Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-9 Globalisation

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This chapter is very important {Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-9) Many questions have been asked from this chapter in the examination and this chapter is very important for the students because from this chapter we understand the politics of the world.

So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.

I myself have been a topper of class 12th and I know what type of questions are asked in class 12th exam. At present, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written the question-answer article here with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to get very good marks in Political Science from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-9 Globalisation

Chapter No09
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameGlobalization
SubjectPolitical Science
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-9 Globalisation

The process of globalization started in the last decade of the 20th century and spread widely in 10 years and the 21st century is being considered as the era of globalization. 

In simple terms, globalization means the development of a sense of closeness among all people living in all regions of the world, understanding themselves as members of one family and moving people and goods from one place to another, from one country to another. I come and go without much hindrance and get affected by the happiness and sorrow of others. 

For example, family members get separate rooms to stay but all the members visit all the rooms freely, when one member falls ill, all the members are worried and affected, and on the birthday of one member, all the members get together. Taxes are celebrated happily as the festival is related to it, and all the members give positive support to each other’s life development, business progress, etc. In the same way, people living in different countries of the world today celebrate each other. have come so close. 

Instead of considering themselves as citizens of different countries, and members of different societies, they have started thinking of themselves as members of the same society or the same family and are influenced and influenced by each other’s activities. Now the people of the world have started taking steps towards making common rules of trade etc. for which the World Trade Organization has been established. This is globalization. 

Due to globalization, the strict vigilance on the borders of the states has started to relax and many countries, which had strict rules and restrictions on persons and goods like passports and permits, etc., have relaxed and they have adopted the policy of free trade. Today, sitting at home, a person participates in business activities in any part of the world, and information is exchanged freely. 

Today, the events that happen in one country, be they political, economic, or cultural, have an effect on the people of other countries, not only the citizens of that country are affected by them, but the people of the whole world are affected. Today, citizens of one country can be seen running many companies in other countries as well. Multinational companies of one country are seen running business activities in big cities in other countries of the world. There is rapid mobility of goods and services between countries. 

Many foreign companies are actively engaged in business in India, especially in the insurance industry, communication industry, mass media, etc. Today the interaction of different cultures has also increased and all have influenced each other. All these are examples of globalization.

Very short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q. 1. What is Globalization?

Ans. 1. The basic meaning of globalization as a concept is ‘flow’. Flow can be of many types. 

2. Flow of ideas from one part of the world to other parts, movement of capital to more than one place, movement of goods to many countries, trade, and movement of people to different parts of the world in search of better livelihood are flowing. 

Q. 2. Is globalization a multidimensional concept?

Ans. 1. Globalization is a multidimensional concept and can have many dimensions – political, economic, and cultural.

2. Globalization is not a single phenomenon such as political, economic or cultural. 

Q.3. How did globalization get a boost due to the means of communication? 

Ans. 1. The development of technology led to the invention of many communication tools like the telephone, the telegraph, and the microchip. Due to these, the revolution of communication is visible.

2. People-to-people relations increased with the means of communication. Through this, there was considerable progress in the movement of capital, ideas, goods, and people. Thus globalization got a boost. 

Q.4. Has globalization changed the nature of the welfare state?

Ans. 1. Globalization has had a bad impact on the nature of the welfare state. Now this concept is out of date and has been replaced by the minimally interventionist state.

2. Its functions have become limited. It works for the maintenance of law and order and the security of the citizens. The work of social and economic welfare has ended.

Q.5. How have multinational corporations affected governments? 

Ans. 1. Multinational companies have contributed a lot to the development of globalization. These companies have spread their feet in all the countries.

2. Their role has become important in different countries. As a result, the governments themselves are not able to take any decisions. That is, there has been a decrease in the decision-making capacity of governments.

Q. 6. Has globalization increased the power of the state? 

Ans. 1. Some people believe that globalization has increased the power of the state. Now there is high-quality technology under the state. 

2. Through technology, the state can collect more information about its citizens. On the basis of this information, the state can work in a more systematic manner. This increases their potential. It is clear that the state has become powerful.

Short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q. 1 Technology is an important factor of globalization, discuss. What is the contribution of technology in globalization?

Ans. Technology has contributed the most to the concept and development of globalization because it has connected people all over the world and brought different countries and regions face to face, increasing their interdependence and at the same time making them feel They are all members of the same family. 

The following facts corroborate this statement:

1. The progress of technology has led to a tremendous increase in people, goods, capital and ideas all over the world. Their mobility has increased a lot. 

2. Due to the advancement of technology, today a person sitting in any part of the world becomes familiar with the events happening at a distance of thousands and millions of miles and starts feeling as if he is present at the same place and nearby. The incident is happening.

3. T.V. With the live telecast shown on TV, a person feels about the events and matches etc. happening thousands of miles away, that he is directly watching that event or match sitting at the same place and does not lose time and place. The distance is almost over.

4. Due to the advancement in technology, a person sitting in his house feels connected to the whole world. Sitting at home, he does business with foreign countries, pays loans, talks with each other, even participates in conferences and meetings.

