Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8 Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire

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Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8: In this post, we were given very important notes from Class 12 history Ch-7 Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society, and the Mughal Empire. In this post, you get upcoming very important questions and its answer in a very simple way. In this post, we cover class 12 chapter 8 history notes, class 12 history chapter 8 notes in English, peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empireclass 12 questions and answers

Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8 Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire

Chapter NamePeasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society, and the Mughal Empire
Medium English / History
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8

The Mughal emperors ruled India in the 16–17th centuries. India was still a country of villages and about 85% of the people lived in villages. Small cultivators and landlords of the villages both lived and were associated with agriculture. 

There was a relationship between cooperation, competition, and conflict in agriculture. This is how rural society was formed. The Mughals also intervened in the villages, as their main source of income was land revenue. 

The representative of the state, determined revenue, collected revenue and tried to keep control over the rural society. The state wanted good agriculture so that it could get its taxes on time. Many crops were also sold, so trade, currency and markets entered the villages as well.

In this period there were three components of the rural community—the cultivator, the panchayat and the village headman. The craftsman was also a part of the rural community and offered his services to the people of the villages. 

The Panchayat and the headman exercised considerable control over the social system of the village. The chief was given wide powers, but there was also a provision for his dismissal if he did not live up to the expectations. Women used to get important participation in rural society. 

Women worked side by side with men in agricultural production. While men’s work was plowing and plowing, women used to do sowing, weeding and harvesting as well as hoeing of ripe crops. However, in this period, as in the preceding

Prejudices remained in the minds of men regarding the biological activities of women. Upper-caste women had inherited rights and could buy and sell land. Contemporary sources suggest that apart from the agricultural region, there were also forested areas which constituted about 90 percent of the total land area. 

But the forests were rapidly cleared for the expansion of the agricultural sector. A poignant depiction of the destruction of forests is found in Mukundram Chakraborty’s Bengali poem ‘Chandimangal’.

Timeline: Major Dates and Events | Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8 Timeline

1526Babur became the first Mughal emperor by defeating the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at Panipat, a major milestone in the history of the Mughal Empire.
1530–40The first phase of Humayun’s rule
1540–55 Defeated by Sher Shah Suri, Humayun lives as a migrant in the Safari court.
1555–56: Humayun recovers the lost kingdom
1556–1605Reign of Akbar 
1605-27:Reign of Jahangir
1628–58 Reign of Shah Jahan 
1658–1707 Reign of Aurangzeb
1739:Nadir Shah invades India and Delhi. robs.
1761Ahmad Shah Abdali defeats the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat.
1765 Diwani rights of Bengal are handed over to the East India Company. The last Mughal emperor Shah Zafar is deposed by the British and the resh
1857He is expelled and sent to Rangoon (today’s Yangon in Myanmar).

Important facts and events of Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8

1. The main purpose of the Ain- was to present a blueprint of Akbar’s empire where a powerful. 

2. Sources of Mughal History – Ain, found in Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan Documents, documents of East India Company, etc. 

3. Kisan Raivat, Muzrian, Assamese. 

4. Types of farmers – (i) War Kasht (ii) Pahikasht 

5. Khud Kasht – Those farmers who lived in the same villages in which There was land.

6. Pahi Kasht Those farmers who used to come from other villages to do farming on contract.

7. Baburnama – Autobiography of Babur. 8. Shah Canal A canal from the time of Shah Jahan.

9. Jins-e-Kamil – Best crops like cotton and sugarcane.

10. The constituents of the rural community are the cultivator, the panchayat and the head of the village. 

11. Mukadam or Mandal – He was the head of the village and had an important role in various functions of the village.

12. Halalkhiran – They were considered mean in the Muslim community and lived outside the village. 

13. Rural Artisans – potters, blacksmiths, carpenters, barbers, goldsmiths, etc. 

14. Jajmani—The system in which landlords provide daily allowance and food to artisans

15. Money changers are used to exchange currency. 

16. Jungle – Those people whose livelihood was run by the products of the forest.

17. Mawas- The bases which give shelter to miscreants are called Mawas. 

18. Pargana—There was an administrative division in the Mughal provinces.

Very Short Answer Type Questions | Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8 q/a

Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q.1. Who released Again Dahsala? 

Ans. Mirror – Released by Dahsala Akbar. 

