Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-8 Environment and Natural Resources

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This chapter is very important {Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-8} Many questions have been asked from this chapter in the examination and this chapter is very important for the students because from this chapter we understand the politics of the world.

So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.

I myself have been a topper of class 12th and I know what type of questions are asked in class 12th exam. At present, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written the question-answer article here with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to get very good marks in Political Science from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-8 Environment and Natural Resources

Chapter No08
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameEnvironment and Natural Resources
SubjectPolitical Science
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-8 Environment and Natural Resources

Today the environmental crisis is a worldwide crisis and it has also influenced world politics and attracted the attention of international organizations and world leaders. The future and existence of human society and the world is also related to the environment. 

With the pollution of the environment, the reserves of natural resources are getting depleted and if their destruction and damage to the environment continue at the same pace, then nothing will be left for the coming generation, even the next generation will have pure water to drink, and breathe. The present generation is also troubled due to the difficulty of not even getting pure air. 

The pollution of the environment has also reduced the productive power of the land and has also included toxic elements in it due to which the food products are neither nutritious nor edible. The environment is the commonwealth of the world which is the basis of human life. The loss of human life is linked to its loss. Today these questions are being seriously considered all over the world as to how to save the commonwealth. Therefore, environmental protection measures are being taken fast.

Very short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q. 1. What are the reasons for the lack of food production in the world? 

Ans. 1. There is no increase in the cultivable land of the world while the fertility of a large part of the existing fertile land is decreasing. 

2. The pastures are about to end, and the fish stock is dwindling. Pollution in water bodies is increasing. is present in this continent. The additional expansion of the Antarctic continent up to 36 million square kilometers is in the sea. 

Q. 2 What is meant by an environmental refugee?

Ans. 1. People from some countries in Africa have been called environmental refugees. Due to lack of agriculture, he had to leave his household and took refuge in another place. 

2. In fact, in the 1970s, there was a severe drought in that area, due to which the land there became barren and cracked.

Q.3. State the consequences of global warming. 

Ans. 1. Global warming or global warming means an increase in the temperature of the world. This is due to gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and hydrofluorocarbon. 

2. Increase in global temperature can pose a threat to life on earth. Various countries are holding talks in this regard. Various countries have agreed to an agreement called the Kyoto Protocol. 

Q4. What is meant by common property?

Ans. 1. Common property is a such property that is owned by each member of a group.

2. The basic logic behind this is that each member of the group shall have equal rights and bear equal responsibilities with respect to the nature, level of use, and maintenance of such resources. 

Q.5. What things did India mention in the Group-8 meeting in June 2005? 

Ans. 1. India noted that the emission rate of greenhouse gas emissions from developing countries is nominal as compared to developed countries.

2. In line with the principle of common but differentiated responsibility, India is of the view that the greatest responsibility for reducing the emission rate rests with the developed countries, as these countries have emitted a lot over a long period of time.

Q.6 Give the details of the Greenhouse emission rate of India. 

Ans. 1. India’s per capita emission rate till 2000 was 0.9 tonnes. It is estimated that by 2030 this quantity will increase to 16 tonnes per person.

2. This emission rate of India is much lower than the current (2000) world average of 3.8 tonnes per capita. Therefore, India is not bound to follow the rules of the Kyoto Protocol. 

Short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q.1. What are the main points of the Our Common Future Report (1987)?

Ans. Highlights of Our Common Future Report (1987)-

1. The report warned that the current methods of economic development would not be sustainable.

2. The demand for industrial development is more rapid in the southern countries of the world and the report warned in this context. 

3. In the Rio conference, it came to the fore that the world’s rich and developed countries and poor and developing countries have different attitudes regarding the environment. 

4. Southern countries were more concerned with resolving the interrelationship between economic development and environmental management.

Q2. Who owns Antarctica? 

Ans. 1. The Antarctic is the farthest continent in the world. Its area is spread over 1 crore 40 lakh square kilometers. 

