Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-7 Security in the Contemporary World

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This chapter is very important {Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-7} Many questions have been asked from this chapter in the examination and this chapter is very important for the students because from this chapter we understand the politics of the world.

So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.

I myself have been a topper of class 12th and I know what type of questions are asked in class 12th exam. At present, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written the question-answer article here with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to get very good marks in Political Science from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-7 Security in the Contemporary World

Chapter No07
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameSecurity in the Contemporary World
SubjectPolitical Science
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-7 Security in the Contemporary World

The United Nations was established in 1945. The first of its objectives is to maintain international peace and security. In the chapter on peace in the syllabus, the purpose of peace, its broad meaning, and the various steps taken to achieve it were mentioned. Here the meaning of security and the measures to maintain it and the status of security in today’s world is mentioned.

The word security is used by a person in daily life, such as security of the person, security of life and property, national security, and international security. Today (March 2007) there is a coalition government in Jammu and Kashmir, Congress and P.D.P.

But the demand of PDP is to reduce the troops in Jammu and Kashmir and the Congress and the general public say that reducing the size of the army in Kashmir means inviting danger to national security, giving exemption to terrorist activities. Giving and playing with national interests and national security. Of course, the common man does not know the true meaning of the word security but uses this word. 

Today almost all political leaders are provided with security ie security guards walk back and forth with them. Many times the pre-arranged visit of the President or the Prime Minister is canceled due to security concerns or the route of their visit is changed. 

By knowing the meaning of security, one can easily understand the reasons for many activities of the government and the international community. The security of the nation is threatened not only by wars and invasions and terrorist violent activities but also by starvation, disease, epidemic, earthquake, tsunami or sea storm, flood and drought, hailstorm, etc. India has made adequate efforts to safeguard against these threats.

Very short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q.1. What is the security policy related to? what is this called? When is it called defense?

Ans. Even if a government surrenders in war, it would never like to publicize it as the policy of its country. Therefore, security policy is concerned with preventing the threat of war, which is called ‘offense’, and with limiting or eliminating war, which is called defense.

Q. 2. What is the status of the United Nations from the point of view of security? explain. 

Ans. Within a country, there is a well-known mechanism for dealing with threats of violence—it’s called the government. But, there is no such central power in world politics which is above all. It may be tempting to think that the United Nations is such an entity or can become such. 

However, according to its constitution, the United Nations is currently a slave of its member countries, and the more power its member countries hand over and accept to it, the more power it receives. Therefore, in world politics, every country has to bear the responsibility for its own security. 

Q. 3. What do you understand by human rights? When did the United Nations approve the Declaration of Human Rights? 

Ans. Human rights are those rights that every human being must get as a human being. The United Nations approved the Declaration of Human Rights on December 10, 1948, and expected the government of every country to provide this right to its citizens.

Q.4. How did the concept of world security originate?

Ans. (1) The world originated in the 1990s in the wake of global threats such as global warming, international terrorism, and pandemics such as AIDS and bird flu. 

(2) No country can solve these problems alone. These conditions can have an impact on other countries. 

Q. 5. What is terrorism? Give some examples of this. 

Ans. (1) Terrorism refers to political violence that deliberately and without a trace of sympathy targets civilians. 

(2) Example-aircraft hijacking or planting bombs in crowded places like trains, hotels, markets, or other such places. The incident of 9/11 in America is also an example of this.

Q. 6. Should the United Nations intervene in the situation of human rights violations or not? 

Ans. (1) There are various views on this. Some say that the UN Charter empowers the international community to take up arms to defend human rights.

(2) Others argue that it is possible that the interests of powerful countries determine which cases of human rights violations the UN takes and which do not.

Short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q. 1. Explain the traditional concept of security or national security. 

Ans. The traditional notion of security or national security-

(1) In the traditional concept, the biggest threat to a nation is from the army.

(2) The source of this threat is any nation that threatens the core values ​​of a country like sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity by threatening a military attack. 

(3) Military action also threatens the lives of common citizens. Civilians are also killed along with soldiers in military action. 

(4) Unarmed men and women are targeted in war.

(5) In this an attempt is made to break the courage of the citizens and their government. 

Q. 2. Give a brief description of the elements of traditional security policy.

Ans. Elements of traditional security policy – 

Self-surrender The first element of the traditional security policy is self-surrender. In this, agreeing to the opposing side without fighting, or exaggerating the destruction caused by war, so that the other side gets scared and does not attack. Defeat him when there is a war.

