Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development

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This chapter is very important {Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 12) Many questions have been asked from this chapter in the examination and this chapter is very important for the students because from this chapter we understand the politics of the world.

So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.

I myself have been a topper of class 12th and I know what type of questions are asked in class 12th exam. At present, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written the question-answer article here with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to get very good marks in Political Science from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development

Class12th 
Chapter No12
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NamePolitics of Planned Development
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPolitical Science
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Politics of Planned Development

After attaining independence, India had a big task of nation-building. After independence, India inherited a backward colonial economy based on agriculture in which 70% of people were illiterate, 30% of people were below the poverty line and 80% of people lived in villages. Poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and regional imbalance were prevalent all around. India was backward at the social level. He was a victim of caste-caste, high-low, and evil practices. There was a lack of scientific and industrial development and scientific thinking. 

Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development
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Most of the people were victims of religious fundamentalism and a fatalistic outlook. There was also a lack of political faith and awareness among the people. For centuries, India was a victim of imperialism and colonialism due to which there was a lack of political participation among the people.

The resolution to overcome all these challenges has been expressed in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution, in which the values, philosophy, and goals of the Constitution have been written. The main objective of the Indian Constitution is to make India an egalitarian society based on the principles of socialist ideologies. In which every person can lead a dignified life on the basis of equality and justice. The main goal of the constitution was to get everyone the minimum necessities of life.

Several modes were available before India achieved these objectives. India wanted to overcome all its socioeconomic weaknesses for which it was looking for a suitable model. In the discussions held at various levels, there was a consensus that these goals of the constitution cannot be left to capitalists and big landlords in this socio-economic environment. 

The important role of the government in achieving this objective was acknowledged. In the first years of independence, there was a lot of discussion as to which model should be made which would help in achieving socioeconomic justice. People had also started discussing the western model of development.

The main debate in the discussion held at various levels regarding the model of development was whether the western model of development or the communist model is more suitable for the needs of India. Supporters of both models were giving their respective opinions. 

A large section was in favor of industrial development. He believed that economic growth should be done on the basis of independent economic policy. And industrial development should be done using available resources on a scientific and technical basis. Due to this employment opportunities will be provided in India and problems like poverty in the country will end.

On the other hand, there was a group of people who wanted to solve India’s economic problems by strengthening the rural economy and developing small-scale industries on the basis of the state-centered planned economy. At this time, many people in India were deeply influenced by the Soviet model of development. 

Such people included prominent leaders not only of the Communist Party of India • but also of the Socialist Party and Congress itself like Nehru. India’s industrial class was the only supporter of the American or Western liberal model. few in number

Very short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q1. What were the major approaches to economic development after independence? 

Ans After independence, there was a big challenge of economic development in front of India, in which there were economic problems, to overcome there were many methods and models, and some of the major ones were-

1. Socialist Theory Socialist thinkers wanted to build India’s economy on the basis of society so that the inequality, injustice, and exploitation prevailing in society could be removed. 

2. Liberal Capitalist Theory Dardarist thinkers wanted to have an open and market economy so that economic development could be done with minimum control and interference of the state.

Q. 2. What do you understand by the mixed economy? 

Ans. A mixed economy is an economy in which development is determined keeping in view the economic-social condition of the concerned country to mobilize both economic activities. 

Q.3 Write two benefits of the abolition of Zamindari. 

  • Ans. (i) The exploitation of the farmer stopped.
  • (ii) Agricultural production increased. 

Q.4. What efforts were made to bring reforms in the agriculture sector?

Ans. Land reform was done to remove inequality and improved seeds were used to increase production. Irrigation facilities were expanded. Modern agricultural machines and equipment were used.

Q.5. What is meant by the consolidation of holdings?

Ans. Consolidation refers to such a process by which a land owner is given one or two fields of almost the same size in exchange for the scattered fields here and there. 

Q6. Mention the reasons/factors due to which the government wanted to take a political decision to set up a steel industry in Odisha. 

Ans.(a) When the worldwide demand for steel increased, Orissa emerged as an important destination for investment. Orissa had vast deposits of iron ore and it was yet to be exploited. The state government of Orissa wanted to capitalize on this unexpected demand for iron ore. It has signed MoUs with international steel makers and national-level steel makers. 

(b) The government was thinking that due to this necessary capital investment would also be made in the state and employment opportunities would also come up in large numbers. 

Q.7 Why did the tribals oppose the establishment of the iron and steel industry in Odisha?

Ans. Most of the iron ore deposits are in the most underdeveloped areas of Orissa—especially in the tribal-dominated districts of the state. Tribals fear that they will be displaced from their homes and lose their livelihoods if the industry is set up. 

Short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q.1. What do you understand by the politics of planned economic development? 

