Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 10 Challenges of Nation Building

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This chapter is very important {Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 10) Many questions have been asked from this chapter in the examination and this chapter is very important for the students because from this chapter we understand the politics of the world.

So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.

I myself have been a topper of class 12th and I know what type of questions are asked in class 12th exam. At present, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written the question-answer article here with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to get very good marks in Political Science from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 10 Challenges of Nation Building

Chapter No10
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameChallenges of Nation Building
SubjectPolitical Science
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Challenges of Nation Building

India became independent on August 15, 1947. But this joyous occasion turned into mourning. Because India got independence with the partition of the country. All this happened because of the divide-and-rule policy of British rule and the stubbornness of some ambitious religious fundamentalist leaders.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 10
Challenges of Nation Building

The partition of the country was extremely painful as it involved a landscape of unprecedented violence and displacement. In this partition, not only the boundaries of states and regions were divided, but also small household items, clothes, radio, and TV. also got divided. There was a division of relations and ties in this. In the name of religion and religion, people had become enemies of each other’s lives. Inhumanity prevailed in everyone’s heads. It seemed as if humanity had disappeared from the world.

It took a long time for the whole atmosphere to calm down. Meanwhile, the constitution committees constituted for both countries wrote the constitutions on the basis of which the ruling systems of both countries started doing their work. The President of the Constituent Assembly of India was Dr. Rajendra Prasad who became the first President of the country. The committee which wrote the constitution after debates and decisions were called the Drafting Committee.

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Its president was Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar. On this occasion, there was also a major problem with the formation of the nation. At the time of independence, there were two types of geographical and administrative states. One the princely states and the other the British states. Union was formed by combining all these. Sardar Patel, known as the Iron Man of India, played an important role in this entire process, that is, in merging the princely states with India.

After independence, the process of state-building and nation-building started, in which many difficulties came to the fore, we inherited many problems from British rule. We inherited poverty, unemployment, regional imbalance, and an economy based on agriculture. There were many types of challenges in nation-building and development of the nation, but the main form

It is necessary to describe three challenges here – the first challenge is nation-building, the second challenge is the development of democracy and the third challenge is the development of public welfare.

The first challenge in the form of nation building- India is a majority society in which people of many castes, religions, languages, cultures, dialects, and geographies live. After many years, India was tied in the thread of unity after independence. Therefore, creating and strengthening national unity-integrity was an important challenge for the Indian system of governance. Various efforts were made for this at the administrative level, the constitutional level, the educational level, and the cultural level.

Very short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q. 1. What do you understand by the nation?

Ans. A nation is a group of individuals and communities who have a common race, common caste, culture, and common historical background. Along with this, these people have common beliefs and common aspirations at the proximity and political level. These people live together in a certain area living in a common brotherhood.

The people of the world are divided on the basis of nationality in the form of various nation-states. A nation has its own sovereign government. These people are associated with the same objectives. India is also a nation-state in which there is unity in diversity. It is a majority society that is associated with Indianness.

Q.2. Explain the process of nation-building.

Ans. The process of nation-building is a complex and extensive process in which efforts are made to tie the people living in a certain area of ​​the state in a single thread on the basis of proximity generated on various grounds. In the process of nation-building, people of different castes, religions, languages, and regions are raised above their personal and regional interests and linked with national interests, collective objectives, and national dignity and goals.

Q.3. Explain three challenges to the process of Indian nation-building.

Ans. The following three major challenges in the process of Indian nation building 8-

  • (i) To maintain Indian unity integrity.
  • (ii) To make democracy successful and develop in India.
  • (iii) The third major responsibility or challenge is the public welfare of the citizens of India, fulfilling their minimum needs and raising their standard of living.

Q. 4. What were the reasons for the partition of India?

Ans. Although there were many reasons for the partition of India, the following two reasons can be considered major-

  • (i) Divide and rule policy of the British The reason behind the long rule of the British was that they were successful in dividing the Indian society on the basis of communalism.
  • (ii) The second major reason was the two-nation theory given by Mohammad Ali Jinnah in which he clearly stated that Hindus and Muslims are two different nationalities that cannot live together. This bigotry of Jinnah was also the main reason for the partition of India.

Q.5. Explain the process of partitioning India.

Ans. India got independence on August 15, 1947, but at the same time had to face the tragedy of World War II. Actually, this experience was very painful and unfortunate. The reason was that there was no area in the British provinces in which Muslims were the majority of the Muslim community only in two areas in India – one in the west and the other in the east.

There was no direct contact between the two areas. At the time of partition, it was decided that Pakistan would have two parts, one West Pakistan and the other East Pakistan. The other side of the partition was that not all Muslims went to Pakistan. The whole process was violent and full of hatred.