(1) An important element of security policy is the balance of power. Under this, a country has to match its power with the opposing powerful country and the balance of power has to be in its favor.

(2) If a country does not do so that the powerful country can attack it and can lead it toward destruction. 

(3) All governments are sensitive towards the balance of power, any government tries hard to set the balance of power in its favor from other countries. 

(4) Special emphasis is laid on making the “balance of power” in one’s favor with neighbors, enemies, or countries with whom wars have been fought in the past. 

(5) To maintain the balance of power it is necessary to establish an alliance. The balance of power in the world was maintained due to the alliance between the former Soviet Union and the United States. 

Q3. Why internal security is important for a country? Explain the importance of internal security of the traditional concept. 

Ans. Need for internal security for a country: 

(1) Internal peace and law and order are essential for every country. External attacks cannot be faced in the absence of internal peace.

(2) It was not emphasized after the Second World War. In fact, the reason for this was that almost internal rule was established in powerful countries. 

(3) After 1945, the United States of America and the Soviet Union are united and peaceful within their borders.

(4) Most European countries especially western countries did not face any serious threat from the communities or classes settled within their borders. So these countries paid attention to the threats from across the border. 

(5) Some European countries were afraid of violence from the people in their colonies because now these people wanted independence.

Q.4. What were the threats to the security of the newly independent countries?

Ans. Threats to the security of newly independent countries 

(1) These countries were afraid of the growing cold war because some newly independent countries had become members of one or the other of the winter blocs like European powers. 

(2) Enmity with the neighboring country or the leader of the other group (America or Soviet Union) going to other factions. 

(3) Enmity was to be decided with America or any fellow country of the Soviet Union. In fact, the Cold War was responsible for one-third of the wars fought after the Second World War. 

(4) The newly independent countries were afraid of the invasion by its European colonial rulers. In such a situation, these countries had to make preparations to protect themselves from an imperialist war. 

(5) There was also internal military conflict in the newly independent countries. Separatist movements were intensifying.

Q5. Explain the term disarmament. 

Ans. Disarmament means that the manufacture of weapons that kill humanity should be stopped and nuclear weapons should be banned. Many countries of the world have made atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs and are preparing to make some more. Due to this, the threat to international peace is increasing day by day. 

Weapons of destruction produced by one country are answered by the other country by manufacturing weapons of greater destruction. India has been in favor of disarmament since the beginning. From this point of view, India has welcomed any conference to be held in the world. In 1961 AD, India proposed not to make an atomic bomb in the General Assembly of the United Nations. India played an important role in the Disarmament Conference to be held in Geneva. In the end, we can say that the welfare of the world lies in disarmament.

Q.6. What are the benefits of restoring confidence in the traditional notion of security? 

Ans. benefits from trust building 

(1) Confidence building is an important method of security policy. Violence between countries can be reduced by these measures. 

(2) In this process, the countries having military conflicts and rivalries decide on regular exchange of information and ideas. 

(3) By doing this, these countries give assurance to their rival about this. That there is no attack plan from their side. 

(4) Apart from this, the exchange of many other things

Q.7. what do you understand by terrorism 

Ans. Meaning and examples of terrorism 

(1) Terrorism refers to political violence in which people are killed mercilessly. Today many countries of the world are suffering from terrorism.

(2) Terrorist groups seek to change a political context or situation they dislike by threatening to use force. 

(3) Civilians are targeted to terrorize public opinion. 

(4) Terrorism uses the discontent of citizens and acts against national governments or other parties involved in conflicts. 

(5) Famous examples of terrorism-aircraft hijacking, and bomb attacks on crowded places like trains, hotels, markets, etc.

Q8. Classify human rights. 

Ans. Classification of Human Rights: Human rights are divided into three categories- 

(1) First category- Political rights come in this. For example, the right to expression and freedom of assembly.

(2) Second category- This category is of economic and social rights. Like the right to earn a livelihood, the right to get employment, etc. 

(3) Third category- Under this comes the rights of colonized people or ethnic and indigenous minorities.

Q.9. Describe the side effects of HIV/AIDS. 

