Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations

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This chapter is very important {Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 17) Many questions have been asked from this chapter in the examination and this chapter is very important for the students because from this chapter we understand the politics of the world.

So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.

I myself have been a topper of class 12th and I know what type of questions are asked in class 12th exam. At present, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written the question-answer article here with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to get very good marks in Political Science from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations

Class12th 
Chapter No17
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameRegional Aspirations
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPolitical Science
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Regional Aspirations

India is a plural society in which people of different castes, religions, cultures, languages, dialects, and geographies live. India is a union of different regions and states. There is unity in diversity in India. In the battle of the national movement, people from all the states and regions played their respective roles. 

Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations
Regional Aspirations

The country became independent on August 15, 1947. The culture of nationalism and the leadership of the national movement remained in effect for a few decades after independence, but later gradual demands for the development of their own interests started rising from different regions and states. In this context, the demand for an explanation of the relations between the center and the provinces also started to arise.

After 1980, this demand started rising more strongly and aggressive movements also started in the states which were demanding autonomy for their states. Thus began the period of struggle between the center and the provinces and simultaneously the process of dialogue and dialogue also started. Several steps were taken to speed up the development of various sectors. There was a period of compromises between the center and the provinces.

India has adopted a democratic approach to the question of diversity. The political expression of regional aspirations is allowed in a democracy and regionalism is acceptable in the sense of regional development in harmony with national interests. 

Very short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q. 1. Which decade of the twentieth century can be termed as the decade of demand for autonomy? What were its main political effects visible? Mention only.

Ans. The 1980s can also be seen as the decade of demand for autonomy. The demand for autonomy of many parts of the country arose during this period and it crossed the constitutional limits or the people involved in these movements took up arms in favor of their demand, the government retaliated to suppress them and in this sequence, the political and electoral process was Blocked. 

Q. 2. Write a short note on the topic ‘Regionalism and National Government’.

Ans. (1) Regionalism created concern for the nation. The national government had to take up arms several times and try to crush them.

(2) It cannot be said with certainty that most of the conflicts regarding the demand for autonomy continued for a long time and to put an end to these conflicts, the central government had to take the path of reconciliation or lead the movement for autonomy. Agreements had to be made with the taxing groups.

(3) After a long process of negotiation between the pro-regionalism groups/leaders etc. and the government of the country, an agreement can be reached between the two sides. The goal of the talks was kept that the issues of dispute should be settled within the ambit of the constitution. However, the journey to reach an agreement was a difficult one, and at times there were voices of violence.

Q.3 . Give a brief introduction of Sant Harchand Singh Longewal.

Ans. Sant Harchand Singh Longewal was born in 1932. Along with being an Akali, he was a religious and political leader of the Sikhs. As his political leader, the early Akali leader K.K. As it happened in the sixth decade of the 20th century. In 1980, he became the President of the Akali Dal. 

He entered into an agreement with Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi regarding the major demands of the Akalis, which became famous in history as the Rajiv Longewal Agreement. He was an opponent of the separatist violent movement in Punjab. That’s why he was murdered by a radical unknown Sikh youth and thus he went to heaven in 1985.

Q.4. Who was Angadi Japu Fiji? Briefly introduce. 

Ans. Angami Japu Phizo was born in 1904. He became famous as the leader of the Nagaland independence movement in Northeast India. He became the President of the Naga National Council. He waged an armed struggle for many years against the Government of India to make Nagaland a separate country from India. They went underground. He took refuge in Pakistan and spent the last three years of his life in Britain. He passed away in 1990. Even today the Naga problem is before the country.

Q.5. Give a brief introduction of Kazi Doodh Dorji Khangsarpa.

Ans. Kaji Laidup Dorji Khangsarpa was born in 1904. He became famous in the history of Sikkim as the movement for the establishment of democracy. He was the founder of Sikkim Prajamandal and Sikkim State Congress. In 1962, he founded the Sikkim National Congress. General elections were held in Sikkim. Kazi Lamp won the election. After this victory, he strongly supported the merger of Sikkim in India.

Class 12 Political Science Notes
class 12th NotesMCQ
HistoryPolitical Science
EnglishHindi

Q. 6. Give a brief introduction to Rajiv Gandhi.

Ans. Rajiv Gandhi was the child of Feroze Gandhi and Indira Gandhi. He was born in 1944. After 1980, he joined the active politics of the country. After the assassination of his mother Indira Gandhi, he became the Prime Minister of the country in 1984 with a huge majority in an atmosphere of nationwide sympathy and remained in the post between 1989 and 1989. He tied up with Longewal, a supporter of moderate policies against terrorism in Punjab. He was successful in negotiating with Mizo rebels and student unions in Assam.

