Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-2 The End of Bipolarity & Upcoming VVI Q/A in English

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Are you a Class 12 student and looking for Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-2 Important Question Answers? Because this chapter is very important for the exam. Many questions from this chapter have come in the exam. Due to this, it is very important to know the question answer of this chapter.

So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.

I myself have been a topper of class 12th and I know what type of questions are asked in class 12th exam. At present, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written the question-answer article here with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to get very good marks in Political Science from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-2 The End of Bipolarity

Class12th 
Chapter No02
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameThe End of Bipolarity
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPolitical Science
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson

After the end of the Second World War, the politics of the world changed into two groups. One group was led by the United States and the other group was led by Soviet Russia. Due to this factionalism, the world almost got divided into two factions. With this, the Cold War also started. 

The time of the Cold War is considered till 1990. In December 1991, the Soviet Union disintegrated and all the units of this union were converted into independent states. Because of this, the United States of America remained as a superpower in world politics. 

Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-2
Getty Images: Low-key photography of grungy old Soviet Union and the United States of America flags. USSR, CCCP, USA.

In such a situation, there was no possibility of any competition and conflict and this also ended the Cold War. After 1980, the economy of the Soviet Union started faltering and its economic development started decreasing. Because of this, he was finding it difficult to provide any kind of economic and military assistance to the member countries of his alliance and other friendly countries. 

With this, in 1985, the reins of the Soviet Union came into the hands of Mikhail Gorbachev, who was a supporter of liberal, compromise diplomacy and co-existence and did not consider the dictatorship of the Communist Party to be appropriate. 

Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-2
Getty Images

These days, the movement against the dictatorship of the Communist Party started in the communist countries of Eastern Europe. He supported the independence and democracy of these countries. He also decided to break the Warsaw Pact.

The Berlin Wall fell in 1980 and Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990. In July 1990, the US President announced that the Cold War between the two factions was over. In December 1991, the Soviet Union formally disintegrated and all its units became independent states. 

The permanent membership of the Security Council of the Soviet Union was given to Suss only, in the communist countries multi-party system, democracy, and market economy were adopted and the dictatorship of the communist party ended. Thus the bipolarity of the world came to an end and the United States remained in the fray as the only superpower.

India has good relations with the countries that were separated after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Especially deep ties with Russia. India has got many benefits in having relations with Russia like- Kashmir, energy supply, exchange of information, etc. Russia has also benefited from relations with India. 

Like India’s purchase of Russian weapons, purchase of equipment, etc. India also imports oil from Russia Russia is important for India’s nuclear plan. It is also helpful in the space industry. All the scientific projects of both countries are going on.

In fact, in the present times, the Soviet Union has completely disintegrated due to which bipolarity has come to an end. Apparently, America has become a superpower of the world. Nevertheless, Russia and India also have an influential place in world politics.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-1
Class 12 History

Q. 1. Why is the Berlin Wall famous?

Ans. (i) The zenith of the Cold War is symbolized by the Berlin Wall which was constructed in 1961 and separated West Berlin and Berlin from each other.

(ii) It also symbolizes the downfall of communism. This wall was demolished on 9 November 1989. This was the beginning of both the reunification of Germany and the end of the communist camp.

Q. 2. What were the reasons for the Russian Revolution of 1917 AD?

Ans. 

(i) This revolution took place against the capitalist system, the Czar of Russia was not ready to leave it. 

(ii) People in Russia wanted to establish the ideals of socialism and an egalitarian society. This was the biggest attempt in human history to abolish the institution of private property and to actively build a society on the principle of equality. 

Q3. What do you understand about the other world? 

Ans. 

(i) After the Second World War, the countries of Eastern Europe came under the influence of the Soviet Union. In fact, the Soviets had freed them from fascist forces. The political and social systems of all these countries were modeled on the socialist system of the Soviet Union. These are called the second world of the country of the socialist camp. 

(ii) The leader of this group was the Socialist Soviet Republic, in addition to this there were countries like Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Estonia, Latvia, etc.

Q. 4. Mention two shortcomings of the Soviet system. 

Ans. (i) Bureaucratic control over the Soviet system was established. Due to this system became authoritarian. Due to this the life of the citizens became difficult. There was a lack of democracy and freedom of expression. 

