Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9 Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts & Best Q/A

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Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9: In this post, we were given very important notes from Class 12 history Ch-9, Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts. In this post, you get upcoming very important questions and its answer in a very simple way. In this post, we cover class 12 chapter 9 history notes, class 12 history chapter 9 notes in English, Kings, and Chronicles The Mughal Courts class 12 questions and answers

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9 Kings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts

Chapter No09
Chapter NameKings and Chronicles The Mughal Courts
Medium English / History
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9

Of course, the Mughal emperors were superior except for a few. He considered himself the ruler of this vast India and its diverse castes, but the political situation did not fully support this vision. 

EYE Mughals Wikimedia 1200 3

Yet such a vision has always been important. This vision was accomplished by the writing of dynastic histories. He appointed a historian in his court. They used to keep an account of the events of their time. To make these significant, data were also collected from different regions of the Indian subcontinent. 

Historians who wrote in English named the style of text as chronicle or history. These sources have been very helpful in writing the history of the Mughal emperors. Important factual information has been received from them about the institutions of the Mughal Empire. 

Again, the purpose of these texts was to communicate the intentions that the Mughal rulers wanted to implement in their empire. Thus the chronicles reveal how royal ideologies and principles were implemented and propagated. 

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The founder of the Mughal Empire was Zahiruddin Babur, who was a resident of Fargana, Central Asia, who was driven out by the Uzbeks. So he came to Kabul and then in 1526 AD

came to India After ruling till 1530 AD, his son Humayun sat on the throne. After being defeated by the Afghan ruler Sher Shah in 1540 AD, he was forced to live a life of exile in the court of the Safavid ruler of Iran. Coming to India in 1555 AD, he defeated the rulers of the Suri dynasty and became the ruler, but he died in 1556 AD. After that, his son Jalaluddin Akbar became the ruler who ruled till 1605 AD. 

He is considered the most successful ruler in the Mughal dynasty. He also expanded and strengthened the Mughal Empire. He was followed by three successors Jahangir (1605–27), Shah Jahan (1627–58), and Aurangzeb (1658–1707). Territorial expansion continued under them. 

After the death of Aurangzeb, the last powerful emperor in 1707 AD, the Mughal Empire began to decline and its territory began to be limited. Regional powers began to dominate, yet the Mughal rule continued till 1857.

Timeline: Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9

Around 1530,the manuscript of Bawar’s memoirs became part of the family collection of the Timurids. These memoirs, written in Turkish, somehow survived a storm.
1587Gulbadan Begum begins the writing of the Humayunnama. 
1589Works on the Waburnama, the memoirs of Babur.
1589-1602Working on Akbarnama by Abul Fazl
1605-22 Jahangir writing his memoirs named Jahangirnama 
1639–47Writing the first two offices of the Badshahnama by Lahori
Around 1650Muhammad Waris began the writing of the chronicles of the third decade of Shah Jahan’s reign.
Around 1668A compilation of the history of the first ten years of Aurangzeb’s reign by Muhammad Kazim in the name of Alamgirnama.

Important Facts and Events of Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9

1. Chronicles – The details written by the historians of the Mughal court about the Mughal Empire are called Chronicles by modern historians.

2. Mowgli – The name of the young hero of Rudyard Kipling’s Jungle Book is Mowgli, which is probably derived from the word Mughal. 

3. 1526-30 AD – Babur’s rule

4. 1530-40; 1555-56 AD – Humayun’s rule 

5. 1556-1605 – Akbar’s rule

6. 1605-1627 Reign of Jahangir 

7. 1627-1658– Reign of Shah Jahan

8. 1658-1707 – Aurangzeb’s rule

9 Three famous chronicles – Akbarnama, Shahjahannama, Alamgirnama

10. Chagatai Turks – They considered themselves descendants of the eldest son of Genghis Khan. 

11. Razmnama – translation of Mahabharata into Persian.

12. Calligraphy – Calligraphy is the art of writing by hand. 

Very short answer questions of Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9

Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q. 1. What is a chronicle? 

