Class 12 History Notes Chapter 15 Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era

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Class 12 History Notes Chapter 15: In this post, we were given very important notes from Class 12 history Ch-15, Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era. this post, you get upcoming very important questions and its answer in a very simple way. In this post, we cover class 12 chapter 15 history notes in English, Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era, class 12 questions, and answers

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 15 Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era

Chapter No15
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameFraming the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era
Medium English / History
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

Key Points Of The Lesson

India became independent on August 15, 1947. Constitution was necessary for an independent India. Therefore its construction started in December 1946. It was ready in December 1949 but it was implemented on January 26, 1950.

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Considering the diversity and vastness of the country, it was made long with 11 sessions and it is the longest constitution in the world. 

The sufferings of past and present in this constitution; The facilities of different castes and communities have been taken care of. It has developed many democratic institutions.


At the time of constitution-making, there was a long discussion on each and every part of its draft in the Constituent Assembly, in which a total of 165 days were spent in the meetings of the Constituent Assembly.  In between sessions, various committees and sub-committees worked to improve and refine the draft.

There were many formidable problems in front of independent India, which needed to be resolved. There was a comprehensive and long-term plan for problems like refugees, Hindu-Muslim riots, shabby economy. Keeping all these things in mind, a new constitution was prepared. 

The new constitution of India was finalized by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949 and it came into force on 26 January 1950. Under the new constitution, many rights and freedoms were provided to the citizens of India. Along with material rights, the Directive Principles of State Policy were also laid down. 

Time Line

1. On July 26, 1945, the Labor Party government came to power in Britain.

2. December-January, 1945 General elections in India.

3. On May 16, 1946, The Cabinet Mission announces its constitutional scheme. 

4. On June 16, 1946, Muslim League approves the constitutional scheme of the Cabinet Mission. 

5. June 16, 1946: Cabinet Mission proposes the formation of an interim government at the Center. 

6. September 2, 1946: Congress forms the interim government, in which Nehru is made the Vice-President.

7. On 13 October 1946 Muslim Bagh decides to join the Interim Government. 


Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q. 1. What is meant by the constitution? 

Ans. Constitution is a set of rules and principles according to which the constitution of a country is governed.  It contains those supreme laws which both the citizens and the government have to obey. It is in this that the powers of the government and the rights and duties of the citizens are described.

Q. 2. What is the importance of a constitution for a country?

Ans. The constitution is the source of the power of the government. What are the powers of various organs of the government –

There are two main objectives of the constitution – 

(i) To explain the mutual relations of various organs of the government. 

(ii) To describe the relationship between the government and the citizens. 

Q.3. Write a short note on the need for a preamble in the constitution. 

Ans. The preamble is needed in the constitution so that the goals, objectives, and principles of the constitution can be described concisely and clearly. 

The guiding principles of the government are also described in the preamble itself. Apart from this, it has become a constitutional convention to start the constitution with a preamble. 

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HistoryPolitical Science

Q.4. When was the constitution of India formed?

Ans. The Constitution of India was prepared by a Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly was called on 9 December 1946. Dr. Sachchidanand Sinha was its temporary president. 

Q.5. Why was the Indian Constitution implemented on January 26, 1950?

Ans. The Constitution of India was prepared on November 26, 1949, but it was implemented after two months on January 26, 1950. One reason for this was that Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru passed a resolution demanding complete independence in the Lahore session of the Congress on 31st December 1929 and celebrated 26th January 1930 as ‘Independence Day’ all over India. 

Q. 6. What do you mean by the constitution? 

Ans. The constitution is that written law which is also called the basic law and which tells as a source according to which rules and principles the government should make laws.

Q.7. Can the constitution be called a living document? 

Ans. The constitution can be called a living document because it keeps on developing continuously with the functioning institutions, expectations, and aspirations.

Q.8. When did the Constitution Building Assembly start its work under the Cabinet Mission?