(ii) The Soviet Union was ruled by one party i.e. Communist Party and this party also had deep control over the institutions. This party was not answerable to the public.

Q.5. Mention two achievements of Joseph Stalin.

Ans. 

(i) He was the successor of Lenin and the fascist administrator of the Soviet Union. During this period, the Soviet Union became established as a superpower. 

(ii) It encouraged industrialization and forced the collectivization of agriculture. In the 1930s, he adopted a dictatorial approach, crushing his opponents within his party. 

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HistoryPolitical Science
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Q. 6. What is the Commonwealth of Independent Nations?

Ans. 

(i) Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine decided to end the 1922 treaty that created the Soviet Union and formed the Commonwealth of Independent States. 

(ii) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan were included in the Commonwealth. 

(iii) Russia got the seat of the Soviet Union in the United Nations.

Q.7. How did the Communist Party lead to a political deadlock in the Soviet Union?

Ans. (i) The Communist Party ruled for 70 years in Soviet Russia and that party was no longer answerable to the people. 

(ii) administration of political deadlock, rampant corruption, and inability to rectify mistakes, This was due to the reluctance to open up more in the U.S. and the vastness of the country.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q1. Describe the Berlin Wall.

Ans. Berlin Wall — (i) The Berlin Wall located in Germany is very important from a political and historical point of view. This wall was built in 1961 to separate communist and capitalist people, which is 150 mm. m. Was long 

(ii) This wall stood for 28 years. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the public destroyed it. Broke up on November 9, 1989.

(iii) It was the unification of both Germany (East and West) and the end of the communist camp. 

(iv) It also symbolized the end of the Cold War and the end of the Second World War. 

Q. 2. What was the economy of the Soviet Union after the Second World War? 

Ans. The economy of the Soviet Union after the Second World War- 

(i) The economy of the Soviet Union was better than other countries of the world except for America. 

(ii) The communication system of the Soviet Union was developed. 

Q.3. Describe the events that took place in the Soviet Union during the time of Mikhail Gorbachev. 

Ans. Events in the Soviet Union during the period of Mikhail Gorbachev – 

(i) Gorbachev became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s. He wanted to develop information and technology in the Soviet Union at par with the West.

(ii) For this, Gorbachev tried to normalize relations with the countries of the West, Soviet Decided to democratize the union and make reforms there but the result is good

(iii) The countries of Eastern Europe were in the Soviet camp. The people of these countries started protesting against their government and Soviet control. 

(iv) The crisis was also deepening inside the Soviet Union and this hastened the pace of disintegration of the Soviet Union. 

(v) Godchiv carried out a policy of economic political reforms and democratization within the country. 

Q.4. Mention the role of Yeltsin in the disintegration of the Soviet Union. 

Ans. Yeltsin’s role in the disintegration of the Soviet Union

(i) A military coup took place in the Soviet Union in 1991, instigated by the extremists of the Communist Party. Yeltsin played an important role in opposing the coup and was hailed as a hero.

(ii) Boris Yeltsin won the general election and became the President.

(iii) The change in power took place in those parts of the Soviet Union which were more Europeanized and Considered themselves a sovereign state. 

(iv) It is surprising that the Central Asian republics did not demand independence for themselves. They wanted to stay with the Soviet Union.

(v) In December 1991, under the leadership of Yeltsin, the three major republics of the Soviet Union, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus announced the end of the Soviet Union.

Q5 State the reasons for the disintegration of the Soviet Union. 

Ans. Reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union— 

(i) Political economy of the Soviet Union Institutions was intrinsically weak due to which they could not meet the aspirations of the people 

(ii) The economy remained stagnant for many years. Due to this, there was a shortage of consumer goods, and as a result, people became dissatisfied with their governments.

(iii) The Soviet Union was ruled by the Communist Party for 70 years and this party was no longer accountable to the people. 

(iv) People were not satisfied with the slow pace of reforms of Gorbachev. 

(v) Members of the Communist Party said that their rights were being violated by Gavachiv’s reforms. 

Q.6. How did nationalism lead to the downfall of the Soviet Union? 