Q. 2. When did Aine-Dahsala release by Akbar?

Ans. In 1580, Akbar issued the order ‘Aine Dahsala’. 

Q. 3. Who has an important contribution in building the land revenue system of the Deccan states?

Ans. Nizamshahi Prime Minister Malik Ambar has an important contribution. 

Q.4.Who composed Ain-i-Akbari? 

Ans. Abul Fazl composed Ain-i-Akbari. 

Q.5. Which two methods of land revenue collection were adopted during the Mughal period? 

Ans. Jagirdari system and collection of revenue by royal officials.

Q.6. Who was called Kaast himself?

Ans. The farmers who cultivated their own land were themselves called caste. Some of them had their own plow and oxen. They used to pay revenue at fixed rates. 

Q.7. What was the meaning of Takavi?

Ans. The loan that Akbar gave to the farmers for taking seeds, tools and animals, etc. when needed, was called Takavi. This loan was repaid in easy installments.

Q.8. What are reward rights?

Ans. Inam is originally an Arabic word meaning gift or prize.  It meant inam village or inam land. 

Q.9. What was called Jabti?

Ans. According to the Jabti system, for a fixed period between the farmer and the government. 

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Q. 10. Who could acquire and sell the barren land in the Deccan? 

Ans. In the Deccan, barren land could be acquired and sold by the village headman, the local village assembly and the government.

Q.11. The land revenue system of Sher Shah was mainly based on which system?

Ans. The land revenue system of Sher Shah was mainly the Ryotwari system, under which the farmers had direct contact with the state.

Q. 12. What were the functions of Patwari? 

Ans. Patwari village land, fields cultivated by each farmer, types of crops and Used to keep account of barren land. The names of the farmers were written in his same account.

Q.13. Explain the word Ijara.

Ans. ‘Ijara’ means – contracts. The giving of land on contract led to the ruin of the peasants, as the uncertainty of the rains made it very difficult to produce a fair and assured yield. 

Q.14. Who is called Mirasdar?

Ans. Miras is a word of Arabic origin. In Hamrathi documents it is called hereditary or transferable.

It is said to be the ancestral property received by right or lineage or in the form of reward etc.  Mirasdar was in possession of the land under the right.

Q. 15. What are Chachar and Banjar? 

Ans. The land down after two or three years was called Chachar and more

The land that remained empty for a long time was called barren. 

Q.16. Who were the ryots?

Ans. Indo-Persian sources of the Mughal period usually used the term ryot pa mujriyan for the farmer. 

Q.17. Who were Kasht and Pahi Kasht themselves? 

Ans. The Kashtas themselves were farmers who lived in the same villages in which they owned land.

Pahi-Kabut were those cultivators who had come from other villages to do farming on contract.

Q.18 Which farmers were considered prosperous in North India?

Ans. In North India, the farmers who had 5 acres to 10 acres of land were considered prosperous farmers.

Q.19. In which areas were rice cultivated? 

Ans. Rice was grown more or less in areas that received 40 inches or more of rainfall per year. There used to be farming.

Q.20. Where is Shah Canal?

Ans. Shah Canal is in Punjab. This canal was repaired during the reign of Shah Jahan. Ans. In India mainly two crops Kharif and Rabi were grown which were grown in autumn respectively. 

Short Answer Type Questions | Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8 q/a

Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q. 1 What type of irrigation system was there in agricultural production during the Gal period? 

Ans. In areas that received 40 inches or more of rain per year, rice was more or less cultivated. The cultivation of wheat and millet was more prevalent in areas with low and low rainfall respectively.

The monsoon was the backbone of Indian agriculture, as it is today. But there were some crops that required additional water. For these, artificial methods of irrigation had to be made. Irrigation works were also helped by the state. For example, in North India, the state has established many new

He dug canals and canals and got many old canals repaired, such as the Shah Canal in Punjab during the reign of Shah Jahan. 

Q.2. What types of techniques were used by the farmers during the Mughal period?

Ans. During the Mughal period, farmers used techniques that were mainly based on animal power. One such example can be given of that light wooden plow.

Q.3 Describe the irrigation system?

Ans: Irrigation system described by Ra Babur- 

(i) According to ‘Baburnama’, the settlement here is situated in the plain and there are many crops and plantations.

(ii) According to Babur, autumn crops are prepared without water. Even then, water is conveyed to small trees by buckets or rahats.