Q. 6. What do you understand by the two-nation theory?   

Ans. The theory of two nations was given by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, according to which he believed that Hindus and Muslims are two different nationalities in India, which have their own religious beliefs, social values, and political aspirations, so they do not remain in one place, so India Partition into two nations must take place.

Short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q1. Explain three major obstacles in the process of Bharat Nirman.

Ans. India has been engaged in the process of nation-building after attaining independence. There are three major challenges before India in this process which are as follows- *

(1) To maintain Indian national unity and integrity, for which efforts are being made on various occasions through various mediums to develop a sense of nationalism among all Indians.

(ii) The second challenge is to prepare citizens to strengthen Indian democracy and make it successful.

(iii) The third challenge is to do public welfare work for Indians like India. Fulfilling the minimum needs of the people and raising their standard of living. For this purpose, many schemes and programs have been started in India.

Q. 2. Explain the main reasons for the partition of India.

A. The partition of India was an unfortunate event that had many reasons. The main reasons were the following-

  • (i) Communal outlook of the Muslim League
  • (ii) The ambition of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and
  • (iii) Feeling of insecurity among Muslims living in India (iv) Social, educational, and economic backwardness of Muslims
  • (v) Divide and rule policy of the British
  • (vi) Radicalism of Hindu organizations.
  • (vii) Religious fundamentalism.
  • (viii) Wrong policies of Congress.
  • (ix) Communal conflicts.
  • (x) Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s theory of two nationalism (xi) Religious fundamentalism of Muslims.
  • (xii) Divide and rule policy of the British. (xiii) Historical reasons.

Q.3. Explain the circumstances in which the partition of India became inevitable.

Ans. Communal sentiment in India has a historical background. Religious fundamentalism affected Indian society during the Muslim era and the time of the Mughals. The British came to India and incited this communal feeling and continuously divided Indian society. However, with the Indian re-awakening, the sense of unity between the Hindus and the Muslims in Indian society increased and together they all started the national movement.

But gradually the attitude of the Muslim League changed under the leadership of Mohammad Ali Jinnah and formally raised the demand for Pakistan in 1940 on Jinnah’s two-nation theory, which was not accepted by the British and the Congress. When there was no mention of Pakistan in the Cabinet Mission Plan in 1946, Jinnah announced Direct Action, which spread fights, violence and violence between Hindus and Muslims all over the country, due to which the partition of India became inevitable, which led to the partition of India in 1947. India was partitioned on the basis of the Mountbatten plan.

Q4. Explain the difficulties faced at the time of the merger of princely states with India.

Ans. India became independent on August 15, 1947. At that time i.e. before independence (British India) there were two types of states – one princely state and the other British provinces which were ruled by the British government. The princely states were ruled by native rulers. According to it, the princely states were given the right to either merge with Pakistan or merge with India.

They were also given the right to remain independent. Most of the princely states approved the merger with India on their own. But some native princely states took a lot of delay in taking their decisions, the rulers of Hyderabad, Junagadh, and Kashmir took delay in taking decisions. The merger of these princely states in India became possible due to the efficient administrative and diplomatic efforts of the then Home Minister of India Shri Sardar Patel.

The ruler of Kashmir had decided to remain independent, but in 1948, due to the invasion of Pakistan’s Kavils, the then Maharaja Shri Hari Singh accepted the merger with India on the basis of certain conditions. This merger is challenged even today.

Q.5. Explain the process of the merger of the princely state of Manipur with the Indian Union.  

Ans. A few days before independence, Maharaja Boshchandra Singh of Manipur signed a memorandum of understanding with the Government of India for the merger of his princely state with the Indian Union. In lieu of this, he was assured that the internal autonomy of Manpur would remain intact.

Under the pressure of public opinion, the Maharaja conducted elections in June 1948 and as a result of this election, a constitutional monarchy was established in the princely state of Manipur. Manipur is the first part of India where elections were held following the principle of universal adult franchise.

There were deep differences in the Legislative Assembly of Manipur on the question of merger. The Congress of Manipur wanted the princely state to be merged with India, while other political parties were against it. Without consulting the elected assembly of Manipur, the Government of India forced the Maharaja to sign an agreement to join the Indian Union.

The Government of India got excited about this. In Manipur, feelings of anger and resentment arose among the people over this move. Its effect can be seen today. On September 1949, the Maharaja of Manipur signed the Instrument of Accession of Manipur to India.

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Q6. Write a short note on the Kashmir problem.