Ans. Nationalism – Reason for the collapse of the Soviet Union- 

(i) The spirit and yearning of the nation existed throughout the history of the Soviet Union. Whether there were reforms or not, there was bound to be internal strife in the Soviet Union. 

(ii) The Soviet Union was large in size and diversified.  There were many internal problems. In such a situation, nationalism had to be born. 

(iii) According to others, Gobchiv’s reforms reduced the discontent of the nationalists to the extent that Instigated till that the control of the rulers over it ended. ,

(iv) There was a rise of vigorous nationalism in various republics of the Soviet Union like Russia and the Baltic Republics (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), Ukraine, and Georgia. 

Q.7. What were the consequences of the collapse of the Soviet Union?

Ans. Consequences of the collapse of the Soviet Union 

(i) It’s a good outcome. The collapse of the world brought an end to the Cold War. Conflicts and tensions in the world came to an end.

(ii) Arms race, accumulation of nuclear weapons, and division of military blocs ended Done. Peace was established to a great extent by this. 

(iii) There was a change in the power relations in world politics and consequently there was a difference in the relative influence of ideas and institutions. 

(iv) Due to America being a supporter of the capitalist economy, it has been banned at the international level.

(v) The pro-capitalist institutions like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have become powerful advisors to various countries.

Q.8. How did the disintegration of the Soviet Union affect international relations?

Ans. Impact on International Relations due to the disintegration of the Soviet Union — 

(i) The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the emergence of new countries which have their own identity and choice. 

(ii) the Baltic republics and countries of Eastern Europe want to join the European Union and Became a supporter of NATO. 

(iii) Central Asian countries remained associated with Russia and Western countries made relations with America, China, and other countries.

Q.9. What works were done under shock therapy?

Ans. Work done under shock siege- 

(i) Privatisation of property was done under shock therapy. By doing this, we had to turn to the capitalist economy, that is, the Soviet system had to be completely abolished. 

(ii) was to convert collective farming into private farming, thus the capitalist system started.

(iii) Shock therapy has fundamentally changed the trend toward external regimes of these economies.

(iv) Free trade was promoted for development. For this, the policy of financial openness, mutual convertibility of currencies, and free trade were considered important.

(v) The trade alliances of the bloc of Soviet Union were terminated and the countries of this bloc had to adopt a western economy and their control was established.

Q. 10 Point out the major consequences of shock therapy. 

Ans. Major results of rock therapy (1) The result of shock therapy was not good. The promises were neglected and the public was thrown into ruin.

(ii) The industrial structure of the entire Russian state collapsed, and almost all industries were sold to private hands. In fact, this policy was not being run by the government but by market forces. 

(iii) This purchase was done by black marketeers because the public had given their mandate to them.

(iv) There was a strange fall in the value of the Russian currency, the Sabal. 

(v) Inflation increased so much that people’s savings also got exhausted.

Long Answer Type Questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q. 1. Discuss the economic relations between the Soviet Union and India.

Ans. Economic relations between the Soviet Union and India 

(1) The Soviet Union helped India’s public sector companies at a time when help from elsewhere was difficult to come by. 

(ii) The Soviet Union provided economic and technical assistance to steel plants at Bhilai, Bokaro, and Visakhapatnam and machinery plants such as Bharat Heavy Electricals.

(iii) When there was a shortage of foreign exchange in India, the Soviet Union used the rupee as the medium.

(iv) The Soviet Union has been supplying arms to India at a concessional rate.

Q.2. Examine the relationship between the former communist country and India.

Ans. Relations between former communist countries and India – 

(1) India Has established good relations with but has a closer relationship with Russia.

(ii) An important aspect of India’s foreign policy is its relationship with Russia.

(iii) India-Russia relationship is based on mutual trust and common interests. 

(iv) The mutual relations between India and Russia match the expectations of the people of these countries. 

(v) Both countries want to establish a multi-polar world. Several strategic agreements and bilateral documents have been signed between the two.

Q.3. What are the benefits of India-Russia relations to each other? 

Ans: Mutual benefits of the India-Russia relationship 

(1) India benefits from this relationship in issues such as Kashmir, energy supply, exchange of information related to international terrorism, access to West Asia, and balancing its relations with China. 

(ii) India is the second largest buyer of arms for Russia. Most of the military equipment of the Indian Army is from Russia. 

