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If you searching for the Class 12 History sample paper Solved 2024. then you find the right place. In this article, we cover a Class 12 History sample paper.

Class 12 History sample paper Solved

BoardCBSE
Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
SubjectsHistory
MediumEnglish
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper

Section A consists of 21 questions of 1 mark

Class 12 History sample paper Solved with PDF Download


1. Who among the following proposed the ‘policy of pacification’, under which Paharia chiefs were given annual allowance and made responsible for the proper conduct of men?

(a) Francis Buchanan

(b) Robert Starchery 

(c) William Hodges

(d) Augustus Cleveland

2. Who among the following is referred to as the king Devanampiya Piyadassi? 

(a) Ashoka

(b) Bimbisara

(c) Chandragupta Maurya

(d) Bindusara

3. Why was the task of defining rights difficult in the Constituent Assembly? 

(a) Different groups have different demands regarding rights

(b) The British do not want to include it in the constitutional framework

(c) Gandhiji opposed the idea of special rights for some sections

(d) The rights of people in the princely state were ambiguous

4. Fill in the blanks.

The term used for names derived from the name of the mother or female ancestor is called

(a) Matrilineal

(b) Matrimonial

(c) Metronymic

(d) Matriliny

5. Consider the following statements regarding Buddhism and choose the correct option. 

I. It grows rapidly, both during the lifetime and after the death of Buddha.

II. It did not give much importance to conduct and values.

III. It appealed to many people who were dissatisfied with the existing religious practice.

IV. It laid much stress on superiority based on birth.

Option

(a) Only (i) is correct.

(b) Only (i) and (ii) are correct.

(c) Only (i) and (iii) are correct.

(d) Only (ii) and (iv) are correct.

6. Works of whom amongst the following were translated in Sanskrit by Al-Biruni? 

(a) Euclid

(b) Pythagoras

(c) Panini

(d) Patanjali

7. Match the following.

List IList II
A. The world is transient1. Self-punishment
B. The world is soulless 2. Anatta
C. The world is full of sorrows3. Anicca
D. The path of moderation 4. Dukkha

Codes

(a) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4

(c) A-3, B-2, C-4, D-1

(b) A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1

(d) A-1, B-4, C-3, D-2

8. Lord Jagannatha with his sister Subhadra and Brother Balarama are worshipped in the famous temple at 

(a) Puri, Orissa

(b) Mysore, Karnataka

(c) Dakshineswar, West Bengal

(d) Deogarh, Jharkhand

9. Choose the incorrect one about the Lingayat community from the following. 

(a) They challenged the idea of caste.

(b) They questioned the theory of rebirth.

(c) They encouraged the practices approved in Dharmashastras. 

(d) They did not practice funerary rites.

10. Abdur Razzaq was an ambassador sent by the ruler of 

(a) Persia

(b) Russia

(c) Portugal

(d) Germany

11. Identify the person related to the Bhakti Movement with the help of the given information.

He was the leading proponent of Vaishnavism in Assam in the late 15th century.

His teachings were based on the Bhagavad Gita and Bhagavata Purana and referred to as Bhagavati Dharma.

(a) Tukaram

(e) Kabir

(b) Shankaradeva

(d) Ramanuja

12. Read the following statements carefully and identify the place where this stupa is located from the given options. 

I. It is the largest and most magnificent Buddhist Stupa.

II. It is situated in Maharashtra.

(a) Sanchi Stupa

(b) Dhamek Stupa

(c) Amaravati Stupa

(d) Bharhut Stupa

13. What was the main demand of the Khilafat Movement? 

(a) Dominion Status for India

(b) Self-rule of India

(c) Restoration of the Caliphate of Turkey

(d) Revival of Orthodox Culture of Islam

14. Which among the following is not one of the eight paths/principles followed by Buddhists?

(a) Right Efforts

(c) Right Thought

(b) Right Inspiration

(d) Right Intention

15. In Sufi tradition, the word Pir means 

(a) the Supreme God.

(b) the greatest of all the Sufi saints.

(c) the orthodox teacher who contests the Sufi beliefs.

(d) the Guru of the Sufis.

16. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). 

Assertion (A) There was a lack of private

property on land in India. Reason (R) The emperor owned all the land distributed among its nobles.