Ans. side effects of HIV aids 

(1) Epidemics such as HIV AIDS, bird flu, and SARS spread through immigration, business, tourism, and in different countries. rapidly through military operations 

(2) The success or failure of any one country in preventing the spread of these diseases affects the infection occurring in other countries.

(3) According to an estimate, 40 million people in the world had been affected by HIV/AIDS. Of this, 2/3 of the population lives in Africa while the remaining 50% is in South Asia. 

(4) New methods of treatment have been discovered in North America and other industrial countries.

Q.10 What type of strategy should be prepared for cooperative security?

Ans. Collaborative Cooperation Strategies 

(1) It would be better if strategies are prepared with international cooperation. 

(2) Cooperation can be of bilateral, regional, continental or global level. It really depends on the willingness of the countries and the nature of the threat.”

(3) Apart from various countries in cooperative cooperation, other organizations of international-national level such as international organizations (United Nations, World Health Organization, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, etc.), voluntary organizations, business organizations, corporations, and famous greens ( Like Nelson Mandela, Mother Teresa).

(4) In cooperative cooperation, the last resort can be the use of force. International powers can cooperate in this. Military force can be used against those countries. Those who are persecuting their people are not given protection from epidemics.

Long answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

1. What are the traditional methods of protection? Briefly explain each of them. 

Ans. Traditional methods of security – 

Introduction: The traditional notion of security accepts that the use of violence should be as limited as possible. It is related to both the goal and the means of war. It is a later extension of the European tradition of ‘just war’ that today almost the whole world believes that a country should be forced to go to war only for legitimate reasons, ie self-defense or to save others from genocide. Needed According to this point of view, there should be limited use of war-sions in a war. The fighting army should not kill an enemy who is not fighting, an unarmed person, or an enemy who has surrendered. 

Measures of Methods: The traditional notion of security does not rule out the possibility that countries may cooperate in one form or the other. The most important of these are disarmament, arms control, and restoration of trust. 

i) Disarmaments: Disarmament demands that all states, whatever their size, strength, and influence, give up certain types of weapons, for example, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972; Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) of 1992 prohibited the manufacture and possession of such weapons. 

(ii) Arms Control: Under arms control, some rules and regulations have to be followed in relation to developing or acquiring weapons. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) of 1972 prevented the US and the Soviet Union from using ballistic missiles as a defense shield. The attack could be launched with such missiles. 

iii) Treaties: The US and the Soviet Union signed several other arms-control treaties, including the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty-2 (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty – SALT II) and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty [(Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty). (START). The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968) was also an arms control treaty in a sense because it brought the acquisition of nuclear weapons under the ambit of the law. 

iv) Restoring Confidence: The traditional notion of security has also assumed that violence between countries can be reduced by confidence-building measures. In the process of confidence building, countries in military conflict and rivalry decide to have a regular exchange of information and ideas. The two countries tell each other about their military objectives and to some extent their military plans. 

Conclusion: Overall, the traditional notion of security is primarily concerned with the use of military force or the threat of the use of military force. In the traditional notion of security, it is believed that security is threatened by military force and security can be maintained only by military force.

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Q2. Discuss the security strategies of India.

Ans. India’s Security Strategy (Strategies of Security in India) All countries make their policy for their internal and external security to remove new security threats and decide the measures according to which the security arrangements are made. This is called the strategy of protection. The following are the salient features of India’s security strategy:

1. Security Advisor The Government of India has appointed a Security Advisor, who keeps on advising the government about security threats from time to time and measures to solve them, considering the matters related to the security of India. Is. A person is appointed to this post who is specialized in security-related matters. 

2. Strengthening of Military Power and Military Capabilities— India has since the beginning adopted a policy of strengthening its military power and its capability to defend against external attacks and wars. India had to adopt this policy for two reasons. Firstly, when India became independent, the industrial conditions of the country were not good. Hindu-Muslim disturbances were in full swing. The exchange of numbers between India and Pakistan resulted in bloodshed. 

Q3. Discuss the problems of population explosion and poverty in developing countries.

Ans. Problems of Population Explosion and Poverty in the Developing Nations or the Countries of the Third World

The process started and especially in 1960, the countries of Africa and Latin America, which were victims of exploitation due to slavery for years, became independent. 