(iii) India is also important for Russia because it imports rolls from Russia.

(iv) India is also trying to increase its energy imports from Russia. 

(v) Russia is also important for India’s nuclear plan. 

(vi) SAT also helps India in the space industry. Both are also partners in various scientific projects.

Q.4 How did the Soviet Union disintegrate? What were the reasons for its disintegration?

Ans. By the 1980s, the economic condition of the Soviet Union had become very weak and its economy started faltering. It no longer had the capacity to provide economic support to its coalition members. In 1979, the Soviet Union intervened in Afghanistan, ousting the ruling government and installing a communist government, and the Soviets Not even posted. 

The move dealt a further blow to its faltering economy. Mikhail Gorbachev, who took over the reins of the Soviet Union in 1985, realized that there was a need for reform in both the Viet Union’s governance and economy. He adopted the policy of Perestroika (restructuring) and Glasnost (openness). 

He was of the view that the economy of the Union needed to be reformed and that could come without adopting openness. Restructuring meant improving the mental and moral condition of the people and for that people were given freedom of thought and expression the communist party was destroyed. needs to be abolished. 

He was in favor of a market-based economy rather than a state-controlled economy. He was a supporter of compromise diplomacy, democracy, and market economy with other countries. He was also an advocate of the pluralist party system. He immediately took steps to normalize relations with the West. 



05- What is meant by shock therapy? Explain its main features. 

Or, State the main features of the economy adopted by the communist countries after the Soviet Union.

Ans. Meaning of ‘Shock Therapy’ After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, it was understood that communism itself was beginning to collapse. In those countries which were included in its coalition at the time of the Soviet Union and were called countries with communist systems, the process of change in the democratic capitalist system started in place of the socialist system. This change was not easy. 

For this, a special method or model was prepared by the International Monetary Fund (I.M.F.) for the transition from communism to a capitalist system. Which these countries adopted) This particular model is called shock therapy. 

This means that in the process of transition, each country has to reach an emergency because it is not easy to change the system which has been adopted by society for years and adopt another system). 

Faqs

Q.  How is the construction and demolition of the Berlin Wall called a historical event? 

Ans. The Berlin Wall (in 1961 AD) was built during the height of the Cold War and was the biggest symbol of the Cold War. In 1989, the general public of East Germany tore down this wall. After this dramatic incident, even more dramatic and historical developments came to the fore. This culminated in the collapse of the Second World War and the end of the Cold War. Germany, which was divided after the Second World War, was now unified.

Q.2. Briefly explain the meaning of the disintegration of the second world. 

Ans. One by one, the eight countries of Eastern Europe, which were in the camp of the Soviet Union, changed their communist regime after seeing the demonstrations of the people. At the end of the Cold War, the Soviet Union had to watch all this silently. This happened not because of any military compulsion, but because of the pressure of the collective action of the awakened public. Eventually, the Soviet Union itself disintegrated.

Q3. Briefly mention Vladimir Lenin as a leader of the great Soviet Union.

Ans. Vladimir Lenin, born in 1870 and died in 1924, was the founder of the Communist Party. Lenin, the hero of the successful Russian Revolution of October 1917, Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) in the most difficult period after the revolution (1917–1924). 

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FAQs

Q. 8. What were the immediate causes of the collapse of the Soviet Union? 

Ans. The immediate cause of the collapse of the Soviet Union was the rise of nationalist sentiment and the desire for sovereignty. Republics such as Russia and the Baltic republics (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), Ukraine and Georgia were instrumental in the rise of these movements. The sense of nationalism and sovereignty paved the way for the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

Q. 9. Mention the positive consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

Ans. (i) The Soviet Union was also a superpower. Its dissolution ended the Cold War Because the rise of both superpowers led to the birth of the Cold War.
(ii) Its disintegration ended the arms race and reduced the tendency of nuclear accumulation. Thus the hope of the possibility of peace in the world was awakened.

Q. 10. What were the consequences of America being the only superpower? 

Ans. (i) International capitalist economy due to the power and prestige of America level dominant economy. 
(ii) Institutions like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have become powerful advisors to various countries. 
(iii) Politically liberal democracy has emerged as the best concept for formulating political life.

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