Ans. The work of formation of the proposed constitution-making assembly under the cabinet mission was completed in July-August, 1946. The Constituent Assembly started its work on December 9, 1946.

Q.9. On which day the Constitution of India was implemented?

Ans. The Constitution of India was implemented on January 26, 1950. 

Q10. On which day the Constitution of India was passed by the Constituent Assembly?

Ans. The Constitution of Narat was passed by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949. 


Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q1. Who presented the ‘Objective Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly? 

Ans. Objective Resolution – On December 13, 1946, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru presented the objective resolution in front of the Constituent Assembly. It was clarified in the objective resolution that the Constituent Assembly determined to make such a constitution for India. 

(a) social, economic, and political justice, freedom of thought, speech, expression, and belief, equality of opportunity, and before the law and fraternity are enjoyed by all residents of India. 

(b) There should be proper arrangements for the security of minority classes, scheduled castes, and backward castes.

Q2. What was the role of the Constituent Assembly? Who was the president of this assembly? 

Ans. The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on December 9, 1946, under the chairmanship of Dr. Sachchidanand Sinha, but on December 11, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the permanent chairman of the constitution. 

This Constituent Assembly started the work of constitution-making. After 2 years 11 months 18 days, on November 26, 1949, the new constitution of India was formed. Due to historical importance, this constitution was implemented on January 26, 1950. 

Q.3 What is the need of the Preamble to the Constitution? 

Ans. Need of Preamble to the Constitution The importance of the Preamble of the Indian Constitution is as follows-

(1) This gives an understanding of the philosophy of the constitution. The Preamble of the Constitution is a very important document. It throws light on the main objectives, ideologies, goals, and responsibilities of the government of the constitution. 

(ii) Preamble also has legal importance. Dr. D. D. Basu has written that where the legal part of the constitution is unclear, the help of the Preamble can be taken to explain it and to clarify it. 

(iii) The preamble of the constitution gives an idea of ​​constitutional power. The preamble makes it clear that the ultimate will of the people is to make, accept and apply the constitution to India. Every citizen of India is an integral part of the sovereign. 

(iv) In the Preamble, the structure of the Indian government has been declared democratic. The preamble also indirectly gives direction to the government. Also controls his actions.

Q. 4. What are the fundamental duties given to the citizens of India?

Ans. According to the 42nd amendment of the constitution passed in 1976, some fundamental duties of Indian citizens have also been accepted. 

(i) act in accordance with the constitution and respect its orders, institutions, national anthem, 

(ii) follow the ideals which inspired our freedom struggle, 

(iii) To support the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India, 

(IV) to do national service for the defense of the country when needed, 

(V) to promote brotherhood and harmony among all the people of India, 

(VI) to preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture understand and protect it, 

Q.5 How did the princely states of Deori merge with the Union of India? 

Ans. The independence of India and Pakistan was announced on June 3, 1947. The native states were exempted from the British they can join India or Pakistan with anyone they want or they can maintain their independent existence if they want. 

Most of the princely states decided to accede to India under pressure from the mass movement of the people of the princely states and due to the successful diplomacy of Home Minister Sardar Patel. 

The Nawab of Junagadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad, and the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir kept bickering for some time. The people of Junagarh, a small princely state situated on the coast of Kathiawar, voted to join India.

Q6. Write the unitary features of the Indian Constitution. 

Ans. Although the nature of the constitution is federal, it is inclined toward the center.

An attempt has been made to strengthen In the event of an emergency, the constitution has given special powers to the federal government, the President of India can take over the rule of the entire country and

The central government has much more powers than the states. the union in the constitution

Can suspend the independent rights of. Supreme authority has not been given in any constitution of the world. In this regard, Dr. Ambedkar writes- “Although joining the Union of India was not the result of any agreement, but

does not have the right to sever its relations with it. Sangha is union, it is eternal.” The following are examples of unitary characteristics:

(i) The division of powers is in favor of the Centre. (ii) Single citizenship.