Ans. The Mughal emperors commissioned court historians to write accounts of events. These writers collected a lot of information from different regions of the subcontinent to help the rulers in the governance of their region. Modern historians writing in English have named this style of text as Itivritta or Chronicles.

Q. 2. Describe the origin of the Mughals. 

Ans. (i) Some historians are of the view that the Mughals originated from the Mongols. One feels the grandeur of an empire, but the Mughal rulers did not like this name (Mongol). 

(ii) The Mughal rulers preferred to call themselves Timurids because they were paternal descendants of the Turkish ruler Timur. Mughal ruler Babur was related to Genghis Khan from the maternal side 

Q.3. What was the harm caused by the imposition of the Jizya tax by Aurangzeb?

Ans. (i) Due to this discrimination spread in the empire. Religious leaders insulted Hindus. 

(ii) There were many revolts against Jizya. The traders of the city used to agitate. 

Q.4. Mention the importance of Persian in the Mughal court. 

Ans. (i) After Babur all the Mughal rulers adopted the Persian language.

(ii) The king, the people of the royal family, and the distinguished members of the court all spoke in Persian language, later the accountants, clerks, and other officials also learned it. 

Q. 5. What was the Nastalik style?

Ans. (i) Calligraphy i.e. the art of writing by hand is considered an important skill.

(ii) It was a fluid style that was written in a long flat flowing manner. It was written with a pen with a tip of 5 or 10 mm. The pen was made of reed and it was written by dipping it in ink.

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Q.6. Why has Abul Fazl considered painting as a magical art?

Ans. (i) Pictures increase the beauty of the book. The ideas of the king and the power of the king can be communicated powerfully. 

(ii) According to Abul Fazl, this art presents an inanimate object in such a way that it has life.

Q. 7. Who was Bihzad?

Ans. (i) Vihzad was a famous painter of Iran. It was the glory of the Safavid court. Due to this, it became famous around the world.

(ii) The Safavid kings of Iran established the court and Provided patronage to excellent artists trained in workshops.

Q. 8. Differentiate between a historical account and a historical account.

Ans. (i) The historical account outlines the development over time. 

(ii) A one-time statement describes a situation at a particular point in time.

Short answer type questions of Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9

Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q. 1. How was Prakash’s idea communicated? 

Ans. At the core of Suhrawardy’s philosophy is Plato’s Republic where God is represented by the symbol of the sun. Suhrawardi’s works were widely read in the Islamic world. Sheikh Mubarak studied it. He told this to his sons Faizi and Abul Fazl who were trained under his tutelage.

Q. 2. Where did Abul Fazl explain just sovereignty as a social contract?

Ans. Abul Fazl has defined sovereignty as a social contract. He says that the king protects the four entities of his subjects – life (jan), wealth (mal), honor (nam), and faith (din) and in return, he demands obedience and a share in the resources. Only a just sovereign with power and divine guidance was able to honor this contract.

3. What do you understand by Cornish? Give a brief description

Ans. The Cornish was a form of formal greeting in which the courtier bowed his head forward by placing the palm of his right hand on his forehead. This symbolized that the Cornish man was presenting himself to the royal court with humility, bowing and touching the place of his senses and mind.

Q.4 What was Char Tasleem? 

Ans. The four-showdown method of greeting begins with the placing of the right hand on the ground. In this, the foothills are upwards. After this, raising the hand slowly, the person stands and keeps the foothill above the head. Such a showdown is done four times. The literal meaning of tasleem is self-request.

Q.5. What kind of special festival is Shab-e-Barat? 

Ans. Shab-e-Barat is the full moon night of the eighth month of the Hijri calendar i.e. fourteenth Sawan. The day is celebrated in the Indian subcontinent with prayers and the playing of fireworks. It is believed that on this night the fate of the year ahead is determined for Muslims and sins are forgiven.