Codes

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

17. The Prayag Prashasti was composed in Sanskrit by the Court poet.

(a) Harisena, Chandragupta II

(b) Harisena, Samudragupta

(c) Banabhatta, Chandragupta

(d) Harisena, Harshavardhana

18. Who joined the Union Cabinet as Law Minister after Independence and also served as Chairman of the Drafting Committee? 

(a) Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer

(b) Rajendra Prashad

(c) Jawaharlal Nehru

(d) BR Ambedkar

19. Mahatma Gandhi used to publish the letters written to him in his journal 

(a) Harijan

(b) Young India

(c) New India

(d) Indian Opinion

20. Identify the name of the person from the information given below. 

I. He was the most influential and revered of all the leaders who participated in the freedom struggle.

II. He had been invited on account of his work in South Africa rather than his status within India.

III. At the Second Round Table Conference, he opposed the demand for separate electorates for lower castes.

IV. He first forged the distinctive techniques of non-violent protest known as Satyagraha. as

Options

(a) Jawaharlal Nehru

(b) Mahatma Gandhi

(c) Rajendra Prasad

(d) Jayaprakash Narayan

21. Why the socialists were confused about joining the Assembly?

Choose the correct option from the following

(a) They believed the Assembly to be the creation of the Muslim league.

(b) They believed the Assembly to be the creation of the British.

(c) They believed the Assembly to be the creation of the Congress

(d) They believed the Assembly to be the creation of the Princely states.

Section B consists of 6 questions of 3 marks

22. What were the political centres of the Mauryan Empire? Also, enumerate the state of the military in that empire.

23. Discuss about the Hazara Rama temple. What happened to different buildings after the Vijayanagara kings? 

24. Explain the Khilafat Movement. What demands were made by the proponents of the Khilafat Movement? 

25. Discuss the views of the following leaders regarding the notion of a separate electorate. 

Or

The partition of India had made nationalists fervently opposed to the idea of a separate electorate. Examine the views of RV Dhulekar and BR Ambedkar.

26. Explain the relevance of Ain-i-Akbari of Abu’l Fazl as a historical source. 

27. What are the features of stupas at Sanchi and Bharhut? 

Or

Examine the significance of the depiction of animals at Sanchi stupa. 

Section C consists of 3 questions with 8 marks

28. Explain how the rulers of Vijayanagara ensured water supply to the regions of their empire. What does it show about the kings? 

Or

What impression about the lives of ordinary people can be collected from the travel accounts, field surveys and architecture of the Vijayanagara Empire? 

29. Give a detailed account of the making of the Indian Constitution. 

Or 

What were the immediate issues before the makers of the Constitution and also explain why the Constitution is regarded as a source of aspiration of freedom fighters in India?

30. Describe briefly the sources used for reconstructing the history of the Gupta rulers.

Or 

A statement by DC Sircar “There is no aspect of life, culture and activities of the Indians that is not reflected in inscriptions.” Discuss.

Section D consists of 3 Source based question

31. Read the following source carefully and answer the question that follows.

‘Great’ and ‘little’ traditions

The terms great and little traditions were coined by a sociologist named Robert Redfield in the 20th century to describe the cultural practices of peasant societies. 

He found that peasants observed rituals and customs that emanated from dominant social categories, including priests and rulers. These he classified as part of a great tradition. 

At the same time, peasants also followed local practices that did not necessarily correspond with those of great tradition. These he included within the category of little tradition. He also noticed that both great and little traditions changed over time, through a process of interaction.

While scholars accept the significance of these categories and processes, they are uncomfortable with the hierarchy suggested by the terms great and little. The use of quotation marks for “great” and “little” is one way of indicating this.

(i) Why did Robert Redfield coined the term ‘great’ and ‘little’ tradition? 

(ii) Give two examples each of ‘great’ and ‘little’ traditions from your life.

(iii) Why do scholars disagree on the terminology of ‘great’ and ‘little’ tradition? 

32. Read the following source carefully and Se answer the questions that follow Evidence of an ‘Invasion’

Much later, in 1947, REM Wheeler, the Director-General of the ASI, tried to correlate this archaeological evidence with that of the Rigveda, the earliest known text in the subcontinent. 

He wrote the Rigveda mentions pur, meaning rampart, fort or stronghold, Indra, the Aryan war god is called Puramdara, the fort-destroyer.