Along with independence, many problems came in front of them, such as social development of the country, security of freedom, development of the political system, etc. They were economically exploited during the colonial period, here poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, and backwardness of agriculture and industries. It was the atmosphere of Adi. These countries started their development work by taking financial and military assistance and loans from rich nations and international organizations. Many such countries are climbing the stairs of development, but they are facing many problems in their development efforts. 

Out of these, overpopulation and poverty are their main problems and there is no doubt that both of them go hand in hand. Where there is more population, there automatically comes poverty.

About three-fourths of the world’s population lives in the developing countries (Third World) of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The rate of population growth in these countries is also much higher than the rate of the population of developed countries. It is estimated that by the end of the 20th century, the population of the Third World will make up 90 percent of the world’s population. It can be estimated from this how much economic and social inequality exists in developed and developing countries. 

About 20 percent of the world consumes 80 percent of the world’s income and the remaining 80 percent of the population lives on one rupee. Total of 20 paise It is estimated that in India itself about 35 percent of people are below the poverty line. This percentage is even higher in other developing countries. Most of the people of the third world do not even get pure drinking water. It is estimated that 800 million people are victims of extreme poverty and malnutrition. Due to poverty, people do not get medical facilities and about 11 million children die within a year of their birth.

800 million people are totally illiterate, of which about 48 percent of adults in third-world countries are illiterate and poor, and about 70 percent of people in the poorest countries are illiterate. These few statistics show that the problem of population and poverty in developing countries is huge and serious and without solving it their socioeconomic development cannot take place. 

Hunger, disease, lack, malnutrition, dirty residence, broken roads, and inadequate facilities have come in the share of third world countries only, and in developed countries which are very few in number, prosperity is prosperity. To solve these problems, developing countries need money and developed countries give whatever help they give to fulfill their political objective, not for their real help.

Q.4. Discuss the demand for equality by third-world countries. 

Ans. Inequality and Demand for Equality in the Third World – Economic inequality in the world is also at its peak. Most of the developing and underdeveloped and backward countries live a life of poverty and lack while some developed countries have an abundance of wealth and so many resources that they can even own the wealth. There is a flawed distribution of economic resources in the world. 

Per capita use of food items and other facilities in rich countries is 20 times higher than in poor countries. The people of the third world are able to consume only 16 percent of the total energy, while their population is about 70 percent. Analyzing any economic aspect, it is known that rich countries also exploit poor countries economically, there is a disease, and starvation in poor countries, and all the economic facilities and prosperity are in the share of the total of 20 percent people of the world and it is necessary to do it. 

Q5. What is the relationship between worldwide security and disarmament? What role has India played for disarmament? 

Ans. Meaning of Disarmament:- Disarmament literally means the cessation of production of all types of weapons, but it’s real: practical meaning is a reduction in the production of special types or all weapons for world peace and security. To end That is, disarmament is the step taken by two or more states to reduce their weapons by mutual understanding or voluntarily, to keep them in limited quantity or to produce them.

Relation between Disarmament and Security (Relation between Disarmament and Security )—

There is a close relationship between security and disarmament. When countries compete to have more and more weapons, this process becomes a great threat to external security. Due to the division of the world into two opposing factions, the international situation became so explosive that a third world war could break out at any time if the third war happens, it will be a nuclear war and it will completely destroy mankind and human achievements. The world witnessed the devastation of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1944 and their effects are still felt by the people there.

It was felt that if disarmament was not implemented, we would be heading toward doomsday. It was also realized that military objectives cannot be achieved with nuclear weapons and wars can never be fought with nuclear weapons. 

The presence of nuclear weapons only increases fear, terror, mistrust, uncertainty, and danger. State-owned weapons are a threat to world peace and security; today every state considers manufacturing military weapons on the basis of nuclear power. The work of armament is also done by most of the states ignoring the need for their economic and social development. Apart from big powers, some other countries have also made atomic bombs. 

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Q. 7. Who are the internally displaced persons? 

Ans. (1) These people are those who have left their homes but are still within the national boundary. Such people are called ‘Internally Displaced People’. 
(2) Example- Kashmiri Pandits who left the Kashmir Valley to escape the violence in the early 1990s are examples of ‘Internally Displaced People’.

Q.8 What is Kyoto Protocol? 

Ans. (1) In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was signed by nations including India. In this, guidelines have been given regarding reducing greenhouse gas emissions to control global warming. 
(2) In support of the initiative of cooperative security, India has sent its troops to UN peacekeeping missions

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