National Congress and Muslim League reject the proposal of the Cripps Mission?

Ans. There was a proposal to establish self-government soon in the Cripps Mission, but there was no transfer. That’s why Congress did not agree while the Muslim League rejected it because it did not have the provision of Pakistan.

Q.7. What was the objective of the cabinet mission?

Ans. The British government sent a cabinet mission to India in March 1946. The purpose of the Cabinet Mission was to negotiate with the Indian leaders on the terms of the transfer of power.

Q.8. Why did communalism increase in the early decades of the 20th century? 

Ans. (i) In the decades of 1920s and 1930s tensions emerged due to several incidents. Music in front of the mosque to Muslims, cow protection movement, and purification of Arya Samaj Got angry on issues like efforts. 

(ii) Hindus on the other hand got excited about the expansion of propaganda and organization after 1923. 

Q.9. How was communalism encouraged in the music in front of the mosque? 

Ans. (i) instead of music outside the mosque at the time of prayer by a religious procession. 

(ii) The orthodox Muslims considered it a disturbance in their prayer or worship.

Q. 10 Who is given the credit for starting the Deoband movement in India? 

Ans. Muhammad Qasim Nanitki and Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi.


Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q. 1. Write a short note on Individual Satyagraha.

Ans. Disillusioned with the August Offer, Congress decided to start an individual Satyagraha aimed at openly campaigning against the war. It was launched on October 17, 1940. As soon as an individual or small group was arrested, the race was replaced by someone else. Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi in this movement. 

But this Satyagraha could arouse only limited enthusiasm and finally, Mahatma Gandhi suspended it on December 17, 1940. On 5 January 1941, this campaign was started again. In the second phase of this movement, more than 20,000 satyagrahis were arrested.

Q. 2. What was the August offer? 

Ans. The Darshik March 1940 was held at Ramgarh (Vihar) to remember the resignation of the Congress ministries. In this, the Congress urged the British Government to do

Q. 3. Give a brief account of the Constituent Assembly. 

Ans. Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held between July and December 1946 and the Constitution

The first meeting of the Sabha was held on December 6, 1946, under the chairmanship of Dr. Rajendra Prasad. Rejecting the Cabinet Mission Plan, the Muslim League, firm in its resolve, refused to join the Constituent Assembly and insisted on its demand for Pakistan. 

In view of the continuous boycott of the Constituent Assembly by the League, the British Government finally decided that the decisions of the Constituent Assembly would not apply to the Muslim-majority provinces. This decision strengthened the hands of the League and created obstacles in the functioning of the Constituent Assembly.

Q.4 What was Attlee’s announcement? 

Ans. Prime Minister Attlee announced this in the House of Commons on 20 February 1947. the British would leave India after handing over power to “responsible persons before June 1948”. 

Attlee also announced the appointment of Lord Mountbatten as Viceroy in place of Lord Wavell. Lord Mountbatten, the 34th and last British Governor-General and Viceroy, arrived in India on March 22, 1947, and soon made efforts to transfer power.

The main provisions of this Act were as follows- 

(i) The Act established two independent dominions namely India and Pakistan with effect from 15th August 1947.

(ii) Except for the territories included in Pakistan, namely, West Punjab, Baluchistan, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh, and East Bengal, the rest shall be the territory of India. 

(iii) The Legislature of each Dominion has full power to make laws for that Dominion.

(iv) Both the dominions and the provinces would be governed “as far as possible” in accordance with the Act of 1935.

(v) Between the new dominions also of the division of the armed forces and the civil services Provision has been made. each dominion’s own armed forces and civil services.

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HistoryPolitical Science

Q.5 How did the princely states merge in India after independence? 

Ans. British dominion over the princely states ended on August 15, 1947, under Indian independence. 

In theory, this meant that the states would have their own sovereignty once the British left India. However, Congress did not recognize the right of any state to remain separate from the rest of India by declaring independence in India. 

Q6. Give the reasons for the establishment of the Muslim League in 1906. 

Ans. Establishment of the Muslim League There were other reasons behind the establishment of the Muslim League in 1906. 

The reasons responsible for the establishment of the Muslim League were the following-

(i) Divide and rule policy of the British- The policy of the British to rule was to rule by dividing. He sparked communalism between Hindus and Muslims. The British called Hindus the rulers of Muslims in India. 