2. The question arises as to who owns it. Two claims are made in this regard. 

3. Some countries like Britain, Argentina, Chile, Norway, France, Australia, and New Zealand have made a legal claim of their sovereign rights over the Antarctic region.

4. Most of the other countries took the opposite stand that the Antarctic Territory is the common property of the world and is not included in any jurisdiction. In view of this difference, rules were made and adopted to protect the environment and ecosystem of the Antarctic. The Antarctic and the Earth’s polar regions are subject to special regional regulations for environmental protection.

Q.3. Write a short note on Kyoto Protocol.

Ans. Kyoto Protocol 

1. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement.

2. Under this, targets have been set for industrial countries to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. 

3. The Protocol also recognizes that some the gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and hydrofluorocarbon are responsible for global warming. 

4. It has also been said that in the phenomenon of global warming, the temperature of the world may be dangerous for the life of the earth. 

Q.4. What do you understand by sacred forest region? What is its importance? 

Ans. 1. Nature was accepted as a deity in ancient India and it was customary to protect it. Beautiful examples of this practice are the sacred forest provinces.

2. Some forests were not cut down. A deity or a pious soul is considered at these places. This has been called the holy province or devachan. 

3. These sacred forest provinces have a national extension. This is confirmed by words from different languages. These Dev places are known by the names of Bani Kekri and Auran in Rajasthan, Jahera Thaw and Saran in Jharkhand, Lyngdoh in Meghalaya, Paan or Devbhoomi in Uttarakhand, etc.

4. The Mahavat of Devasthan has been accepted in the literature related to environmental protection. 

5. Some researchers are of the opinion that recognition of the Devasthan can help in biodiversity, and ecological as well as cultural diversity. ,

Q.5. What are the concrete steps taken by India in the context of environmental protection? 

Ans. Concrete steps were taken by India in the context of environmental protection- 

1. India has made clean fuel mandatory for vehicles under its National Auto Food Policy. 

2. Energy Conservation Act was passed in 2001. In this, efforts have been made to make more efficient use of energy. 

3. The Electricity Act of 2003 promoted the use of renewable energy again.

4. There has been a recent trend toward the import of natural gas and the adoption of technology based on the use of clean coal.

5. India is also ready to run a national mission related to biodiesel. Under this, biodiesel started being prepared by 2011-12. 

Q.6 Explain the difference between the forests of northern countries and the forests of southern countries.

Ans. Difference between forests of northern countries and forests of southern countries- 

1. The forests of southern countries are not uninhabited while the forests of northern countries are uninhabited. That is, the forest here is called the uninhabited province.

2. The people of southern countries consider man as a part of nature while the people of northern countries do not, that is, they consider the environment as something distant from man.

3. Most of the environmental issues in the southern countries are based on the belief that people live in forests too. Not in northern countries. 

4. The people of northern countries are not spiritual in outlook whereas the people of southern countries are spiritual in outlook.

Q.7. The mineral industry has been criticized from an environmental point of view? Discuss. 

Ans. Due to the criticism of the mineral industry from the environmental point of view- 

1. Due to liberalization in the global economy, the economies of many countries in the southern hemisphere have been opened up to multinational companies.

2. Most of the tribals of India depend on agriculture for their livelihood.  

3. They have got political representation in the constitution, and they have also got constitutional protection. 

4. They cannot get many benefits from the development of the country and there has not been much improvement in their condition.

5. They have lost their land due to various projects and have been displaced.

Q.8. What is meant by the ‘common heritage’ of the world? How is it exploited and polluted? 

Ans. (i) Meaning of the Global Commons—Common property is a resource to which the whole community is not entitled. It is a common hearth, a common pasture, a common field, a common well, or a river. Similarly, some parts and regions of the world are outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one country. That is why they are managed jointly by the international community. These are called ‘Global Heritage’ or ‘Common Heritage of Humanity’. This includes Earth’s atmosphere, Antarctica, the ocean surface, and outer space.