Where are or were these citadels? It has in the past been supposed that they were mythical. The recent excavation of Harappa may be thought to have changed the picture. 

Here, we have a highly evolved civilisation of essentially non-Aryan type, now known to have employed massive fortifications.

What destroyed this firmly settled civilisation? Climatic, economic or political deterioration may have weakened it, but its ultimate extinction is more likely to have been completed by deliberate and large-scale destruction.

 It may be no more chance that at a late period of Mohenjodaro men, women and children, appear to have been massacred there. On circumstantial evidence, Indra stands accused.

(i) What was the importance of citadels in Mohenjodaro?

(ii) Explain the reasons attributed to the disappearance of the Harappan Civilisation.

(iii) ‘Harappan Civilisation was a single state’. Give arguments in support of the statement.

33. Read the following source carefully and answer the question that follows. 

Gandhiji in Young India, 17th March 1927 Mahatma Gandhi was profoundly critical of the modern age in which machines enslaved humans and displaced labour. He saw the charkha as a symbol of a human society that would not glorify machines and technology. 

The spinning wheel, moreover, could provide the poor with supplementary income and make them self-reliant. What I object to, is the craze for machinery as such.

The craze is for what they call labourersaving machinery. Men go on ‘saving labour’, till thousands are without work and thrown on the open streets to die of starvation. 

I want to save time and labour, not for a fraction of mankind, but for all; I want the concentration of wealth, not in the hands of few, but in the hands of all.

Young India, 13th November, 1924

Khaddar does not seek to destroy all machinery but it does regulate its use and check its weedy growth. It uses machinery for the service of the poorest in their cottages. The wheel is itself an exquisite piece of machinery.

(i) Why Charkha was given importance by Gandhiji?

(ii) How would a spinning wheel help the poor?

(iii) How will machines impact the poor? 

Section E consists of Map based questions of 5

34. A. Locate and label the following.

(i) A territory under British control in 1857 in East

(ii) The place where Buddha was born

(iii) The place of Sanchi stupa

(iv) Urban town of Nageshwar in Harappan Civilisation

Or 

B. On the given political outline map of India, two centres of the National Movement have been marked as 1 and 2 Write their names.


Answers


1. (d) Augustus Cleveland

2. (a) Ashoka

3. (a) Different groups have different demands regarding rights

4. (c) Metronymic

5. (c) Only (1) and (iii) are

6. (a) Euclid

7. (c) A-3, B-2, C-4, D-1

8. (a) Puri, Orissa

9. (c) They encourage the practices approved in Dharmashastras.

10. (a) Persia

11. (b) Shankaradeva

12. (c) Amaravati Stupa

13. (c) Restoration of the Caliphate of Turkey

14. (b) Right Inspiration

15. (d) the Guru of the Sufis

16. (b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

17. (b) Harisena, Samudragupta

18. (d) BR Ambedkar

19. (a) Harijan

20. (b) Mahatma Gandhi

21. (b) They believed the Assembly to be the creation of the British.

22. The five major political centres in the Mauryan empire were the capital Pataliputra and the provincial centres of Taxila, Ujjaini, Tosali and Suvarnagiri, which are mentioned in Asokan inscriptions.

According to Megasthenes, there was a committee with six sub-committees for coordinating military activity. Of these, one looked after the navy, the second managed transport and provisions, the third was responsible for foot soldiers, the fourth for horses, the fifth for chariots and the sixth for elephants

The activities of the second sub-committee were rather varied arranging for bullock carts to carry equipment, procuring food for soldiers and fodder for animals and recruiting servants and artisans to look after the soldiers.

23. Hazara Rama temple was one of the most spectacular among the temples. This might have been used only by the king and his family. Images in the central shrine of the temple are missing, but sculpted panels on walls are still present. These include scenes from the Rama and sculpted on the inner walls of the shrine. When the Vijayanagara city was looted and destroyed, many of the structures or buildings were destroyed.

Later, the practice of building large structures wen continued by the nayakas. Now many have survived. of these building

24. The Khilafat Movement (1919-1920) was an Indian Muslims, led by Ali Shaukat Ali. It emerged movement All and brothers Muhammad’s dismemberment o as a result of c Surkey by the British. It sought to restore the Caliphate, a Symbol of Pan-Islamism that had recently been abolished by the Turkish ruler Kemal Ataturk.