Q.7. What was the impact of the Anandpur Sahib resolution on the Sikhs and the country? 

Ans. The Anandpur Sahib Resolution had little impact on the Sikh community. A few years later, when the Akali Dal government was dismissed in 1980, the Akali Dal started a movement on the issue of water sharing between Punjab and neighboring states. A slew of religious leaders raised the issue of an autonomous Sikh identity. Some extremist sections advocated separating from India and forming ‘Khalistan’.

Q.8. What were the main causes of the Assam Movement?

Ans. The following were the main reasons for the Assam movement-

  • (i) dominance of the Assamese language over people of other languages
  • (ii) Domination of the people of Bihar and Bangladesh on the economy of Assam 
  • (iii) Biased attitude of Assam by the Central Governments 
  • (iv) Economic backwardness of Assam

Short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q1. Describe “Operation Vijay” and state its importance. 

Ans: When the Portuguese prayed the Indians in any way, they did not agree to leave the mutual talks and they started attacking the nationalists and patriots in misunderstanding. When hundreds of people were targeted by the Portuguese police, India took a military action called ‘Operation Vijay’ for the independence of Goa so that along with Goa, Goa, and Daman Diu could be freed from the tyrannical rule. 

Operation Vijay was launched on 17–18 December 1961. The commander of this operation, General J.J. N. Chowdhary was On December 19, 1961, at 2:25 in the afternoon, the operation named Operation Vijay ended. This action was the action to complete Indian independence. India’s tricolor was hoisted in Goa, Daman, Diu Haveli, etc. Undoubtedly, the independence of Goa raised the self-esteem of Indians and beautified them. These became part of India. The unauthorized presence and supremacy of foreigners from the land of India came to an end completely.

Q. 2. Briefly describe the liberation of Goa from Portugal. Or, how did Goa merge with India?

Ans. The merger of Goa in India did not happen easily. The reason for this was the stubborn attitude of the Portuguese to the French. He considered it a mark of his respect and wanted to keep it under his control. His point of view was in stark contrast to the Indian point of view, which considered the Portuguese invasion of India and its forcible occupation as a blot on the honor of their country. 

The Indian government tried its best to persuade the Portuguese to leave Goa, to receive Goa, it opened its office in Lisbon, the capital of Portugal so that the government here could be persuaded to leave Goa, but finally, this office was closed in 1953. It was done because all the diplomatic efforts of India failed.

Q3. Write a note on the topic “Accession of Sikkim in India”.

Ans. Annexation of Sikkim in India— 

1. Background means that then Sikkim was not a part of India but it was not a completely sovereign nation either. The Government of India was responsible for the defense and foreign affairs of Sikkim, while the internal administration of Sikkim was in the hands of Raja Chovyal. This arrangement did not prove to be effective as the Sikkimese king could not handle the democratic aspirations of the local people.

2. Democracy in Sikkim and the effort of the victorious party to connect Sikkim with India was a big part of Nepalis, this sentiment had gone home in the minds of the people of Nepalese origin. The rule of a small elite section of the Chovyal minority Lepcha-Bhutia is being imposed on them. 

The leaders of both the anti-Chowyal communities sought help from the Government of India and got the support of the Government of India. The first democratic elections to the Sikkim Legislative Assembly were held in 1974 and the Sikkim Congress won a landslide victory. This party was in favor of linking Sikkim with India.

3. Sikkim became India’s 22nd state (province) – the assembly first tried to become a ‘co-province’ of India and then passed a resolution in April 1975. In this proposal, the complete merger of Sikkim with India was talked about. Immediately after this proposal, there was talk of a complete merger of Sikkim. 

Soon after this proposal, the request of the Sikkim Legislative Assembly was accepted immediately and Sikkim became the 22nd state of India. The Chogyal did not accept the decision and his supporters accused the Indian government of plotting and using force. However, the integration of Sikkim into the Union of India had the support of the local population. For this reason, this matter could not become a divisive issue in the politics of Sikkim. 

Q. _ 4 How did Goa get full statehood in 1987? Write in brief. 

Ans. Goa, which gained independence from Portugal in December 1961 and joined the Union of India, soon another problem arose in the Union Territory of Goa, a section led by Maharashtrian Gomantak Patai demanded that Goa be merged with Maharashtra as it was a Marathi-speaking country. is the area. However, many Goans wanted to maintain the independent significance of the Goan identity and culture. 