(iii) In places like Lahore, Deepalpur, irrigation is done through rahat. In the 

(iv) A narrow channel (groove) is made at the place of waterfall. 

(v) Agra, Chandwar, and Bayana people irrigate with buckets. drawing water from the well

For this they take the help of pulleys. Bullocks are also used to draw water from buckets. 

Q.4.How did tobacco spread in India? 

Ans: Spread of tobacco in India 

(i) This plant first reached the Deccan and from there It was brought to North India from the early years of the 17th century.

(ii) Though there is no mention of tobacco in the list of crops of North India, but Akbar and Its nobles saw tobacco for the first time in 1604 AD. 

(iii) Probably at this time the habit of smoking tobacco (in hookah or chillum) started. Jahangir was so worried about the spread of this bad habit that he banned it but it was ineffective.

(iv) By the end of the 17th century, tobacco became the main source of cultivation, trade and consumption throughout India.

Q5. Explain the relationship between farmer and caste. 

Ans. Relation of farmer and caste- 

(i) Farmers were divided into many groups due to various discriminations like caste.

(ii) Among the cultivators, a large population consisted of people who were engaged in menial jobs or worked as labourers in the fields. Thus they were forced to remain poor. The number of these people was more. They were bound by the restrictions of the caste system and their condition was similar to that of Dalits.

(iii) It had an impact on other sects as well. like those who do mean things among Muslims was called Halal Khoran.

(iv) This type of situation is not seen in middle-class people. Rajput Jat and Ahir, Gujjar, etc. castes were in this category. His social status was good and he was also a farmer. 

Q6. Describe the social condition of the Mughal period. 

Ans. So many important changes in social life in this period Not as much happened in politics, economics, and cultural life. But even in this area

The details of the changes are given below-

There is a great lack of means to know the social condition of the Mughal period. It is only through the accounts of European travelers that we have some idea of ​​the contemporary Mughal society. According to profession and economic conditions, society was divided into three classes. There was a difference between the land and the sky in the lives of these three classes. Where on the one hand upper-class people spend day and night in Sura Sundari.

So in the name of hunting expeditions, the emperor used to visit every nook and corner of his vast empire.

and thus personally looked into the problems and grievances of the people of different localities.

Used to pay attention to The theme of hunting was a recurring theme in the paintings of the court artists. these pictures

The painters often inserted a small scene that indicated a benevolent rule.

Q7. Write a short note on the farmer and agricultural production during the Mughal period. 

Ans. The basic unit of agricultural society was the village in which the peasants lived. Farmers used to do all those works in different seasons throughout the year, which produced the crop, such as plowing the land, sowing the seeds and harvesting the crop when it was ripe. In addition they

They were also involved in the production of commodities that were agriculture-based, such as sugar, oil, etc. But agriculture was not the specialty of rural India only farmers settled in the plains. There were also other areas—such as the hilly areas with vast tracts of dry land—that could not do the kind of farming that could be done on more fertile lands. In addition, a large part of the plot was covered with forests.

Long answer type questions |Class 12 History Notes Chapter 8 q/a

Class 12 history
Class 12 history

Q1. From which sources do we get information about the agricultural activities of the Mughal rural society? 

Ans. Our main sources for understanding the agricultural history of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are historical texts and documents written under the supervision of the Mughal court.

One of the most important historical texts was ‘Ain-i-Akbari’ which was written by the courtiers of Akbar.

Historian Abul Fazl wrote. State to assure regular plowing of fields

For the collection of taxes by the representatives of the state and the rural rulers i.e. the landlords

This book gives an account of the arrangements made by the state to regulate the relations between Presented with great care.

The main purpose of the Ain was to present a model of Akbar’s empire where a strong ruling class maintained social cohesion. According to the author of the Ain, any rebellion against the Mughal state or any claim to autonomous power was doomed to failure. In other words, what we get to know about the peasants from the Ain is the perspective of the high courts of power.

Q. 2 Describe the role of rural artisans in the Mughal period ? 

Ans. Village surveys conducted in the early years of British rule and Maratha documents show that a good number of artisans lived in villages. In some places, 25 percent of the total houses belonged to artisans.

It was sometimes difficult to differentiate between farmers and artisans, as there were many who did both. The cultivator and his family members participated in the production of a variety of group goods. For example, printing on dyed cloth, baking pottery, making or repairing agricultural implements. In the months when they were in between or between flowering and harvesting, these cultivators used to do artisanal work.