(ii) Educational and economic backwardness- Very few people were educated in Muslim society. 

(iii) Role of Syed Ahmed Khan- Although Syed Ahmed Khan considered himself educated and intellectual, he left no stone unturned to increase communalism.

(iv) By giving the right of separate election, the British (Lord Minto) gave the right of separate election to the Muslims on the basis of communalism. 

Q7. Give the reasons for the growth of communalism in India. 

Ans. Reasons for the growth of communalism in India-

(i) Wrong facts in history– British taught and wrote wrong facts in history. He called the medieval period the Mughal period or the period of the Muslims. 

(ii) Radical Nationalism – Some radical nationalists gave more importance to the ancient Indian culture. 

(iii) Establishment of the Muslim League In 1906, the British gave their full respect to the separate political party formed as Muslim League. In return, the Muslims supported the partition of Bengal. 

(iv) Backwardness of the country was very backward economically. The life of the people – exploited and based on mercy. Still, the Muslims wanted to solve the backwardness in the country on the basis of communalism, caste, and regionalism. 

Q8. What is the role of Syed Ahmed Khan in inculcating separatist ideology among Muslims?

Ans. Historians say that Syed Ahmed Khan had a lot of influence on Muslims in those days. By misusing this influence, he contributed fully to sowing the seeds of separatism among the Muslims. 

His early life was as an educationist and social reformer and for this reason, he started having a lot of influence, especially on Muslims.

In 1880 AD, he clearly declared that Hindu and Muslim are two different ideas, different communities and they can never become one. 

Q9. What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission to the Indian leaders in 1946 AD? Were they accepted?

Ans. The Cabinet Mission, in consultation with Indian leaders, submitted proposals on May 16, 1946, which were as follows-

(i) A federal government should be established in India which would include the provinces of British India and the Indian states.

(ii) The federal government will have authority over the country’s security, traffic, and foreign affairs. 

(iii) In this union, a legislature and an executive will be formed by combining the representatives of British India and the princely states.

(iv) Provinces should have autonomy on all matters except central matters and have specific powers with them.

(v) The princely states would also get those powers that they would not have handed over to the federal government.

‘(vi) The provinces will have the right to form small and big groups and these groups will have the right to spend, they will decide it themselves. 

Q.10 Why did the Cripps Mission come to India? What was the result of this? 

Ans. The condition of England had become very bad in the Second World War. That’s why he needed the cooperation of the Indians, but due to the wrong policies of the British, the Indians were angry with them and were not ready to give them any kind of cooperation. 

To solve this problem, the British government sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India in 1942 AD. He presented his plan to the Indian leaders.

Gandhi compared this plan to a post-dated check drawn on a bank that is about to fail. Thus all the Indian leaders did not accept the Cripps plan. Mr. Cripps had to return disappointed.

Q.11 Write a note on Cabinet Mission. 

Ans. Cabinet Mission In March 1946, the British Government sent a Cabinet Mission to negotiate with the Indian leaders about the terms of the transfer of power to the Indians. The Cabinet Mission put forward a two-stage federal scheme that was expected to maintain national unity along with maximum regional autonomy. 

There was talk of forming a federation of provinces and princely states, in which the federal center would have control only over defense, foreign affairs, and communications. At the same time, the provinces could form special regional unions to which they could give up some of their powers with mutual consent.

Q12.What type of economic policy was started by the nationalists? 

Ans. The struggle for independence was also a war for economic development. The British policies had fragmented the Indian economy. Gandhiji and Russian policy had a deep impact on Indian economic policy. 

Gandhi ji believed that the real India resides in the village. Spinning wheel, promotion of Khadi and Chhote Dhanya in the village, etc. were the works of this series.


Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q1. What are the main features of the Marley-Minto Reforms or the Indian Council Act, of 1909?

Ans. Lord Minto became the new Viceroy after Lord Curzon in 1905, and a few weeks later, John Morley was appointed Secretary of State for India in London. In view of the growing unrest and disturbances in India, both of them decided to prepare a scheme for reforming the Legislative Councils. 

The constitutional reforms passed by the British Parliament in 1911, formally called the Indian Councils Act (1909), are commonly known as the Minto Reforms. 

The main features of this act were the following- 

(i) By this, the membership of non-officials in the Central and Provincial Legislative Councils increased.