Q.6. Mention the consequences of Akbar’s Rajput policy. 

Ans. Results of Akbar’s Rajput policy

(i) End of Rajput opposition- The Rajputs, who were the heroic caste of Hindus, who had always faced foreign invaders, had fought a fierce struggle with Akbar’s grandfather Babur. But due to Akbar’s liberal policy, he became his friend and stopped opposing the Mughal Empire.

(ii) The Rajputs became the protectors of the Mughal Empire. The Rajputs were fierce enemies of the Muslim rulers and Muslims. With their policy of generosity of Akbar, he became the protector of the Mughal Empire. Akbar gave them high positions in the military and civil administration. The services of experienced generals, capable administrators, and skilled politicians were available. 

(iii) Military power of the Mughals increased- Akbar had increased his military power by making Rajputs friends. According to Morland, “With the help of the Rajputs, Akbar secured the services of about 50,000 of the best horsemen in India.”

(iv) Reforms in administration- Hindus were very capable of administrative work. By adopting a liberal policy, Akbar appointed Hindus, especially Rajputs, to high positions and made many administrative reforms by taking advantage of their ability.

Q.7 Describe the role of early Jesuit missionaries.

Ans Europe came to know about India from the descriptions of Jesuit missionaries, travelers, traders, and diplomats. European accounts of the Mughal court contain Jesuit accounts. Following the discovery of a direct sea route to India at the end of the 15th century, Portuguese merchants established a network of trading posts in the coastal cities. 

The Portuguese king was also interested in the propagation of Christianity with the help of the missionaries of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit). The Jesuit delegations that came to India during the sixteenth century were part of this process of trade and empire-building.

Akbar was very eager to know about Christianity. He sent an embassy to Goa to invite Jesuit priests. The first Jesuit delegation reached the Mughal court at Fatehpur Sikri in 1580 and stayed there for about two years. These Jesuits spoke to Akbar about Ir Dharma and discussed its virtues with the ulema. Two more delegations were sent to the Mughal court in Lahore in 1591 and 1595. ,

Q8. . Write a note on Fatehpur Sikri.

Ans. Fatehpur Sikri – Fatehpur Sikri was the new capital built by Akbar near Agra in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Its construction work was completed in 1570 AD and he named it Fatehpur Sikri on the occasion of Ta-Vijay. In the words of Abul Fazl Gujarat- ‘His best sons were born in Sikri and the divinely enlightened soul of Shaikh Salim entered into them. 

Hence Akbar’s desire to give a beautiful form to this spiritual place appeared in the pious heart. The emperor ordered the construction of grand buildings for personal use”. We can definitely see the influence of Hindu and Muslim architecture in the buildings of Fatehpur Sikri. 

In a short span of 15 years, the city was built at such a rapid pace that all In Brown’s words, “It looks like a magician made it. The expansion of this city is on a hilly area of ​​seven miles. It has an artificial lake on one side and three more high boundary walls, it has nine gates in total. 

The buildings built in this city can be divided into two parts – religious buildings and secular buildings. Religious buildings include the Jama Masjid, Buland Darwa, the tomb of Sheikh Salim Chishti. Diwan-e-Aag, Jodha Bai’s Palace, Turkish Sultans’ Palace, Cheerwal’s Palace, Diwane Khas, Panchmahal, Taksal, and Jyotish Bhavan are famous among the secular buildings. The buildings built here are a symbol of Akbar’s liberal policy. 

The truth is that in the field of architecture, Fatehpur Sikri is the best example of the great Mughal Emperor Akbar’s masterpiece. Fatehpur Sikri is second only to the Taj Mahal among the buildings built by the Mughal emperors.

Q9. Describe the development of painting during the time of Akbar. 