(ii) Exploitation and Pollution – 1. It is difficult to establish international cooperation on the question of protection of ‘Global Wealth’. There have been some important agreements in this direction such as the Antarctica Treaty (1959), the Montreal Protocol (1987), and the Antarctic Environmental Protocol (1991). A major problem with every ecological issue is that there is conflicting scientific evidence and timelines. In such a situation, it is difficult to agree on an all-encompassing environmental agenda.

2. In this sense the discovery of the hole in the ozone layer over the Antarctic in the mid-1980s is an eye-opener.

3. Similarly, the history of outer space as a global asset also shows that the management of this area has been affected by the disparity between the countries of the northern and southern hemispheres. 

Long answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q1. What is the role of the environment in world politics? 

Ans. Environment and World Politics – Today many questions related to the environment have made a very important place in world politics. Prior to the 1960s, the environment was considered outside the purview of politics. But when it is counted among the serious worldwide problems and the demand for protection against environmental damage is very strong at the international level. Even an ordinary person thinks that the issue of the environment does not even become a matter of politics of any society, then why it is being dragged into the politics of the world?

But the real situation is why today the issues related to the protection of the environment are being dragged into world politics. But the real situation is that today matters related to the protection of the environment remain serious matters of world politics.

No, it is not only the responsibility of the state to protect its citizens from external attacks and internal crises but also to take measures for their welfare. It is also the responsibility of the state to provide protection to its citizens from hunger, disease, unemployment, unemployment, etc. It is the duty of the state to provide employment opportunities and necessary opportunities for the attainment of a good standard of living for its citizens. When the problems of poverty, illiteracy, disease, lack of food, malnutrition, etc. are seen in many countries, then they can be solved better at the international level. 

Anyway, in the objectives of the United Nations, along with maintaining world peace and security, this objective has also been adopted that this organization should solve international problems of economic, social, cultural, and human nature and promote human rights. And will try to ensure international cooperation for the attainment of basic freedoms. In this way, not only are political problems are the scope of world politics, but considering the social, economic, and cultural problems spread at the international level, finding their solutions, and ensuring mutual cooperation of nations to solve them. 

In this way, issues related to protecting the environment and protecting the environment have become a part of world politics because they have not affected any one region or country, but have created a crisis for human life.

Class 12 Political Science Notes
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Q2. What is meant by the commonwealth of the world? Who is responsible for its protection?

Ans. Meaning of World Common Property: Common property is said to be that on which all people have common rights and which can be used by all. There is a common pasture or common land in the villages on which all the people of the village have the right to graze their animals. Similarly, playgrounds, well, river, etc. are all examples of common property; Because it is not the right of any one person, but the right of the whole community, the whole society.

Similarly, there are some parts and natural substances in the world which are not owned by any one country but are owned by the whole world and all the countries of the world can use them. Take sea water for example. Each country is considered to have its own ownership over that part of the sea that is adjacent to its coast and is considered to be within a limit that has been fixed by international law. 

Maintenance of Common World Property —Without care, the property is not protected. If a person protects his own property, then the common property of the village is protected by the Panchayat. The common property of the society is protected by the Panchayat. The common property of the society is protected and looked after by the government. Similarly, the common property of the world also requires care. If this is not done then it gets destroyed. 

Difficulty in Maintaining and Protecting Common Property – It is not easy to take care of and protect common property. Common property is used carelessly and little attention is paid to care. It can also be seen in joint families that family members take good care of their personal belongings and no one pays attention to the care of shared belongings. The government takes care of the common property of society and punishes those who damage it. That’s why the common property of society is protected.

Q4. Explain the role of India in the protection of the environment. Or, What are the steps taken by India to protect the environment? 

Ans. India’s Role in Conservation of Environment India has been a member and supporter of the United Nations since its inception. India has actively participated in all the activities of the United Nations and has been abiding by its laws, rules, and resolutions. 

But he also supports or opposes any incident and protest by adopting an open-minded and non-partisan approach on all issues, such as India not accepting the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This is the approach India has adopted on environmental issues.

India has accepted the proposals and suggestions passed at the international level to protect the environment, but has also partially opposed some of the proposals, which according to it are not considered in the interest of the developing countries and are imposed on the developing countries by the western developed countries. are seen as imposing. 