(iii) Appointment of the Governors of the States by the Centre.

(iv) Financial dependence of the states on the center.

(v) Emergency powers of the Centre.

Q.7. Briefly explain the rights and duties of the Parliament. 

Ans. The main duty of the Parliament is to make laws for the country and to provide finance for the running of the government. All laws must be passed by both Houses. 

Finance bills can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha with the permission of the President. The Council) is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha and it has fixed their salaries and allowances and can compel them to resign by no confidence or by not passing the budget.

Parliament has the power to amend the constitution and change fundamental rights etc.

It is only Parliament that can also impeach the President and seek the removal of judges in the Supreme and High Courts or the Chief Election Commissioner, Comptroller and Auditor General of Accounts, etc., in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Constitution. 

Parliament can also appoint committees to assist it in its work. These are of three types- one those which are concerned with the composition and powers of the House, the other which are One helps in legal work and one deal with financial matters.

Q.8. Write a short note on Vice President.

Ans. The Vice-President is elected by the members of both Houses of Parliament by the system of proportional representation and the single transferable vote. He should be a citizen of India, minimum 35 years of age, and eligible for membership in the Rajya Sabha. 

He is elected for three years. He is the ex-officio of the Rajya Sabha and in the absence of the President, who is absent due to illness or any other reason, or until the election of a new President, the work of the President and his

What is meant by the basic structure of Savdhaan? Ans. In 1973, in a dispute called ‘Kesavananda Bharti’, the Supreme Court said that the Parliament can reduce the fundamental rights by amending the constitution, but cannot make any such amendment in the constitution, which will change the basic structure of the constitution itself. 

The government was not satisfied with this and bypassing the 42nd amendment in 1976, it was arranged that constitutional amendments cannot be challenged in any court. In the Minerva Mills case (1980), the Supreme Court declared this section invalid. 

Q.9. Give reasons for the vastness of the Indian Constitution. 

Ans. Due to the vastness of the Indian Constitution, the Indian Constitution is vast due to the following facts-

(i) A joint constitution has been provided for the center and the states in India. There is no separate constitution for the provinces.

(ii) The fundamental rights have been explained in detail in the third part of the constitution.

(iii) Directive principles of politics have been included in the fourth part of the constitution.

(iv) Emergency powers of the President from Articles 352 to 360 in the 18th part of the Constitution Powers have been arranged.

Q. 10 The constitution of which four countries had an impact on the Indian constitution? 

Ans. The goal of the framers of the constitution was to make a good constitution, so they took the institutions and rules which they liked from foreign constitutions without hesitation. Indian

The Constitution of the following countries had an impact on the Constitution – 

(i) British Constitution – Parliamentary governance system in India is the gift of India. 


Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q.1. What do you understand by fundamental rights? 

Ans. The rights which the constitution guarantees to the citizens are often termed natural rights or fundamental rights. The purpose of fundamental rights is to prevent the government or the boards from doing arbitrary and to give them the opportunity to the person to develop themselves. 

These rights can be enforced by the courts and any citizen can go to the Supreme Court to do so, the Supreme Court can declare all the laws which violate or derogate these rights as illegal. But the fundamental right is not completely unlimited. limited by the government if necessary

have the right to do. The 42nd Amendment Bill of the Constitution has accepted the right of the Parliament to limit these fundamentals.

In the second part of the constitution, the fundamental rights are mainly divided into six categories- 

(i) right to equality before the law which prohibits discrimination on the basis of property, religion, origin, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and There will be no disqualification or discrimination for service under the state. 

(ii) There shall be the right to speech, expression, conference, organization or association, transmission, residence, property, acquisition, holding or disposal, occupation, etc. 

(iii) Right against exploitation, by which all forms of forced labor, child labor in factories, and sale of human beings, etc. are prohibited. 