Ans. Painting under Akbar Akbar was a great patron of the arts. A separate department of painting was established under the leadership of his Iranian painter Abdul Samad. On his orders, the walls of the palaces of Fatehpur Sikri were decorated with different types and sizes.

He also arranged for the training of many Chinese, Indian, and Iranian painters in his court to paint beautiful paintings and also provided them with good salaries and rewards. Akbar himself inspected the works of these painters every week and rewarded them for good paintings.

Q.10. Jahangir’s period is called the golden age of Mughal painting, why? 

Ans. Painters under Jahangir – Jahangir himself was a good painter and a great connoisseur of this art. His time was the golden age of painting. He had set up a painting room in a part of his private garden. He wrote in his autobiography ‘Tujke Jahangiri’, my interest and knowledge in art has reached such an extent that if the artwork of any painter, dead or living, is brought before me and I am not told the name of that painter, I Let me tell you clearly that this work has been made by such and such a painter.

If a painter has made a face and in the same face the eyes and lips have been made by another painter, then I can tell that such and such painter has made the face and such and such painter has made eyes and lips. Despite being an exaggeration from this statement of Jahangir, there can be no doubt that he is a painter of high quality and a great connoisseur of this art.

Jahangir had patronized many Hindu and Muslim painters at his place. Muhammad Nadir, Ustad Mansur and Muhammad Murad of Samarkand; Agha Raza of Herat, and his son Abdul Hasan were famous Muslim painters. Jahangir had decorated Ustad Mansoor and Agha Raza with the title of ‘Narislasar’. Vishandas, Manohar, Govardhan, Tulsi, Madhav etc. were famous among Hindu artists. Bishandas was a high quality painter of his time for his lifelike and realistic paintings.

Q11. Describe the Rajput policy of Aurangzeb. 

Ans. Aurangzeb’s Rajput policy – Akbar kept the Rajputs as his friends.

Shahjahan also did not try to remove him from high positions. Raja Jaswant Singh and Raja Jai ​​Singh were his two famous Rajput generals. He didn’t even pay Jizya and travel tax. Planted. His eldest son was a great friend of Rajputs, so Rajputs remained friends of Shahjahan as well.

But Aurangzeb did not understand this policy right and tried to bring many changes in it. He was a staunch Sunni Muslim and wanted to establish an Islamic state in India. Then how could he tolerate that the Rajputs were appointed to high positions under him and lived their lives with great pride. He did everything possible and impossible to nullify their influence:

Q. 12. What was the importance of Kandhar for the Mughal emperors? 

Ans. Right on Kanchar The main basis of foreign policy of Mughals was to keep right on Kanchar. This was due to two reasons- First, without keeping Kanthar under his control, he could not keep Kabul under his control. Secondly, Kandahar was on the trade route that connected India with Iran and Central Asia. In this way Kanchar kept changing hands continuously in 1522, 1558, 1595, 1622 and 1649 AD. 

In 1522 AD, Babur had taken possession of it but during Akbar’s childhood (1558 AD), he had won it from the Iranians. Then Akbar won it in 1595 AD, but during Jahangir’s time in 1622 AD, the Iranians again snatched it from the Mughals. Shah Jahan took it under his control with great difficulty in 1638 AD, but in 1649 AD, the Iranians again snatched it. Thus, for the purpose of establishing authority over Kandahar, the Mughals had to interfere in Central Asia.

Q.13. How did the Mughal emperors implement the ideal of Sulh-e-Kul? 

Ans. Implementation of the ideal of Sulh-e-Kul by the Mughal emperors- 

(i) The ideal of Sulh-e-Kul was implemented through state policies. 

(ii) Akbar abolished the pilgrimage tax in 1563 and Jizya in 1564 because both these taxes were based on religious bias. 

(iii) the officers of the empire to comply with the rule of sulh-i-kul in question. 

(iv) All the Mughal emperors gave grants for the construction and maintenance of places of worship. Even when the temples were destroyed during the war, they were later repaired.