Rural artisans like potters, blacksmiths, carpenters, barbers and even goldsmiths also rendered their services to the villagers, in return for which the villagers repaid them in various ways. They were usually given either a share of the crop or the village land.

Q3. Describe the different parts of Ain-i-Akbari.

Ans. The Ain is a compilation of five parts (daftars) of which the first three parts give details of administration. The first book by the name of Manzil-Abadi deals with the royal household and its maintenance. The second part, Sipa-Abadi, is about the military and civil administration and the arrangement of servants. This part includes brief biographies of royal officers (mansabdars), scholars, poets and artists.

Third, there is the country-population, and part, which after giving detailed information on the financial aspects of the empire and the revenue rates of the provinces, gives the “Statement of the Twelve Provinces”. In this section, the statistical information is given in detail, in which and Geographical, topographical and economic sketches of all their administrative and financial units (sarkar, pargana and palace) are also included. In this section, the total measured land and fixed revenue (deposit) of each province and its separate units are also given. .

After giving a detailed account of the suba level, the Ain tells us in detail about the unit governments below the subas. This information is given in a tabular form, where there are eight cells in each ta, which give us the following information— 

(1) Pargana/Mahal; 

(2) Fort;

(3) Arazi and Zamin-i-Paimud (the measured areas); 

(4) cash (fixed in cash; 

(5) suyurgal (revenue grant given in charity); 

(6) zamindar, khan 

(7) castes of zamindars and 

(8)  their horsemen, foot soldiers, soldiers (pawns) and elephants ( phil) is given in his army. 

Q.4. Mention the features of the Mansabdari system.

Ans. Features of Mansabdari system Merits :- 

(i) It ended the Jagirdari system and reduced the possibility of rebellions. Each man sabdar appeared before the emperor to receive his monthly salary. The emperor had direct control over the mansabdars. 

(ii) Mansabs were given on the basis of merit. He was removed from his post if proved unfit. On the death of the mansabdar, his son inherits the mansab of his father.

(iii) The economic loss that the state had to bear by giving large jagirs to the Jagirdars . He was saved by that.

(iv) This practice also had an advantage that the Rajput mansabdars, the middle historical Mongols .A balance was maintained against the hot-headed and bitter Afghans. 

(v) Mansabdars patronised and encouraged art and literature. Many writers and artists lived under his patronage.

(vi) Mughal government by assigning different types of military responsibilities to mansabdars. It was fixed due to many administrative problems.

(vii) Mansabdari system also proved helpful in bringing cultural harmony in the country, because It included people of different castes, religions and classes.

Q.5.Mention the demerits of Mansabdari system. 

Ans: Defects of Mansabdari System 

(1) Mansabdars used to pay salaries to the soldiers of Mansabdars.

(ii) Each mansabdar used to describe his troop in his own way. Therefore, this type of army did not have the qualities of a national army and the feeling of unity. 

(iii) At the time of military campaigns, a mansabdar could only successfully lead his own troop.

(iv) In course of time, the mansabdars stopped maintaining a fixed number of soldiers and at the time of inspection, they started presenting hired ponies, due to which the Rajkop was unnecessarily burdened and a sufficient number of soldiers could not be available at the time of need. 

(v) Mansabdars used to pay less than the fixed salary to the soldiers under them and used to keep cattle.

(vi) After the death of Aurangzeb, the mansabdars started revolting. The emperor had no direct relationship with the soldiers. Many times the prince along with the mansabdari rebelled to get the throne.

(vii) Since the mansabdars had to perform both administrative and military functions,

They were neither fully proficient in tasks nor in military tasks.

Q6. How was the land classified during the reign of Akbar?

Ans. Classification of land in Akbar’s rule – Emperor Akbar, during his reign, classified land with deep foresight and fixed land revenue— 

(i) Polaj—is the land in which each crop is cultivated annually one after the other. This land never becomes fallow.

(ii) Parouti – The land on which cultivation is stopped for a few days so that its fertility can be fulfilled. 

(iii) Chachar—is the land that remains vacant for three or four years.

(iv) Barren – It is the land on which cultivation has not been said for five or more years. 

