Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System

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Are you looking for the Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 14 important question answers? Because this chapter of political science is very important for the exam, questions have been asked from this chapter in many previous exams.

So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.

I myself have been a topper of class 12th and I know what type of questions are asked in class 12th exam. At present, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written the question-answer article here with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to get very good marks in Political Science from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System

Class12th 
Chapter No14
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameChallenges to and Restoration of Congress System
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPolitical Science
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System

The Indian National Congress is the oldest political party in India. In fact, the Indian National Congress was an instrument of a movement that was formed in 1885 under the policy of the British. A.O. Hume was the founder of the Indian National Congress. It played an important role during the national movement, in fact, the history of the national movement is the history of the Indian National Congress itself. The national movement was started under his leadership.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 14
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After independence, the Indian National Congress got the legacy of the national movement. This was the party that got the credit for liberating the country. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of the country because he was the only person who had the support of all. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was a man of remarkable personality. 

The Constitution of India was implemented on January 26, 1950, in which the form of government was decided and the goal, values ​​, and philosophy of the constitution were disclosed in the preamble itself. A parliamentary system was adopted in India, in which the Parliament is directly elected after a certain period and on the basis of the majority, a government is formed from one party or groups of parties, whose leader is made the Prime Minister. The first general elections were held in India in 1952, in which Congress got huge success. Similar success was achieved by Congress in the second and third general elections of 1957 and 1962 as well. 

The governments of the Congress party were working in the center and almost all the states, the reason behind this success was the legacy of the national movement given to the Congress and the wonderful leadership of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Apart from this, other opposition parties also could not emerge in a very strong position by this time. 

Whatever non-Congress votes were there, they were divided among the many opposing parties, so that Congress consistently got the maximum number of seats. In this way, from the first election of 1952 till the third general election of 1962, Congress’s election remained equal dominance over politics. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru died in 1964. A kind of leadership vacuum was created. Many types of uncertainties and doubts were expressed. The question was that after Nehru.

Very short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q.1. What was the election symbol of Congress in the beginning? After how many years passed, a wide rift started appearing in this ten? What is the election of this party nowadays? 

  • Ans. (i) Initially the election symbol of Congress was a pair of two bulls. 
  • (ii) By the time 22 years of independence had passed, there was a wide split in Congress. 
  • (iii) Nowadays hand is the election symbol of this party.

Q. 2. Why was the Congress system challenged for the first time in the 1960s? 

Ans. The Congress system was challenged for the first time in the 1960s. The political competition had become intense and in such a situation Congress was finding it difficult to maintain its dominance. The opposition was now less divided and far more powerful than before. The Congress had to face the challenge of this opposition. Congress also had to face internal challenges because now this party was not able to keep the diversity within itself together. 

Q.3. Give a brief introduction to the life of Lal Bahadur Shastri.

Ans. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri was born in 1904. He participated in the freedom movement from 1930 and was a minister in the Uttar Pradesh cabinet. He took over as the General Secretary of the Congress Party. He served as a minister in the Union Cabinet from 1951-56, during which he resigned from the post of Railway Minister, taking moral responsibility for the train accident. He also held the post of minister between 1957-64. He gave the famous slogan of Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan. 

Q. 4. Mention very briefly some aspects of Smt. Indira Gandhi’s biography, famous slogans, and achievements. 

Ans. Brief introduction, aspects, and achievements of Indira Gandhi – Indira Priyadarshini was born in 1917 in the family of Jawaharlal Nehru. She became the first woman Prime Minister of India after Shastri’s death. She was the Prime Minister of India from 1966 to 1977 and again from 1980 to 1984. Participation in the freedom movement as a Youth Congress worker, Congress President in 1958, held the post of Union Minister in the Shastri cabinet in 1964-66. 

Made the Congress party victorious in the general elections of 1967, 1971, and 1980 under his leadership. He gave the catchy slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’, and credited the victory in the 1971 war with the abolition of privy purses, nationalization of banks, nuclear testing, and environmental protection. You were murdered on October 31, 1984.

Q.5. Write a very short note on a defection. 

Ans. The attention-grabbing evil in Indian politics is defection. One of the special features of the 1967 general elections was defection. Due to this feature, important incidents of formation and deterioration of governments were visible in many states.