Q14. Who was Gulbadan Begum? What were his achievements in the field of writing?

Ans. She was the daughter of, Tumayun’s sister and Akbar’s aunt?

(ii) He wrote an interesting book Humayunnama which describes the domestic life of the Mughals.

(iii) Gulbadan herself could write fluently in Turkish and Persian.

(iv) He helped Abul Fazl in writing the Akbarnama. He wrote down his first memoirs of the time of Babur and Humayun. 

(v) Along with the ongoing conflicts and tensions between the old kings. 

long answer type questions of Class 12 History Notes Chapter 9

Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q1. Write a short note on ‘Ghaimnama’ or ‘Tujke Bawari’. Or. Write a short note on the historical significance of Baburnama.

Ans. Tuzke-i-Babri or Baburnama is the autobiography of Babur, which was originally written in the Turkish language. This book is considered a classic of world literature. In this book, Babar himself saw Indian life, animals and birds, and India with his own eyes.

A vivid depiction of natural beauty. In this book, where Babar has described his qualities and bright side, he has also assessed his weaknesses and failures in clear words. 

In addition to the then-Indian political, social, and economic condition, he has also presented an account of the errors and the qualities of the enemies. The language of this book is very simple, pure, natural, heart-warming, and elaborate. 

There is a complete absence of exaggeration and pompous vocabulary. Historically, this is a valuable book. This is the Kirti Stambh book of Babur. According to Lenpool, “The tradition of the emperors who came after Wavar, which started with Babur, has ended – the power and glory of Babur’s dynasty have ended but the description of his life ie autobiography – the mockery of the era.” doing is absolutely unchanged and is still immortal.

” Mrs. Waveridge, who translated it from the Turkish language into English, says that “The Autobiography of Babur is an invaluable treasure, which may be placed on a par with the Confessions of St. Augustine and Rousseau, and the biographies of Gibbon and Newton.”

This book is a true mirror of the history of then-Indian and Central Asia. In this, the description of all the incidents has become very lively, poignant, and objective. There is neither expectation nor exaggeration of anything. 

Everything has been described in direct, clear, and measured words. Also, this book is very entertaining. The whole book sounds like a romance. In this, all the events are given in a systematic manner. In this, Babar has interwoven his childhood, youth, and adulthood. 

This book is sung of Babur’s sad, struggling, and difficult life. In this one gets to read the beautiful description of Babur’s Kabul and India’s victory. This book reflects Bawar’s love for nature. In this, Babur’s subtle vision and poet’s heart have peeped at every particle of nature.

Babur’s autobiography is only a representative of his cultured and civilized life, nor has it become good only from a historical and literary point of view, but in this, we can see the economic, social, and religious life of the people of India, Kabul, Fargana, Samarkand and Central Asia. 

A beautiful tableau can also be seen. In this regard, Lenpool has rightly written, “His autobiography is an uneducated soldier’s account of attacks and counter-attacks, ruses, tunnels, glimmering posts, bastions, palisades built for protection, external forms of fortifications, pain given in low voice.

” The description of words and other immaterial objects is not an honor but a reflection of the personal feelings of a man who was a true man of the world, a scholar of Persian literature, a serious and inquisitive observer, and a thoughtful examiner of human nature with a sharp intellect and An ardent lover of nature.

Q2. What is meant by subcontracting system? Explanation of its main features

Ans. Meaning of Mansabdari Mansabdari is a word in the Arabic language, which means to fix a title or place. In this way, Mansabdari was the system, according to which the position, salary, and place in the court of the employees were fixed. 

Mansabdar was a servant of the Mughal state. Each mansabdar had to keep horse riders, companions, camels and carts etc. according to his mansab. 

Mansabs were given not only to military officers but also to civil officers. Qazis, sadars, painters and scholars were also given mansabs, but like military officers they had to maintain a certain number of elephants, horses and soldiers etc. Thus, apart from the mansabdari, there was no separate class of nobles in the Mughal state.