Following demands were made by the supporters of the Khilafat Movement

(1) The Turkish Sultan or Khalifa must retain control over the Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman empire.

(ii) The Jazirat-ul-Arab (Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Palestine must remain under Muslim sovereignty only.

(ii) The Khalifa must be left with sufficient territory to defend the Islamic faith.

25. (a) According to GB Pant, separate electorates were not only harmful for the nation but also for minorities. It would permanently isolate the minorities, make them vulnerable and deprive them of an effective say in the government. He agreed that the success of democracy was to be judged by the confidence it generated amongst different sections of people. He also believed that every citizen in a free state should be treated in a manner that satisfied not only his materialistic needs but also his spiritual sense of self-respect.

(b) Sardar Vallabhbai Patel considered the idea of a separate electorate as a poison that had entered the body of politics in the country. It was a demand that had turned one community against another, divided the nation, caused bloodshed and led to the tragic partition of the country.

Or 

The partition of India had made nationalists fervently opposed to the idea of a separate electorate. There were two different views

• RV Dhulekar stated that the English played their games under the cover of safeguards. He also said that with the help of it, they allured the minorities for a long duration. It should be given up now as there is no more to misguide the country. Partition had made nationalists fervently opposed to the idea of separate electorates. The nationalists were haunted by their fear of continued civil unrest and violence.

• BR Ambedkar was in favour of a separate electorate for the Dalits but before independence, he gave up his demand. He also opposed members of the assembly who were demanding separate electorates.

26. Ain-i-Akbari is the third volume of the Akbar Nama written by Abul Fazl. It is about the political and administrative history of Akbar’s reign. It talks about the mode of Akbar’s administrative and statistical reports of the government. It is an important historical governance source of Akbar’s reign for the following reasons

It is an imperial gazetteer of Akbar’s reign as It talks abetails of reve, administration and army It gives details of revenue administration

It mentions problems faced by provinces. It gives information about the culture and geography of a region.

• It presents information about the Mughal Empire.

• It gives information about a diverse population Consisting of Hindus, Jainas, Muslims and Buddhists.

27. The early stupas at Sanchi and Bharhut were built in the 2nd century BCE. The main features of these stupas were • These were plain except for the stone railings, which resembled a bamboo or wooden fence. The gateways of these stupas were richly carved and installed at the four cardinal points.

Worshippers entered through the Eastern gateway and walked around the mound in a clockwise direction, keeping the mound on the right, imitating the Sun’s course through the sky.

Later, the mound of the stupas was made to be elaborately carved with niches and sculptures, like Amaravati and Shah-ji-ki-Dheri in Peshawar.

Or 

Some of the finest depictions of animals are found at Sanchi stupa. These animals include elephants, horses, monkeys and cattle. The jatakas contain several animal stories that are depicted at Sanchi.

Many of these animals were carved to create lively scenes to draw viewers. Also, animals were often used as symbols of human attributes. For example, elephants were depicted to signify strength and wisdom.

28. The most important feature of the location of Vijayanagara is that the natural basin formed by the river Tungabhadra flows in a North-Easterly direction and the presence of various streams flow down the hills: Therefore, kings of Vijayanagara built dams, tanks and canals, Check-dams were built along the hills to create reservoirs of different sizes.

As this region is among the most arid zones of the peninsula, arrangements were made to store rainwater and transmit it to the city.

In the fifteenth century, the most important tank was built called the Kamalapuram Tank. The water from this tank was used both to irrigate fields and transmit to the royal centre through a channel. One of the most important waterworks that could be seen among the remains is the Hiriya Canal.

This was built by the kings of the Sangama dynasty. The canal got water from a dam across the Tungabhadra and irrigated the cultivated valley that separated the sacred centre from the urban core.

The actions taken by the kings to ensure water supply

The construction of dams, tanks and canals by the kings shows the values of care and concern for people.

It is the king’s responsibility to provide water to his people, especially in the semi-arid region of Vijayanagara. Thus, by creating the construction works, the rulers showed their responsible actions as well as public welfare.

Storing the valuable rainwater and using it throughout the year also shows the effort to sustain in the tough environmental conditions along with the conservation of precious water resources.