When a public representative contests an election by taking the election symbol of a particular political party and wins the election and leaves the original party and joins another party for his selfishness or for any other reason. This is called defection.

MLAs who left Congress after the 1967 general elections were instrumental in forming non-Congress governments in the three states of Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. Due to this change of party, an idiom or proverb – “Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram” became very famous in the country.

Q.6.S. Who was Nijalingappa? Give a brief introduction. 

Ans. S. Nijalingappa was born in 1902. He was a tall and great leader of Congress. He had the good fortune of the Constituent Assembly constituted for the making of the new constitution of the country. He was a member of the Lok Sabha. He was also the Chief Minister of Mysore (Karnataka). He got famous as modern Karnataka. He remained the President of the Congress Party from 1968 to 1971. He died in the year 2000 AD. 

Q.7 . Give a brief biography of Karpoori Thakur. 

Ans. Karpoori Thakur was born in 1924. He became the Chief Minister of the state of Bihar several times. He held this position from December 1970 and June 1971 and June 1979 and April 1979. Karpoori Thakur was a great freedom fighter as well as a famous socialist leader. He played an active role in the labor and peasant movement. He has a village in 1975.

Q.8 Give a brief introduction of Ram Manohar Lohia. 

Ans. Ram Manohar Lohia was born in 1910. He was a socialist leader and a freedom fighter and a member of the Congress Socialist Party. They are split in the parent party. Later became the leader of the Socialist Party and later of the United Socialist Party. Lok Sabha MP from 1963 to 1967. He became the founding editor of Man Kind and Jan. 

He was instrumental in the development of non-European socialist theory. He happened to be on the horizon of Indian politics. Emerged as a coordinator and strategist of non-Congressist ideology. Throughout his life, he advocated reservations for Dalits and backward classes. He initially opened the march against Nehru. From the point of view of language, he was strongly opposed to English. He died in 1967

Q. 9. Give a brief introduction of C. Natarajan Annadurai. 

Ans. C. Natarajan was born in 1909. He was the Chief Minister of Madras (Tamil Nadu) since 1967. He was a renowned journalist, writer, and influential speaker. He was associated with the Justice Party in Madras State. In 1934 he joined the Dravida Kazhagam. In 1949, he formed the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) as a political party. Annadurai was a supporter of Dravidian culture. He opposed Hindi (language) and provided leadership to the anti-Hindi movement in Tamil Nadu. C. Natarajan was a staunch supporter of greater autonomy of the states.

Q. 10. Give a brief introduction of Shri V.V. Giri.

Ans. Mister. VV Giri was born in 1894. Along with being a Congress leader, gained fame as a labor leader in Andhra Pradesh. Along with being the Labor Minister in the Union Cabinet, he held the posts of Governors of the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, and Mysore (Karnataka) as well as the Vice President of India from 1969 to 1974 and acting President after his death of Zakir Hussain. are. In 1969, as an independent (independent) candidate, he joined Congress Party’s N. and Created a new history by defeating Sanjeev Reddy, who was the official candidate. He passed away in the year 1980.

Short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q.1. Write a note on Non-Congressism.

Or, Explain the meaning and effect of non-Congressism.

Ans. Non-Congress 

(1) Since independence, some leaders have tried to create a political atmosphere of anti-Congress or rather non-Congressism in the country. In fact, India was a vast country with diversity, which is still the case today. The political environment in the country and the situation related to other areas could not stay away from the party politics of the country. 

(ii) Political parties which were different from each other on the basis of their programs or ideologies, all those parties united and they formed an anti-Congress front in some states and made electoral adjustments in terms of seats in other states. 

(iii) Socialist leader Ram Manohar Lohia rejected this strategy of ‘non-Congressism’. Giving a theoretical argument in favor of ‘Non-Congressism’, he said that the Congress rule is undemocratic and against the interests of the poor people. 

Q.2. Write a short note on the abolition of privy purses. 

Ans: End of Privi Purse—

(i) Background and Meaning – When the British left India and the country became independent, there were about 565 princely states or princely states. Before the merger of the princely states with the Indian Union, the government had assured that the then-ruling family of the princely states would have the right to keep a certain amount of private property. Along with this, some special allowances will also be given to them by the government. 