Features of Mansabdari system- 

  • Qualification of Mansabdars– Mansabdar’s ability and loyalty to the king was considered for ordinary mansab but for high mansab it was seen that he should be a person of royal family or high family.
  • Appointment, promotion and dismissal of mansabdars – The emperor himself used to appoint mansabdars. The person who got the mansab was taken to Mir Bakshi. Mir Bakshi used to present him before the emperor. The emperor appointed mansabdars on his merit and with the advice of Mir Dakhshi. After the appointment, his name was entered in the government registers. The promotion of mansabdars was also done at the will of the flat. The emperor could remove any mansabdar from his post whenever he wanted.
  • Categories of Mansabdars According to Abul Fazl, “There were 66 categories of Mansabdars.” During the reign of Akbar, the smallest mansab was 10 soldiers and the largest mansab was 10,000. Later the mansab of the princes was increased to 12 thousand. The ordinary mansabdars or the highest mansab was up to 7 thousand. Akbar probably gave the mansab of 7 thousand only to three nobles Mirza Shahrukh, Aziz Kofa and Raja Mansingh.
  • Jabti system for mansabdars It was not necessary that the son of the mansabdar should also get the same mansab which was given to him. After the death of the mansabdar, his immovable property was confiscated. It was deposited in the government treasury. The mansabdars did not keep horsemen according to their mansab. They kept only a fixed part of their mansab. Therefore, in 1594-95 AD, Akbar established the Sawar Mansab.

Q.3. What type of titles, gifts and presents were given during the Mughal period? What was their importance?

Ans. At the time of coronation or after victory over an enemy, the Mughal emperors used to take huge titles. When these resounding and rhythmic verses were announced by the announcers (nakib), they used to create an atmosphere of awe in the assembly. The Mughal coins bore the full title of the reigning emperor with royalty.

Giving titles to deserving persons was an important aspect of the Mughal state system. The advancement of a person in the court hierarchy could be known by the titles he held. The title of Asaf Khan, given to one of the highest ministers, could have originated from the title of Mirza Raja to the aristocrat’s Jai Singh and Jaswant Singh, or money could be given to get them. Mir Khan in his name. Proposed to give one to Aurangzeb to make him Amir Khan by putting the letter Atif i.e. ‘A’.

Other awards included the robe of honor (khillat) that had previously been worn by the emperor at one time or another. That’s why it was understood that they used to be part of the body of the emperor – Jama, Pagdi and Patka. Gemstones were also often given as gifts by the emperor. In very special circumstances, the emperor would also gift Kamal with a set of jewels studded with manjaris (Padma murassa).

A courtier never went empty-handed to the king. He used to present either a small amount of money in the form of a nudge or a large sum of money as an offering to the emperor. In diplomatic relations, gifts were considered a sign of honor and respect. Ambassadors used to perform the important work of negotiating agreements between rival political powers through treaties and relations. In such circumstances, gifts had an important symbolic role.

Q.4. For what reasons did Akbar shift his capitals?

Ans. The heart of the Mughal Empire was its capital city, where the court was held. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the capitals of the Mughals began to move rapidly. Although Babur had captured Agra, the capital of the Londis, royal courts were set up at different places during the four years of his rule. In the 1560s, Akbar got the Agra Fort built. It was built of red sandstone quarried in the surrounding areas.

In the 1570s, he decided to build a new capital at Fatehpur Sikri. The reason for this decision may have been that Sikri was situated on the direct road to Ajmer, where the dargah of Shaikh Muinuddin Chishti had by that time become an important pilgrimage center.

Mughal emperors had close relations with the Sufis of the Chishti Order. Akbar ordered the construction of a white marble mausoleum for Shaikh Salim Chishti, adjacent to the ‘Jumma’ mosque at Sikri. The purpose of building the massive arched gateway (Buland Darwaza) was to remind visitors of the Mughal conquest of Gujarat.