5. Technology TV shows the cultures of different countries. And they play a role in ending through the Internet and they have started influencing each other in the same way that people are influenced by direct, face-to-face interactions. Therefore, technology has the most important contribution in the spread of globalization.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Ch-9
class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science

Q2. Discuss the economic effects of globalization. 

Ans. Economic Effects of Globalization – 

1. Economic globalization is the process in which the economic flow between different countries of the world becomes faster. Some economic flows are voluntary while some are imposed by international institutions and powerful countries.

2. Economic flow refers to the flow of goods, capital, and ideas. Globalization has benefited trade in goods. 

3. In fact, due to the effect of globalization, restrictions on the import of capital and goods have been abolished by various countries. So rich countries can invest their investment in some other country or especially in developing countries, where they can get more profit.

4. From the point of view of ideas, the boundary of the nation is not a hindrance. That’s why internet and computer-related services have expanded. 

5. Developed countries have adopted protection policies for developing countries.

Q.3 Discuss the negative effects of acceptance. 

Ans. Negative Effects of Globalization- 

1. Globalization has had a great impact on public opinion and has divided it to a great extent. 

2. Globalization has reduced the accountability of the government, due to which social justice has taken a heavy toll. 

3. The condition of the people who are dependent on the government for getting jobs, education, health, cleanliness, etc. will worsen. 

4. Globalization has led to movements in many parts of the world due to the lack of social security and considers the security cover alone as insufficient. 

Q4. Mention the beneficial aspects of globalization. 

Ans. Beneficial aspects of globalization – 

1. Proponents of the process of economic globalization say that it increases prosperity and increases the happiness of more population due to openness.

2. This leads to the development of business. As a result, every country gets an opportunity to improve itself.

3. Proponents of globalization say that economic globalization is inevitable and to block it would be to stop the flow of history. 

4. Moderate proponents are of the view that globalization has thrown challenges and should be faced with full wisdom by being conscious. 

5. In fact, the interdependence of countries and citizens is increasing due to different needs. In such a situation globalization becomes necessary. 

Q5. Discuss the harmful side of cultural globalization.

Ans. Harmful aspects of cultural globalization – 

1. Its effect is also visible on our lifestyle, dress, food and thoughts.

2. Now our choices are also determined by globalization thus the whole fear is created. That it can also threaten the culture.

3. In fact, cultural globalization tries to bring homogeneity among cultures. In such a situation, there is sure to be a change in the culture.

4. In fact, in the name of world culture, efforts are being made to impose western culture in various countries.

5. American supremacy is increasing and the prevalence of American goods is increasing. So that people can be deeply affected.

Q.6. Mention the advantages of cultural globalization.

Ans. Benefits of Cultural Globalization Cultural impact of globalization is not only negative but it also has a positive impact-

1. External culture narrows our choices but is not necessary.

2. They improve the culture without giving up traditional cultural values. Rather it adds one more thing to our choice of food items. 

3. Globalization brings distinctiveness to culture by mixing cultures. 

4. Globalization is making each culture more distinct and distinct.

Q.7. What work was done in the field of globalization after 1991 in India? 

Ans. Work in the field of globalization after 1991 in India-1. There was a huge financial crisis in India in 1991. To overcome this and to achieve a high rate of economic growth, the plan of economic reforms started in India. Desire

2. Under this many restrictions were removed from different areas of import. 

3. The policy of openness in trade was adopted and foreign investment was invited. 

4. It was decided to take the benefits of globalization to the lower strata.

Long answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q1. What is meant by globalization? Discuss the main changes made in the economic policy by India in the direction of liberalisation. 

Ans. A greater part of economic activity is now being brought under the private sector than before. It has been termed as ‘Privatisation’ or ‘Liberalisation’. Along with liberalisation, the word ‘Globalisation’ has been used only recently. Globalization refers to ‘trade, capital and technology’. integration and co-ordination of the domestic economy with the rest of the world through the flows of

1. A new industrial policy was implemented in the year 1991, under which the process of globalization had started in security and social India since the eighties, but after the adoption of economic reforms in 1991, this process has become very fast. . 

2. Foreign Direct Investment has been promoted. 100% foreign investment is allowed in some sectors, such as the power sector and oil refining. 

3. Disinvestment program has been encouraged, that is, many public industries are being brought under the private sector.

4. Some important labor laws have been amended to take forward the process of labor reform, so that industrialists can close unprofitable factories even without the permission of the government. It is expected that following the policy of globalization, India’s share in world trade 05 percent to one percent. 

Q.2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of globalization? 

Ans. Globalization – In the last phase of the 20th century, the sovereignty and territorial boundaries of nation-states started getting endangered and the feeling that different states are members of the worldwide family, they should live together as members of one family. We are not isolated and we have to move towards development by solving problems with each other’s cooperation. 

The feeling flourished that a state’s own development is not enough, but along with the development of the whole world, the development of the state is meaningful. Globalization has ended the regional boundaries of nations and they have started solving many worldwide problems together. Globalization has positive aspects as well as negative aspects, it has advantages as well as disadvantages. Positive Aspects or Advances of Globalization” –

Globalization has the following benefits –

1. Encouragement to World Peace — Globalization promotes world peace. When different states start considering themselves as a part of the world like family, instead of considering themselves as sovereign and separate states, then the feeling of mutual enmity, hatred, and war among them, if not ending, then definitely reduces. This feeling enhances world peace. 