(ii) The effective principle implemented by the Indian Councils Act of 1892 was further expanded by this Act,

(iii) The provincial legislative councils had a majority of non-official members, The members nominated by him were in the majority. 

(iv) Provision was made in the Act for the appointment of an Indian member to the Viceroy’s Executive Council and the Provincial Executive Councils.

(v) The powers of the Legislative Councils were also expanded. Members could ask questions and debate the budget, but could not vote on it. They could introduce legislative proposals, but could not make laws.

(vi) The biggest drawback of the Act of 1909 was the provision of a separate electorate for Muslims.

Q.2. What was Cripps’s proposal? What was the reaction of the political parties toward this? 

Ans. Sir Stafford Cripps stayed in India for three weeks. (March-April, 1942) and in consultation with the Indian leaders, he announced his proposals in the form of a ‘Draft Declaration’ which can be summarized as follows –

1. The objective of the British Government is to form a new Indian Union which will have the status of a Dominion.

2. Soon after the war, a Constituent Assembly would be formed which would include elected representatives of British provinces and princely states.

3. During the war an Executive Council shall be constituted consisting of the leaders of the main sections of the Indian people.

Q3. Under what circumstances Quit India movement started? Evaluate the role of Mahatma Gandhi in this movement.

Ans. The failure of the Cripps Mission and the apprehension of the increasing threat of Japanese invasion brought a fundamental change in Gandhiji’s behavior toward the British Government. The unrest of the people was reaching an explosive state due to rising prices and wartime shortages. 

Japan suddenly had major successes in the Western Pacific region. Malaya and Singapore were overrun and in early March 1942, the retreating British army had to leave Rangoon as well. Soon the threat of Japanese invasion on India’s eastern frontier increased and thus India too came under the ambit of real conflict. 

Q4. . How did the events happen during the Quit India Movement? What was the response to the movement?

Ans. The meeting of the All India Congress Committee ended at about midnight on 8 August 1942. The same night the police arrested Mahatma Gandhi, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, and all the prominent Congress leaders. Within a week every important person belonging to the Congress organization was arrested.

After this, the movement passed through three phases. During the first phase, from 9 to 13 August 1942, there were widespread disturbances in places like Bombay, Ahmedabad, Pune, Delhi, etc. From 11 August the situation began to deteriorate rapidly.

As the first phase of the movement ended, three new trends emerged 

(i) the conservative non-violent civil disobedience movement, 

(ii) the rise of serious crimes, and 

(iii) the tendency towards revolutionary terrorism, which led to arson, sabotage, and assault on government employees. Deadly attacks were made. 

When the movement entered the second phase, the focus shifted to the rural areas, where radical students came from the cities to lead the peasant revolts. In this, a large number of national governments were established for a few days in many parts of the United Provinces and Bihar.

After September 1942, the movement went underground due to increasing British repression. This now took the form of acts of revolutionary terrorism in which communication centers were blown up and policemen were attacked. An underground radio station was also established, which functioned for some time.

Chapter NoChapter SolutionMcq
1Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan CivilisationClick here
2Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and EconomiesClick here
3Kinship, Caste and Class Early SocietiesClick here
4Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural DevelopmentsClick here
5Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of SocietyClick here
6Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional TextsClick here
7An Imperial Capital: VijayanagaraClick here
8Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal EmpireClick here
9Kings and Chronicles The Mughal CourtsClick here
10Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official ArchivesClick here
11Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its RepresentationsClick here
12Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and ArchitectureClick here
13Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and BeyondClick here
14Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, ExperiencesClick here
15Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New EraClick here


Q.1. Which decision of the Deoband School became the gap between the Aligarh Movement and the Deoband Movement? 

Ans. The declaration of the Deoband school that the concept of nationhood depends on the unity of all the followers of the religion and is not against any Muslim principle. 

Q.2  What was the basic aim of the Aligarh Movement?

Ans. Anglo-Muslim friendship was the only means of Muslim security and unity.

Q.3.Deoband movement was associated with which movement? What was its main objective?

Ans. The Deoband movement was an offshoot of the so-called Wahavi movement. Its purpose Shah Wali Had to follow the teachings of Ullah. 

Q.4 When was the nationwide strike organized against the Rowlatt Act?

Ans. On April 6, 1919.

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