Or

Ordinary people were not a part of the royal court. They were normal people who were busy in their own lives for their daily livelihood. Impression on the lives of the ordinary people of Vijayanagara can be explained through the following points •

Archaeologists found little archaeological evidence of the houses of ordinary people. They have found fine Chinese porcelain in some areas, in the North-Eastern corner of the urban core, This shows that these areas might have been occupied by rich traders. This area was also the Muslim residential quarter. Tombs and Mosques present here have different functions but their architecture resembles that of the mandapas found in the temples of Hampi.

Sixteenth-century Portuguese traveller Duarte Barbosa described the houses of ordinary people, which have not survived, these houses had roofs made of straw, palm leaves, etc but were well built and were arranged according to the occupations, in long streets that had many open places.

• Field surveys show that the entire area of Vijayanagara was scattered with several shrines and small temples. This shows the presence of different cults, which might be supported by different communities. The surveys also indicate that wells, rainwater tanks, and temple tanks were used as sources of water by the ordinary town people.

Architectural features do not tell us about the ordinary men, women and children who comprise the vast majority of the people and live in the city and its outskirts. We do not know from these impressive buildings, whether these people had access to any of these areas within the royal centre or the sacred centre.

29. The Constitution of India was the result of more than 3 years of debate, discussion and deliberation among nationalist leaders and constitutional experts. This culminated in the making of the lengthiest written constitution of the world.

The following points give an account of the making of the Indian Constitution

(i) It was drafted by the Constituent Assembly of India, which was formed under the provisions of the Cabinet Mission Plan of May 1946.

(ii) The members of the assembly were elected through the existing provincial Legislature for which elections were held in 1946. It also comprised representatives from the Princely States.

(i) The Muslim League chose to boycott the Constituent Assembly pressing its demand for Pakistan with a separate Constitution. Hence, 82% of the members of the Constituent Assembly were also members of the Congress.

(iv) Under the Presidentship of Rajendra Prasad, the assembly created many important committees for focused deliberations on specific features of the Constitution. Constitutional experts and eminent public figures were also invited to the Constitution-making process.

(v) Public opinion also influenced the Constitution-making process of India. The linguistic minorities demanded protection to their mother tongue while religious minorities also asked for special safeguards.

(vi) Under the Chairmanship of BR Ambedkar, the Drafting Committee studied more than 50 Constitutions of various countries and incorporated several features from these constitutions such as the Preamble and Fundamental Rights from the Constitution of the USA.

(vi) It was ratified by the Constitutional Assembly on 26th November 1949 and it came into effect on 26th January 1950.

Or 

The years preceding the making of the Constitution were a time of great hope but also abject disappointment. The immediate issues were

The Independence of India was also accompanied

with the partition of the country. The grief caused by the death of millions of people in riots and arson had a huge imprint on the members of the Constitutional Assembly. Subhash Chandra Bose’s bid to win freedom through armed struggle and subsequent INA trials were also among the significant issues before making the Constitution.

• There were also mass protests of workers and peasants in different parts of the country in the late 1940s.

Constitution as a Source of Aspiration of Freedom Fighters in India

The Constitution Assembly was being considered a source of expressing the aspirations of those who had participated in the freedom struggle. Since the 19th century, the ideals of democracy, equality and justice have become closely associated with social struggles in India. The social reformers in the 19th century were requesting social justice while opposing child marriage and demanding widow remarriage.

Mahatma Gandhi’s emphasis on peace and tolerance, village development truth and non-violence served as a guiding light in front of members of the Constitution Assembly. Jyotiba Phule in Maharashtra pointed to the suffering of the depressed castes and suggested an alternative path for empowerment and

emancipation of women and the oppressed class which was carried forward by the members Constituent Assembly.

Similarly, communists and socialists organise Simkers and peasants, demanding economic and social justice. The national movement, against a social and illegitimate government, for citizens o rig struggle for democracy and equality which is guaranteed by our Constitution

30. The Gupta rulers established a vast empire in the 4th century whose history was reconstructed from various sources. These sources are further divided into archaeological and literary.

Archaeological sources include inscriptions, pottery coins and prashastis whereas literary sources include both religious as well as secular literature These sources are explained in the following ways

• Inscriptions These are writings engraved on hard surfaces like stones, metals, etc. These are generally composed in praise of kings in particular and patrons in general by the poets. For example, the Allahabad pillar inscription or Prayaga Prashasti was composed in Sanskrit by Harisena, the court poet of Samudragupta, in praise of him.