Ans. After the independence of the country, there was a need for a certain technical method to deal with various socio-economic problems and to make proper use of the available resources, on which the process of consideration and decision-making started at different levels. This is called the politics of planned economic development. Supporters of different viewpoints and ideologies were trying in their own ways that India’s problems could be solved through their ideology. 

When the program of development started, many types of controversies arose at different levels. Disputes arose between the planners and the local people. Thus the process of development got politicized. 

Q2. Explain the constitution and functions of the Planning Commission.

Ans. The first Prime Minister of the country Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to do India in a scientific way. He was greatly influenced by the planning process of the Soviet Union. So he started the process of planning in India. Wanted to develop in 1950 to conduct the process of planning. 

Rozna Commission was constituted to solve the socio-economic problems of India in a systematic manner. The Planning Commission has a Deputy Chairman. Whose appointment is made by the husband? Apart from this, there are many official and non-official members of the Planning Commission. Some ministers are its ex-officio members. The Prime Minister of India is the day chairman of the Planning Commission. The nature of the Planning Commission is that of an advisory body. Work of Planning Commission- 

  • (i) Preparation of five-year plans. 
  • (ii) Reviewing sources. 
  • (iii) To achieve the goals of the plans. 
  • (iv) To receive and evaluate the progress in between the plans. 
  • (v) To remove obstacles in the process of planning. 
  • (vi) Providing advice of various kinds.

Q3. Explain the main features of a mixed economy. 

Ans. After independence in India, competition and debate were going on for the economic development of India on the basis of two types of ideologies. People of socialist thought wanted more activities in the public sector while liberal thinkers were in favor of the expansion of capitalism. To end this controversy, a mixed economy was adopted.

The following are the characteristics of a mixed economy:

  • (i) There was an arrangement to run economic activities in both the sectors i.e. private sector as well as the public sector.
  • (ii) The private sector also works under the rules of the policies of the government. 
  • (iii) Opportunities to develop both sectors. 
  • (iv) The ultimate responsibility of the state is for social and economic development.

Q.4. What was the main area of ​​the first five-year plan? 

Ans. The period of the first five-year plan was from 1951 to 1956. At this time the economic condition of the country was not good. There was an acute shortage in the food sector. Agriculture was considered to be the mainstay of the country’s economy. Most of the country was in villages, which depended on agriculture, so the development of agriculture got priority in the first five-year plan. 

Shri K.K. N. Raj was one. He believed that the pace of economic development should be kept slow in the initial decades because the rapid pace of economic development would be harmful. In this plan, investment was made in the field of dam construction and irrigation. Agriculture had to bear the maximum brunt of the partition in India. 

Huge funds were earmarked for mega projects like Bhakra Nangal. The aim of all these was to increase the production in agriculture by increasing the means of irrigation because till now there was a big difference between the production of food grains and the growth of the population. Agriculture completely depends on nature. Therefore, in this situation, it was necessary and appropriate to give priority to agricultural development in the first five-year plan. In this plan, programs like land reform were started and maximum land was made ready for agriculture.

Q5. What was the main priority area of ​​the second five-year plan? 

Ans. The time period of the second five-year plan was from 1956-1961. Its producer was Shri. The primary area of ​​this plan was industrial development as in the first plan but the second five-year plan was aimed at fearing structural changes at a rapid pace. 

Although agricultural development was considered necessary for the supply of food in the first five-year plan, industrial development was considered necessary to remove poverty and unemployment in the second five-year plan, so it was given priority. Employment was considered necessary to raise the standard of living of the people. This group given on industrialization gave a new dimension to the development of the Indian economy.

Class 12 Political Science Notes
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Q.6 What were the major problems that came to the fore in the industrialization done on the basis of the second five-year plan? 

Ans. In the second five-year plan, industrial development was emphasized with the aim of removing major problems like poverty and unemployment, while in the first plan, agricultural development was given priority. In the initial stages of the process of industrialization, many problems were faced. Because India was backward in terms of technology. Therefore, we had to spend our valuable foreign exchange to buy technology from the world market. Besides, industries attracted more investment than agriculture. Because agriculture could not get proper priority in this plan. 

Hence the food crisis increased. The planners in India found great difficulty in striking a balance between industry and agriculture. Apart from this, there was a difference of opinion among the planners and other experts regarding the policy of industrialization. Some people were in favor of industries related to agriculture and others were in favor of the establishment of heavy industries for development in India. 

Apart from this, the opposition of the local people was also faced in implementing the policy of industrialization. Many social organizations and people associated with environmental protection campaigns also opposed heavy industrialization.

Q.7. Explain the main features of socialist system building in India. 

Ans. In the 1950s, socialist ideology had its impact in India as well as in the whole world. The solution to the major social and economic problems of India was seen through socialist thinking. Therefore, the leadership of India decided to build India on the basis of a socialist system, on the basis of which the governments were instructed to make socio-economic policies on the basis of socialist principles. Its main features are:

  • (i) Collective leadership over the means of production and distribution. (ii) To eliminate inequalities and injustice. 
  • (iii) To achieve social and economic justice. 
  • (iv) Main role of the state.