Q.7. Describe the condition of zamindars during the Mughal period

Ans. The Zamindars and their Classes: It appears from the writings of contemporary historians and Abul Fazl that the practice of individual ownership in India was very old. In due course of time, many laws related to land ownership were also made. Generally, the land belonged to the one 

who plowed it for the first time, because at that time huge plots of land remained to lie like this, which were often barren. That’s why a bunch of enthusiastic people used to make them cultivable and also make their own village. So the same people used to become the owners of that land.

Landlords used to collect rent from their area which was considered their hereditary right. The particular area or within the limits within which they used to collect rent, that place was called by the name of ‘Taluka’ or ‘Zamindari’. 

Generally, 5 to 10 percent of the collective land tax was received by the zamindari, sometimes its limit was 25 percent. This part can be said to be a kind of commission. There was no proprietary right on the land. It is necessary to clarify here that the farmer could not be separated from the land as long as he kept paying his rent.

The rajas were above the zamindars. They used to be above the landlords, but the Persian writers have also called them landlords. But because they had some internal freedom, their position was slightly different from that of the landlords.

Importance of Zamindars – Zamindars also maintained their own army and generally lived in forts and strongholds which were symbols of their status and power as well as served as a place of refuge in times of need. 

According to Abul Fazl, the army of these zamindars and kings used to reach lakhs in total. Generally, these zamindars had caste and clan relations with the farmers living in their zamindari, so these zamindars had a lot of influence on the farmers as well. Economically also, these people were quite prosperous. Hence the landlord class became powerful over time. In such a situation, no able ruler tried to disobey them or seek their enmity.

Chapter NoChapter SolutionMcq
1Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan CivilisationClick here
2Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and EconomiesClick here
3Kinship, Caste and Class Early SocietiesClick here
4Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural DevelopmentsClick here
5Through the Eyes of Travellers Perceptions of SocietyClick here
6Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional TextsClick here
7An Imperial Capital: VijayanagaraClick here
8Peasants, Zamindars and the State Agrarian Society and the Mughal EmpireClick here
9Kings and Chronicles The Mughal CourtsClick here
10Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official ArchivesClick here
11Rebels and the Raj The Revolt of 1857 and its RepresentationsClick here
12Colonial Cities Urbanisation, Planning and ArchitectureClick here
13Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and BeyondClick here
14Understanding Partition Politics, Memories, ExperiencesClick here
15Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New EraClick here


Q.1 Who was the Mandal? How was it appointed?

Ans. The Sardar of the Panchayat was a headman called Mukaddam or Mandal. The Priya was elected by consensus of the elders of the village and after this election he had to take the approval of the Zamindar. The mandal (headman) remained in office only as long as the elders of the village had confidence in him. 

Q.2. What is meant by “small republic”?

Ans. Some British officers of the nineteenth century described the Indian village as a small Republic’ where people collectively share resources and labour in brotherhood.

Q.3. Who were the Paikas?

Ans. The soldiers of the Ahom kings in Assam were called Paikas. These were the people who had to give military service in exchange for land.

Q. 4. What were the functions of Amin? 

Ans. Amin was an official whose responsibility was to ensure that in the provinces State rules and regulations are being followed or not.

Q.5. What type of land was Polaj?

Ans. Polaj was the land in which one crop after another was cultivated annually and was never left empty. 

Q.6. What was log batai?

Ans. After harvesting the crop in long sharing, the farmers used to make heaps of it and then used to distribute it among themselves. Each farmer took home his share and made a profit from it.

Q.7. Who has described the free flow of silver in India?

Ans. Giovanni Caretti, an Italian traveller, who passed through India around 1690. It has presented a very vivid picture of how silver used to reach India through the whole world. 

Q.8. In how many parts is Ain-e-Akbari compiled? Kiss in Mulk-e-Abadi Is the type description submitted?

Ans. Ain-i-Akbari is compiled in five parts. Mulk-e-Abadi is the part that gives detailed information about the financial aspects of the empire’s provinces and the statistics of rates to the revenue. 

Q9. Floor population is related to which subject? 

Ans. This is the first part of the Ain which deals with the royal household and its maintenance.

Q10. Who were the other empires of Asia contemporary to the Mughal Empire?

Ans. Other empires of Asia during this period were Mitra (in China), Safavi (in Iran) and Ottoman (in Turkish).

Q.11. What was the primary purpose of farming? 

Ans. The primary purpose of farming was to feed the people. That’s why crops like rice, wheat, jowar, etc. were grown for daily food needs

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