Ans. On the midnight of 14–15 August 1947, when British India was partitioned into India and Pakistan, the unpopular and despotic Maharaja Hari Singh, a Muslim state par excellence, was ruling Kashmir and Jammu, perhaps in the hope that he would separate India and Pakistan. Will be able to establish an independent and autonomous gover

nment different from Pakistan, and resist pressure to merge with either of the two states. To postpone the time and made a compromise and decided to make a similar agreement with India. In the western part of Kashmir, the Muslims rebelled against the Maharaja and established their own system (Azad) Kashmir government. To take advantage of this opportunity and integrate the remnant state of Kashmir into Pakistan, on 22 October 1947, armed Pathan tribesmen from the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) invaded Kashmir.

He had reached fifteen miles away from Srinagar, the capital of that state. Being wary of this invasion, Hari Singh sought military help from India but India refused to help until the Maharaja signed the ‘Instrument of Accession’. This was a standard procedure under which the states of other princely states acceded to India or Pakistan.

India accepted the accession after obtaining consent from Sheikh Abdullah, the secular and populist leader of the National Conference party. Hari Singh signed this agreement on October 27, 1947, and on the same day, the Indian Army entered Kashmir to push back the guerrillas.

To achieve the ambitious goal, he along with Pakistan immediately sent an Indian Army to Jammu and Kashmir on August 16, 1947. India also took this matter to the United Nations and accused Pakistan of attacking. The United Nations enforced a ceasefire on January 1, 1949. Despite India’s request to vacate Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, Pakistan did not vacate it. The Constituent Assembly elected by the people of Jammu and Kashmir once again clarified that Jammu and Kashmir are an integral part of India.

Pakistan’s attempts to annex Jammu and Kashmir with the help of Wyllies failed and in subsequent years Pakistan adopted different methods at different times. These methods include Pakistan joining the Western military bloc, ceding a part of Pakistan-occupied Indian territory to China, open aggression against India, cross-border terrorism, and infiltration into Jam Swamir.

Long answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q1. Explain the causes and consequences of partition in India.

Ans. British colonialism divided Indian society on various grounds. The British understood that there is a feeling of high and low in India and that the society is backward at the social, economic, and educational levels. Therefore, he raised this matter and adopted ‘Divide and Rule’ to rule India, in which he also became successful. The British encouraged caste to increase mutual hatred in India and sowed the seeds of communalism.

The aim of every policy of the British rule was that the policy should be made and implemented in such a way that the Indians remain divided into the social, religious, and economic levels, and due to these efforts of inequality and distance, the Muslim League which is a nationalist political Datta or later Saap became the political party that ultimately led to the formation of a separate state i.e.

Pakistan, in the manner of Mohammad Ali Jinnah who was a secular nationalist and liberal leader, who inspired their ambitions to inculcate communal and selfish outlook in them to become the leader of the Muslims. Taxes were left while initially, his outlook was broad. This communal policy became the main reason for the partition of India.

The partition of India resulted in serious consequences, in which the following are the main ones-

  • growth of communal feeling
  • Problems in the Reorganization of States
  • communication of Indian Politics
  • communication of administration
  • During the Cold War and the real war between India and Pakistan, both sides i.e. Hindus and Muslims had to suffer a lot.
  • minority appeasement policy

Q. 2. Explain the main objectives and objectives of the process of nation-building in India after the partition of India.

Ans It was not easy for India after independence. Many challenges were standing before him. At the time of independence, Mahatma Gandhi had said that tomorrow we will be free from the slavery of British rule, but India will also be divided at midnight. That’s why tomorrow will be a day of happiness for us and also of sorrow in this way we can say that Gandhiji also indicated the challenges of the times ahead. Here we are describing three major challenges after independence which are as follows-

(i) The most important challenge in front of India is to recognize a vast country like India as a nation and ensure that people belonging to different castes, religions, languages, cultures, and geography are united by tying them in the thread of nationalism i.e. Indianness. Was. Due to the very sad experience of the past, we had got the rule of foreign people due to a lack of unity, so the biggest challenge is to keep India united as a nation and to increase mutual love among all classes of people.

(ii) The second challenge was for Indian administrators to strengthen democracy in India by developing the political culture necessary for a democratic system in which India has been successful to a large extent. So far, in the democratic journey of 60 years, many elections have been held in India at various levels, due to which Indian democracy has matured. Has the citizen of India matured as a voter also? The roots of democracy have become strong in India. This was also a really big challenge.

(iii) The third major challenge was the development and welfare of Indians when the country became independent. There were many problems in India like poverty, unemployment and regional imbalance, and illiteracy. Necessary efforts have been made to remove all of them and the standard of living of the people has been raised. Thus the urban economy has been strengthened.

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Q. What were the three challenges?

The three main challenges are the fundamental challenge, the challenge of expansion, and the challenge of deepening democracy.

Q. What is meant by nation-building?

Nation-building can be defined as the process through which the boundaries of the modern state and the national community converge. The desired outcome is to achieve national integration (Reference work: Concepts and definitions).

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