(iv) There is freedom of practice and propagation in considering religion as an unfettered form. 

(v) Minorities have the right to acquire their own language, script, and education and to establish and manage educational institutions as per their wish to maintain their culture. 

(vi) There is also a right to constitutional remedies for the enforcement of the above-mentioned fundamental rights. 

Q. 2. Describe the importance of the Directive Principles of State Policy. 

Ans. The Constitution of India declares that India is a democratic republic, but political democracy alone is not sufficient unless it is accompanied by social and economic democracy. Economic and political justice should animate all the institutions of national life. 

Will try to promote the public welfare by establishing and protecting it as a work seeker.” It is further written in these principles that “the state should conduct its policy in such a way that every man and woman should be equally provided with adequate means of livelihood. 

Should have the right to get, pay should be equal for equal work, try to get people to work while trying within the limits of their economic power and they should have the right to get public assistance in the conditions of education, unemployment, old age and handicapped etc.

Efforts will have to be made to make working conditions humane for the state workers, to make their standard of living dignified, and to make full use of their leisure and to get social and cultural opportunities.

In the economic sphere, the state has to make its policy such that the ownership and control of the material wealth of the community is such that it is in the collective interest and does not center the wealth and means of production to the detriment of the general public.

The purpose of some principles is to make Gandhiji’s dreams come true. For example, the organization of village panchayats, development of cottage industries, bringing prohibition, arranging education and social progress for scheduled and primitive castes, etc.

In the same way, the state should provide labor participation in the management of industries, an equal code of conduct for citizens, provision of free compulsory education for drivers up to 14 years of age, separation of executive and judiciary, and advancement of international peace and security, between nations. 

To maintain respectful relations, to promote respect for international law and treaty obligations, and also to encourage the settlement of disputes by arbitration.

Q.3. What kind of differences have there been between India and Pakistan regarding Kashmir? 

Ans. On August 15, 1947, the British Government established two independent states of India and Pakistan. These two are neighboring countries, but the difference between the two states on the question of Kashmir remains even today. 

In fact, at the time of partition, Kashmir wanted to remain separate and independent without joining either India or Pakistan, but Pakistan attacked the people of Kashmir by inciting the tribals to unite them with them. Incidents of looting and kidnapping started happening. Then Kashmir King Hari Singh made Shere Kashmir Abdullah the Prime Minister and requested him to join India with his advice, which was accepted. 

When Kashmir voluntarily became a part of India, it became the duty of the Government of India to protect the lives and property of the people there. An army was sent to Kashmir. Pakistan had already started giving military assistance. This thing was against international law.

That’s why India put the problem of Kashmir before the United Nations. The war between India and Pakistan stopped at the behest of the United Nations. In 1965, Pakistan attacked India, but it was repulsed. The question of Kashmir is still pending on the United Nations agenda. Kashmir from India But there is no dispute. Pakistan has illegally occupied a part of Kashmir which is part of India.

There is a problem for On the other hand, Pakistan talks about plebiscites on international forums. Russia’s contribution in solving this problem: Being disappointed with the decisions of the Kashmir Constituent Assembly, Pakistan appealed to the United Nations Council to intervene to solve this problem. Here the Soviet Union exercised veto power on the proposal of intervention by the United Nations on behalf of Pakistan. Even in 1962, the Soviet Union rejected the Kashmir decision.

Q.4 What is meant by central federalism?

Ans. Indian federalism is also called central federalism. This means that the center is powerful even though there is a federal government in India. The things due to which the center has become more powerful are the following-

(i) The powers of the Central Government are very wide. Keep 97 subjects in the subjects of the center list

(ii) Parliament can create any new state and the size of any state. 

(iii) States do not have their own constitution. 

(iv) The Constitution does not accept the principle of dual citizenship.

(v) India has a unified judiciary.

(vi) Center has control over All India Services and Governors. 

(vii) Economically the state governments are dependent on the center. 