In 1585 the capital was shifted to Lahore to bring the northwest under more control and thus for years Akbar maintained a close vigil on this border.

Q.5. How did Abul Fazl influence Akbar? How has Akbarnama described his Mughal Empire?

Ans. Abul Fazl, the author of the Akbarnama, was brought up in the Mughal capital, Agra. He was well-versed in Arabic, Persian, Greek philosophy, and Sufism. More than that, he was an influential debater and independent thinker who consistently opposed the views of orthodox Uttam. Akbar was greatly impressed by these qualities. He found Abul Fazl very suitable as his advisor and spokesman for his policies. One of the emperor’s main objectives was to free the state from the control of religious orthodoxy. As Court Historians 1 Abul Fazl not only shaped the ideas related to Akbar’s rule but also expressed them clearly.

Beginning in 1589, Abul Fazl worked on the Akbarnama for thirteen years, during which time he made several improvements to the draft. This history is based on a variety of evidence such as anecdotal accounts of events (yabai), official documents, and oral testimonies of knowledgeable persons.

Q.6. Who were the Mughals? How did he establish his power in India?

Ans. The name Mughal is derived from Mongol. Although today the name evokes the grandeur of an empire, the rulers of the dynasty did not choose this name for themselves. 

They called themselves Temuri because they were descended from the Turkish ruler Tipur on the paternal side. The first Mughal ruler Babur was a relative of Genghis Khan from the maternal side. He spoke Turkish and ridiculed the Mongols, describing them as a barbarian horde.

During the sixteenth century, Europeans used the term Mughal to describe the Indian rulers of this branch of the family. The word has been in continuous use since the sixteenth century. It even bears the name of Mowgli, the young hero of Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book.

It was derived through political alliances between the Mughals and local chieftains, and through conquests, the creation of an empire consisting of various regional states of India. The empire’s founder, Zahiruddin Babur, was driven from his Central Asian homeland of Fergana by rival Uzbeks. He first established himself in Kabul and then in 1526 moved further into the Indian subcontinent in search of territories and resources to meet the needs of his entourage.

Its successor Nasiruddin Humayun (1530–40, 1555–56) expanded the empire’s borders but was defeated by the Afghan leader Sher Shah Suri, forcing him into exile at the court of the Safavid ruler of Iran. Humayun defeated the Suras in 1555 but died within a year.

Chapter NoChapter SolutionMcq
1Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan CivilisationClick here
2Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and EconomiesClick here
3Kinship, Caste and Class Early SocietiesClick here
4Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural DevelopmentsClick here
5Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of SocietyClick here
6Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional TextsClick here
7An Imperial Capital: VijayanagaraClick here
8Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal EmpireClick here
9Kings and Chronicles The Mughal CourtsClick here
10Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official ArchivesClick here
11Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its RepresentationsClick here
12Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and ArchitectureClick here
13Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and BeyondClick here
14Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, ExperiencesClick here
15Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New EraClick here


Q. 1.Explain the words ‘faujdar’ and ‘amal Gujar’.

Ans. Like Shershah, Akbar also divided his empire into many Sarkars, the main officers of the Sarkar were called ‘Fozdar’ and ‘Amal Gujar’. Fojdar’s job was to maintain justice and order while Amal Gujar used to do the work of recovery and control of land revenue.

Q. 2. What was the divine light theory?

Ans. (i) The first famous Iranian Sufi Shihabuddin Suhrawardi gave this idea of ​​an increase in kingship through the divine light principle. 
(ii) According to this view, this divine light was transmitted to the king under a hierarchy, after which the king became a spiritual leader for his subjects.

Q. 3. What are the four essences of the people that are protected by the emperor?

Ans. (i) Life (Jana) (ii) Wealth (Maal) (iii) Honor (Naam) (iv) Faith (Deen).

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