Long answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q.1. Explain the politics of planned development in India.

Ans. India is a welfare state. For the welfare of the people, the proper combination of resources and achieving the goal of economic development was very necessary. For this, the process of planning was started in India. The Planning Commission was formed in 1950 and the first five-year plan was prepared in 1951. 

Work was given priority in the first five-year plan because agriculture is the main capital of India and most of the population of India depends on agriculture. Therefore, rural development was considered necessary for the social and economic development of Indian society.

The process of planning, which started under the able guidance of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, could not escape from the circle of politicization and controversies. The major controversies that came up in this regard were as follows-

1. Ideological Controversy – The foremost controversy arose in relation to the ideology to be adopted in relation to planning. The socialist thinkers wanted that economic activities should be given in the public sector, in whose operation the state should have a maximum role, there should be more and more countries in the public sector, but on the other hand, the liberal thinkers insisted that individual freedom Maximum role and importance should be given to the development of the private sector in order to develop it.

2. Agriculture Vs Industry Its main controversy in the field of economic planning was related to Agriculture Vs. In the second five-year plan, when priority was given to the development of industries, Gandhian leaders and thinkers protested that industrial development at the cost of agricultural development would be harmful to rural areas because most of the people of the country depend on agriculture. Hence heavy industry is not in the interest of the country.

3. Public Sector Vs Private Sector- Agreement was reached on adopting a mixed economy in India but it created competition in both sectors which led to a controversy. the rural area

4. It was in the context of the politics of rural versus urban area planning that the feelings of urban areas were born. 

Q2. What do you understand by the mixed economy? Throw light on the success and failure of the public sector. 

Ans. An economy where economic activities take place in both the private sector and the public sector is called a mixed economy. After a long debate in India, it was decided that both the private sector and the public sector should be allowed to play their respective roles in the social and economic development of India. Hence India is a mixed economy. public | The area works on socialist thought. 

While the private sector works on liberal thinking. Most of the important economic activities in India are in the public sector. In the first few decades, there was a lot of enthusiasm in the public sector, but after that there was not much benefit from the activities in the public sector. 

In the first decades, the public sector gave some results in steel production, seed production, oil production, fertilizer production, and production of medicines and cement production. But after this, many types of defects were created in the public sector, which not only had a negative effect on its result, but the private sector also got an opportunity to develop. As a result of all this, the effects of privatization, liberalization, and globalization after 1990

The importance of the public sector declined considerably. Disadvantages of the public sector 

  • (i) Inaction. 
  • (ii) Red tape 
  • (iii) Amaad of the undertaking. 
  • (iv) Corruption. 
  • (v) Decline in yield 
  • (vi) Government environment. 
  • (vii) Lack of responsibility and accountability.

Q.3. Write an article on the expansion of state territory and the rise of new economic interests. 

Ans. Introduction After many years of subjugation, independent India decided to adopt planning. Under this, it was necessary to emphasize the expansion of the state public sector, because at that time the reins of the country were practical with a leader influenced by socialist ideology like Jawaharlal Nehru. To generate employment, the state sector in India was developed and the country’s New economic interests were born An attempt was made to abandon all those wrong economic policies which the imperialists had written for the benefit of their mother country (Britain).

Means to increase employment – ​​The first plan came into force on April 1, 1951. Although agriculture was given maximum emphasis in this plan, the government gave more priority to such programs which could provide maximum employment to the people of the country, because the poverty of the country could be overcome only by getting employment. The economists and politicians of the country used to believe that we cannot think of increasing employment opportunities apart from the programs made by the schemes with fixed costs. The second five-year plan explains. 

Expansion of Public Industry — Necessary steps were taken to set up heavy industries in the country and to start programs for the development of nuclear energy along with the exploration of oil and coal. The main responsibility of running all these programs was on the central government of the country. The program received more attention in the Second Plan than in the First Plan. Large iron and steel industries were started in the public sector with the help of many countries.

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FAQs

Q.8. In the 1940s and 1950s there was a worldwide shift in favor of planning from right to?

Ans. The idea of ​​planning to rebuild the economy gained popular support throughout the world in the 1940s and 1950s. Europe had fallen victim to the ‘Great Depression’, Japan and Germany had rebuilt their economies after suffering the ravages of war, and the Soviet Union had made great economic progress in the 1930s and 1940s despite great difficulties. Because of all these things, she was in favor of planning all over the world. 

Q.10. JC Write a short note on Kumarappa.

Ans. J. C Kumarappa was born in 1892. His real name is J.C. Who has He also studied Economics and Chartered Accountants in America. He was a follower of the Mahatma. After independence, he tried to implement Gandhian economic policies. His work Ikanongi of Permanence got great fame. He got famous as a Planning Commission member.

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