(ii) Criticism At the time of the merger of princely states, there was not much criticism of this special facility given to the kings and emperors. At that time the goal of unity and integrity of the country was the main one. 

(iii) 1967 General Elections and Privy Purses — After the 1967 elections, Indira Gandhi supported the demand for the abolition of ‘Privy Purses’. 

(iv) Approach of Indira Government and Supreme Court and end of PrivyPrivacy- To end the system of PrivyPurse, the government promulgated amendments to the constitution in 1970, but it could not get approval in the Rajya Sabha. 

Q.3. Explain the importance of the mid-term elections of 1971

Ans. The main contest in the mid-term elections of 1971 was between the Congress-Communist alliance and the grand alliance of non-Congress parties. The Grand Alliance consisted of several opposing parties. Mainly SSP, Bhartiya Jansangh, Swatantra Party, and Bharatiya Kranti Dal, the old Congress did not have much influence in these. The main issue in this election was the economic crisis and inflation. It was on this issue that the non-Congress parties wanted to remove the government. His main slogan was ‘Indira Hatao’ and Mrs. Indira Gandhi’s slogan was ‘Garibi Hatao’.

The results of the 1971 elections took everyone by surprise. Indira Congress was considered to be in the most vulnerable position, as all the opposition parties had formed a strong giant organization. But Indira Congress got maximum success in this election. It got 375 seats in the Lok Sabha and got 48.4% votes. This also proved that Indira Congress is the real Congress.

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Q4. What do you understand by the re-establishment of Congress? 

Ans. The history of Congress clearly states that from the first election of 1952 till 1962, Congress dominated the entire country. There were Congress governments at the center and in almost all the states. The charismatic leadership of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru maintained this dominance. But after Nehru, when the fourth election was held in 1967, the dominance of Congress declined. Congress could not form government in 9 states of the country. 

The vote percentage also decreased. The position of Congress continued to decline. In 1966, a power struggle started between Smt. Indira Gandhi and the big leaders of the syndicate came to the fore in the presidential election held in 1969 and the Congress formally split in 1969 itself. Thus there was a period of decline in Congress from 1967 to 1969. 

But in the mid-term elections held in 1971, Indira Congress again gave new life to Congress. Despite all the opposition parties contesting the elections by forming a huge coalition against the Congress, the Congress won 375 seats in the Lok Sabha by securing 48.4% of the vote. This also proved that Indira Congress is the real Congress. This is called the restoration of the Congress system.

Long answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q1. Write an article on General Election 1967. 

Ans. (i) Introduction – The year 1967 is considered to be a very important milestone in the political and electoral history of India. From the first election of 1952 till 1966, the political dominance of the Congress party remained in most of the states and centers of the country. But in 1967 There was a profound change in this trend in the general elections.

(ii) Economic problems and challenges before the 1967 general elections and before the country- By the time of the fourth general elections, major changes had taken place in the country. Two Prime Ministers died in quick succession and the new Prime Minister had not even completed a full year of assuming office. Also, this Prime Minister was considered to be less experienced in terms of politics.

(iii) Economic crisis/problems and situation before the elections- It has been seen for many years before the elections of 1967 that the country was in a serious economic crisis during this period. There was a failure of the monsoon, widespread drought, a decline in agricultural production, a severe food crisis, a loss of foreign exchange, a decline in industrial production and exports, as well as a massive increase in military expenditure. 

(iv) Devaluation of Rupee – One of the early decisions of Indira Gandhi’s government was – Rupee. It is believed that the rupee was devalued under the pressure of America. In earlier times, the price of 1 US dollar was 5 rupees, so now it has increased to 7 rupees.

(v) Public Anger — There were frequent ‘bandhs’ and ‘hartals’ in the country. The government regarded it as a law and order problem and not an expression of the plight of the people. This increased the displeasure of the people and the public protest took a more fierce form.

(vi) Waging a comprehensive struggle by the left-communist and socialist parties launched a struggle for comprehensive equality. A group of communists who broke away from the Marxist Communist Party formed the Marxist–Leninist Communist Party of India and led an armed peasant uprising. 

(vii) Mandate of Election In this atmosphere of widespread public discontent and polarization of political parties, the Fourth General Elections to the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies were held in the month of February 1967. The Congress was facing voters without Nehru for the first time.