India played the following role in the field of environmental protection-

1. The culture of India since ancient times lays emphasis on maintaining the environment and maintaining the natural balance. Deforestation is not considered good from a religious point of view in almost all parts of India.

2. India signed the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 and pledged its support and responsibility to protect the environment. 3. India contributes to the efforts being made to protect the environment at the international level.

4. India has made clean fuel (CNG) mandatory for vehicles in its National Auto-Fuel Policy. In many cities, only vehicles running on clean fuel can be driven. It has been made mandatory for vehicles to have a pollution control letter (PUC).

5. In 2001, the Energy Conservation Act was enacted and rules were made for the proper use of energy and the prevention of pollution. 

6. India has taken steps to encourage the use of renewable energy under the Electricity Act of 2003. 

7. Emphasis is being laid on clean honesty, natural gas, and pollution-free technology and industries in India.

8. The plan to make bio-diesel has been started in India and it is expected that by 2010-2011 it will be made in India and there will be a reduction in pollution.

9. One of the world’s largest renewable energy programs is going on in India, which is a testimony to the fact that India is serious about environmental protection and has taken concrete steps.

10. India has raised this issue in SAARC summits and insisted on mutual cooperation and determination of a common policy in relation to all the member countries of the organization. 

Q.5 What is meant by Native? What is the angle regarding their rights in world politics?

Ans. Meaning of Indigenous Peoples Some part of our population is of Indigenous Peoples, the issue of the rights of indigenous peoples has also been included in world politics and there is a lot of thought on whether they should get their rights, and what are their rights. There is no consensus on these yet, but in the era of the notion of human rights, when the rights of an ordinary person, being a human being, are talked about, then the demand for the rights of those persons automatically increases in importance. The original inhabitants of and in a way the original owner of that area were considered. Are. 

Natives are called such people in a country, who had been living in a country for a long time, but later people from other countries came and took possession there and forced them to take shelter in forests, etc., and settle there. 

Pushed into the forests or mountainous regions, these natives retained their language, culture, and customs. Due to being separated from the main population, these people remained untouched by the influence of modern civilization and culture and continued to live their lives according to their own ways.

In 1982, the United Nations has defined the indigenous people as the descendants of those people who had been living in a country for a long time. Then, instead of living life according to any other culture and existing institutions, they are adopting their culture, their traditions, their customs, and their specific socio-economic lifestyle.

Native people are found in almost all countries. In India, these people are called the name of Scheduled Tribes according to Adivasi. They are mostly settled in the areas of North-East, the Bastar district of Madhya Pradesh, and some areas of Rajasthan. 

Special arrangements have been made for the protection of their culture, language, and customs in India. The population is about 8% of the total population of India and hence 72% has been arranged for them. The total population of these natives settled in different parts of the world is said to be 300 million. Six lakh natives live in the Chittagong region of Bangladesh. In North America, their number has been estimated at lakhs. 

In the Philippines, two million indigenous people live in the Cordillera region. In (Chile) the number of natives is one million. East of the Panama Canal there are about 5000 natives who are called Kuna. Their population is one million in North Soviet Russia. Natives also live in South and Central America, Southeast Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and many islands of the Asipada region.

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Q1. What is India’s demand for meeting the existing commitments of the ‘Framework Convention on Climate Change’?

Ans. 1. There has been no meaningful progress in providing new and additional financial resources on concessional terms to developing countries and technologies that prove to be better in terms of the environment. 
2. India demands that developed countries take immediate measures to provide financial resources and clean technologies to developing countries so that developing countries can meet their existing commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Q.2 Why have world leaders worried about the land environment? Write any two reasons.

Ans1. There is no longer any increase in arable land around the world, while a large part of the existing fertile land is losing its fertility. 
2. The fodder of the pastures is about to end, and the fish stock is decreasing.
3. The water level of the reservoirs has decreased very fast, and pollution is increasing in it. Due to this food production is decreasing.

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