Coins These are also an important source for reconstructing the history of Gupta rulers, as they include elements like scripts, images and the context in which they are found. The Gupta rulers issued some of the most spectacular gold coins. These coins facilitated long-distance transactions from which the expansion of trade and commerce was known.

Terracottas and Pottery Gupta pottery remains found at Ahichchhatra, Rajgarh, Hastinapur and Bashar also help in their historical reconstruction. The most distinctive class of pottery of this period is the red ware. They were incised by private individuals as well as by kings. They provide us with information on the genealogy of the kings mentioned in them. A large number of seals have been found from different regions of the empire, they give an insight into the provincial and local administration.

• Literature Wide corpus of literature is available which is composed at the time of the rule of the Gupta Empire. Vijjaka wrote a book named Kaumudi Mahotsava, which gives information about the coronation of Chandragupta I. Similarly, Vishakadatta wrote a drama named Devichandraguptam which was based on the life of queen Dhurva Devi and Chandragupta II.

Prashastis They are inscriptions composed in praise of kings by their poets. They generally contained genealogies of the rulers, their achievements and comparisons with mythological figures. Historians attempted to draw factual Information from the compositions of Prashastis.

Or 

Many of the aspects of life, culture and activities of Indians are recorded in inscriptions. It can be corroborated by the following points

Many of the rulers engraved inscriptions in different parts of the country. It gives information about land grants, public work, and local and provincial administration apart from giving an account of any historical event. For instance, the Asokan inscription tells us about the Kalinga war

The Asokan inscription also throws light on his attitude towards the public. Through inscriptions, he advised people to follow good cultural practices such as respect for elders, Brahamanas and monks and end the slaughter of animals.

The aspect of agricultural and rural life can also be inferred from the inscriptions, For example, The Gimar rock inscription of Rudradaman tells us about the construction of a lake, with an embankment and water channel in an arid area of Gujarat.

The inscriptions commissioned by Gupta and Satvahana rulers talk about land grants to Brahmanas. It helps in the reconstruction of the history of agriculture and settlement in the areas mentioned in this inscription.

Apart from rulers, inscriptions were also commissioned by rich merchants. In their inscriptions, their grants for the construction of religious buildings such as temples, chaitya viharas and stupas are mentioned. It throws light on the religious aspect of life. 

Inscriptions commissioned during the rule of Satvahana inform about the system of lineage followed by their kings in addition to the condition of women at that time. For example, the Nashik inscription was commissioned by the mother of Gautamiputra Satakarni.

Thus, DC Sircar rightly points out that inscriptions do serve as a rich source for finding out the life, culture and activities of the Indians. However, they are not a complete source due to several limitations.

31. (I) Robert Redfield coined the terms ‘great’ and ‘little tradition to describe the cultural practices of peasant societies, which he believed were borrowed from dominant social categories.

(ii) The two examples of ‘great’ traditions are

• English language

• Urban life

The two examples of “little tradition are

• Folk language

• Peasant or rural societies

(iii) Scholars disagreed on the terminology of ‘great’ and little tradition because they believed it suggest hierarchy, In other words, great signifies good or better when compared with little. For example, it suggests a culture of priests is better than that of peasants.

32. (1) Citadels in Mohenjodaro were important as they served as a centre of political and religious conditioning, with structures like granaries, public cataracts and a large yard,

(ii) The following reasons are cited for the disappearance of Harappan Civilisation.

(a) Climatic, economic or political deterioration.

(b) Massacre of men, women and children of Mohenjodaro.

(iii) The following arguments support that Harappa was a single-state

(a) Indications of complex decisions taken and implemented in Harappan society.

(b) Similar artefacts are found clearly in pottery, seals, weights and bricks.

(c) The close linkage of all the important cities within one region.

33. (1) Charkha was symbolised as a symbol of self-reliant society. It will diminish the glory of machines and technology, so it was given importance by Gandhiji.

(ii) Gandhiji believed that the spinning wheel could provide the poor with supplementary income and make them self-reliant.

(iii) Gandhiji believed that the poor would be thrown out of their jobs if machines were introduced. It will leave many people without jobs and increase starvation.

34.

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