2. Easy Solution of World Problems Due to globalization, worldwide problems such as the protection of the environment and nutrition, protection of public health, and the prevention of AIDS, malnutrition, hunger, illiteracy, and terrorism should be easily solved. goes. 

3. Balanced Development of All Nations – In the environment of nation states, only big and powerful nations move towards development and small, weak, and poor nations are not able to do their social development easily. The same is the case with developing or third-world countries where there is socio-economic backwardness. 

4. Increase in Travel and Trade Activities – In the environment of globalization, many facilities are increased for traveling from one country to another, such as the system of passports end, the Use of the same currency in many countries, the absence of restrictions on the movement of goods, etc. 

5. Sharing of All in the Knowledge Today is the era of science and technology. But in this research work and activities of increasing knowledge are happening in only a few countries. But whatever knowledge these few countries get, everyone starts getting its benefit. 

6. Spirit of Equality: All people living in any part of the world are equal, and all nations are equal, this feeling does not develop in the environment of a nation-state but in the environment of globalization. The environment of globalization considers all nations as members of one family and equal. 

7. Increase in Interaction among Various Cultures— An advantage of globalization is that there has been an increase in interaction and interaction among different cultures of the world. With the increase in mobility of people and the development of technology, people of different countries have come closer to each other both directly and through TV, the Internet, E-mail, and other modern developed means. 

Negative Aspects or Disadvantages of Globalization—

Globalization has not only advantages but also some disadvantages. Its negative aspects have been criticized, and negative aspects have been opposed. These negative aspects are as follows- 

1. Impact on Sovereignty and Territorial Integrity of the states – Globalization has affected the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the states or territorial boundaries. Due to this, the boundaries of the states are ending and the sovereignty of the states is being affected both internally and externally. 

2. Economic Exploitation of Backward and Poor Countries – Due to globalization, economic exploitation of small, poor, industrially backward, and socially underdeveloped countries starts and is happening. In the environment of globalization, big business and industrial organizations are opened and run by rich and prosperous countries only. All countries spread their legs. 

3. Bad Effects of Multinational Corporations (III Effects of Multinational Corporations) — Just as a big tree keeps spreading on its own but in its shade, the small generations do not flourish and end up, in the same way, multinational corporations spread their feet all over the world. spreading and wherever they go 

4. Atmosphere of Inequality The United Nations has been established on the basis that all nations, big or small, rich or poor, are equal. Everyone has been given equal representation in the General Assembly of the United Nations. But globalization affects this equality of nations as well. There is a very flawed and unequal distribution of wealth and economic resources in the world. 

5. Interests of Small and Poor Countries remain Ignored: In the environment of globalization, the interests of big, powerful, and prosperous countries are promoted and the voices of small and poor countries are rarely heard. 

Q.3. Discuss the opposition to globalization at the world level.

Ans. Global Opposition to Globalization Globalization has been opposed not only in India but in all countries. It is a debatable currency and today its good and bad aspects are disputed in all countries. The following facts confirm its worldwide protest-

1. Supporters of Marxist ideology oppose it on the ground that it is a supporter of the capitalist system. Marxists consider it as a means of expansion of the imperialist and capitalist systems. 

2. Many thinkers consider globalization as a means of protecting the rich and rich countries and in this environment, the interests of the poor and workers are not protected. 

3. Some thinkers say that because globalization affects state sovereignty and state control over borders, 

4. Globalization is likely to reduce the activities related to social welfare, social justice, and social security of the state. In such a situation, the weaker and backward sections of society depend on the help of the state. 

5. Third world countries say that because the global institutions like World Bank, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, etc. are dominated by western developed and rich countries. 

6. It is felt that the World Trade Organization wants to adopt such rules and methods of trade which are not considered fair for all countries. 

7. The World Social Forum was established with the aim of worldwide opposition to globalization. This includes human rights activists, environmentalist-activist, workers, women activists,s and youth social workers. 

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Q.1. What do you understand by economic globalization?

Ans. 1. Economic globalization is the process in which the economic activity between different countries of the world becomes faster, that is, the movement of capital and trade between them becomes faster.
2. Some economic flows are voluntary while some are forced by international organizations and powerful countries.

Q. 2. What has increased business activities due to globalization? 

Ans. 1. Almost all the restrictions on imported goods have been abolished by various countries. That’s why business has picked up. Initially, this was not possible under the policy of protectionism. 
2. Capital investment has been allowed in different countries of the world. now only a few
There are restrictions. In such a situation, various countries are promoting investment trade among themselves

Q.3. Mention the disadvantages of economic globalization.

Ans. 1. Due to economic globalization, the entire public opinion has been divided into many parts and there has been a difference of opinion. 
2. Governments are not realizing their responsibility and this has given a big blow to social justice. The condition of people who depend on the government for economic welfare will worsen.

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