(viii) Exercise of extraordinary powers by the Central Government after the declaration of emergency

Q5. Describe the main features of the Indian Constitution. 

Ans. The Indian Constitution was prepared by a Constituent Assembly. The head of this meeting was Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of India. The Constituent Assembly formed a drafting committee of 7 members to frame the constitution. The chairman of this committee was Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar. 

This constitution was prepared from December 9, 1946, to November 26, 1949. Thus it took 2 years 11 months 18 days. This constitution was implemented on January 26, 1950. The features of this constitution are as follows-

1. Written and Lengthiest Constitution – The Constitution of India is a written constitution like most of the constitutions of the world. It is the largest constitution in the world. On January 26, 1950, the constitution was implemented in India, then it was divided into 22 parts. 395 Articles were 19 Schedules. 

2. Establishment of a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic – The Indian Constitution declared India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. Is. It means that India is completely independent and supreme sovereign and is not under any other authority. 

3. People’s own Constitution – An important feature of the Constitution of India is that it is the people’s own constitution and it has been implemented by the people themselves on their own will. 

4. Constitution prepared from many sources (A Unique Constitution Derived from many Sources) – It is also a specialty of our constitution that it has included the good principles and qualities of the constitutions of other countries. The aim of our constitution makers was to make a good constitution, so they included the constitution of the country in which they saw something good. 

5. Supremacy of the Constitution – Another feature of the Indian Constitution is that it is the supreme law of the country. 

6. Secular State – According to the Constitution of India, It is a secular republic. India has been clearly declared a secular state by adding the word secular in the preamble of the 42nd amendment. A secular state means that the state has no religion of its own and all religions are equal in the eyes of the state. 

7. Flexible and Rigid Constitution – The Constitution of India is flexible as well as rigid. It is neither extremely flexible like the constitution of England nor rigid like the constitution of America. 

8. Federal Constitution with a Unitary Bias – Although the word ‘Union’ has not been used by any article in our Constitution, the Indian Constitution establishes a federal government. Article 1 of the Constitution states that “India is a Union of States.” 

9. Parliamentary Form of Government – The Indian Constitution provided for a parliamentary form of government in India. The President is the head of the state, but his powers are only in name, not real. 

10. Bicameral Legislature Another feature of our constitution is that it has established a bicameral legislature at the center. 

11. Fundamental Rights – An important feature of the Indian Constitution is that in the third part of the Constitution, from Articles 14 to 32, fundamental rights have been provided to Indians. 

Chapter NoChapter SolutionMcq
1Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan CivilisationClick here
2Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and EconomiesClick here
3Kinship, Caste and Class Early SocietiesClick here
4Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural DevelopmentsClick here
5Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of SocietyClick here
6Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional TextsClick here
7An Imperial Capital: VijayanagaraClick here
8Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal EmpireClick here
9Kings and Chronicles The Mughal CourtsClick here
10Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official ArchivesClick here
11Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its RepresentationsClick here
12Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and ArchitectureClick here
13Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and BeyondClick here
14Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, ExperiencesClick here
15Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New EraClick here


Q1. What were the main features of the Objective Resolution in the Constituent Assembly? 

Ans. (i) India became an independent and sovereign republic. 
(ii) The federal system will be established in India. 
(iii) The source of power in the Indian Union will be the people themselves.
(iv) All people will get social, economic, and political justice and they will get freedoms and rights. 

Q.2 Who was the President of the Constituent Assembly?

Ans. Dr Rajendra Prasad

Q.3. When was the economic policy of India announced? 

Ans. The economic policy of India was announced in 1948.

Q.4 When was Sarvodaya Yojana started by Jai Prakash Narayan? 

Ans. Sarvodaya Yojana was started in 1950 by Jai Prakash Narayan.

Q. 5 What do you mean by secularism? 

Ans. Secularism means that the state has no religion of its own. The laws and policies of the state are not based on any particular religion.

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