(viii) The results of the election dealt a severe blow to Congress at the national and provincial levels. Many political observers of the time termed the election result as a ‘political earthquake’. 

(ix) Ministers in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet had lost the election; Kama from Maharashtra; Of. Patil, Atulya Ghosh from West Bengal, and K.K. B. Political stalwarts like Sahay had to face the consequences. 

(x) Congress did not get a majority in seven states. This party could not form the government due to defections in two other states. The nine states in which Congress lost power were not stable states in any part of the country.

(xi) In Madras Province (now called Tamil Nadu), a regional party, the Dravida Mukhya Kazhagam, managed to come to power with an absolute majority. The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) came to power by leading an anti-Hindi agitation. 

Q2. Write a short note on the events and results of the 1969 presidential election in Indian history.

Ans. (i) Clash between two groups of Congress party The factionalism between the Syndicate and Indira Gandhi came to the fore in 1969 at the time of the presidential election. Due to the death of then President Zakir Hussain, the post of President of that year was vacant. Despite Indira Gandhi’s disapproval, the Syndicate that year appointed the then Lok Sabha Speaker N.K. Succeeded in getting Sanjiva Reddy fielded as the presidential candidate from the Congress party. 

(ii) Resignation by Morarji Desai — Some big and popular policies like the nationalization of fourteen leading banks and the abolition of the ‘Privy Purse’, the privilege enjoyed by former kings and emperors, were also announced. At that time Morarji Desai was the Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister of the country. Deep differences emerged between him and the Prime Minister on both the above issues and as a result Morarji parted ways with the government.

(iii) Whip Issued by the Congress President – In the past also such differences had arisen within the Congress, but this time the matter was different. Both factions wanted that strength should be tried in the presidential election. The then Congress President S. Nijalingappa issued a ‘whip’ that all Congress MPs and MLAs should vote for Sanjeeva Reddy, the official candidate of the party.

(iv) To stress on listening to the voice of conscience and casting a vote according to it — Indira Gandhi’s supporter group requested to hold a special meeting of the All India Congress Committee But his request was not accepted. wife. Secretly supporting Giri, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi openly asked to vote on the voice of conscience. This meant that Congress MPs and MLAs could vote for any candidate of their choice, they were independent candidates, while N. Sanjiva Reddy was the official candidate of the Congress party.

(v) Defeat of the official candidate of the Congress—The defeat of the official candidate of the Congress party led to the breakup of the party; the Congress President expelled the Prime Minister from his party. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, who was expelled from the party, said that her party was the real Congress. By November 1969, the Congress camp led by Tidiket was known as Congress (Organization), and the Congress camp led by Indira Gandhi as Congress (Requiginist). 

Chapter NoChapter SolutionMcq
1Cold war era in world politicsClick here
2The End of BipolarityClick here
3US Hegemony in World PoliticsClick here
4Alternative Centres of PowerClick here
5Contemporary South AsiaClick here
6International OrganisationsClick here
7Security in the Contemporary WorldClick here
8Environment and Natural ResourcesClick here
9GlobalizationClick here
10Challenges of Nation BuildingClick here
11The era of One-Party DominanceClick here
12Politics of Planned DevelopmentClick here
13India’s External RelationsClick here
14Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress SystemClick here
15The Crisis of Democratic OrderClick here
16Rise of Popular MovementsClick here
17Regional AspirationsClick here
18Recent Developments in Indian PoliticsClick here

FAQs

Q.1. What do you know about Privepers?

Ans. Among the many bold steps taken by Mrs. Indira Gandhi, one was the bold step in abolishing the privy purses. Whose objective was to build a society on socialist ideology. Privipers were the system under which former kings and emperors were given the right to keep some private property and at the same time, they would be given some special allowances from the government.

Q. 2. Give the reasons for the success of Congress in the elections of 1971.

Ans. Congress had a very weak position before the 1971 elections. The Congress faction was the victim. Congress’s dependence was on other parties. In the election of 1971, in the name of non-Congressism, the opposition parties formed a big alliance, but still, Congress got an unexpected victory. The following were the main reasons for this-
(i) Charismatic personality of Indira Gandhi.
(ii) Farmers, poor, and laborers supported by Indira Gandhi
(iii) Slogan of removing poverty. 
(iv) The victory of the new Congress in the presidential election

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