He also had a strong urge for the Konkani language. The leadership of this section conducted a special opinion poll in United Goa. In this, the people of Goa were asked whether they want to join Maharashtra or want to remain separate. This was the only occasion in India when the government adopted a referendum-like process to know the will of the public on any issue. Most of the people voted in favor of remaining separate from Maharashtra. Thus Goa remained a Union Territory. Finally, in 1987, Goa became a state of the Union of India.

Q5. Discuss the major events related to the politics of Jammu and Kashmir between 1948 and 1986.

Ans. In Jammu and Kashmir, after 1948 and after holding the political post till 1952, Sheikh Abdullah started a big campaign for land reform. Along with this, he also implemented some policies for public welfare. The people here benefited from all this. However, Sheikh Abdullah’s views on the status of Kashmir did not match with the central government. This created a difference of opinion between the two.

Sheikh Abdullah was dismissed and elected in 1953 to Sheikh Abdullah. He was kept under house arrest for a year. The leaders who succeeded Sheikh Abdullah were not as popular as De Sheikh. He was not as popular as the state because of the support of the Centre. He could run the state government only on the basis of the support of the center. There were serious allegations of fraud and malpractices in the various elections held in the state.

Political events in Jammu and Kashmir from 1953 to 1977 

(a) Between 1953 and 1974, Congress dominated the politics of this state for most of the time. The splintered National Conference (without Sheikh Abdullah) briefly held power in the state with the support of the Congress, but later merged with the Congress. In this way, the power of the state came directly under the control of Congress. Meanwhile, efforts for reconciliation between Sheikh Abdullah and the Government of India continued. 

(b) Finally in 1974, Sheikh Abdullah signed an accord with Indira Gandhi and became the Chief Minister of the state. He revived the National Conference and was elected with a majority in the 1977 state assembly elections. In the first term of Jammu and Kashmir Farooq Abdullah – Sheikh Abdullah died in 1982 and the leadership of the National Conference became the Chief Minister. 

Long answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q. 1. Write an essay on the Dravidian Movement.

Ans. I. Dravidian Movement — One of the powerful regional movements, this movement was the first and most powerful expression of regionalist sentiments in the politics of the country. 

II. Changed nature of the movement – ​​First of all a part of the leadership of this movement had an aspiration to create an independent Dravidian nation, but the movement did not adopt the path of Armed Rebellion only then. At the beginning of this movement, a very popular slogan was given in Dravidian language, which is the Hindi version. 

III. Leadership and Methods – The leadership of the Dravidian movement was in the hands of the Tamil reformer E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker popularly known as Periyar. 

(a) The process of the Dravidian movement led to the formation of a political organization ‘Dravida Kazhagam’. This organization used to oppose the domination of Brahmins and insisted on the prestige of regional pride, denying the political, economic, and cultural dominance of North India. Emphasizing the prestige of regional pride while denying dominance.

(b) Later on, the Dravida Kazhagam split into two factions and the entire political legacy of the movement was concentrated in the fold of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. During 1953-54 D.M.K. entered politics with the three-point movement. The movement had three demands, first, the new name of the railway station named Kallamudabh should be changed to Dalmiyapuram and the original name of the station should be changed.

Q2. Briefly discuss the Punjab crisis and the 1984 anti-Sikh riots. 

Ans. 1. Punjab Crisis — 1. After the political or electoral defeat of 1980, the Sikhs under the leadership of the Akalis waged a struggle against the central government. The ups and downs of the internal factionalism of Congress added life to this struggle.

2. The main demands for which the movement was carried out at that time were-

  • (i) Punjabi-speaking areas of other states should be merged with Punjab, 
  • (ii) Chandigarh should be considered as the capital of Punjab, 
  • (iii) Bhakra Nangal scheme should be under the control of Punjab, (iv) Women industries should be established in Punjab, 
  • (v) All the Gurdwaras in the country should be under the management of the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee.

3. Sant Bhindranwala was of militant nature. He gathered a huge corps of Sikh youths around him and incited them to create a separate state for the Sikhs in the name of the fulfillment of the Anandpur Sahib resolution.

4. Anti-Sikh Riots – In December 1983, when the central government was under pressure to arrest Bindranwale, he and his numerous armed supporters attacked the ‘Most Holy Temple’ in the precincts of the Golden Temple. Entered the building ‘Akal Takht’. When this saint entered this safe place, then this place which till now was considered safe, there started a flood of ‘punishment’ and other types of ‘proceedings’ started in all places of Punjab.

5. Cause of Riots — (i) In the month of June 1984, the Government of India launched ‘Operation Blue Star’. It was the code name for the military operation on the Golden Temple. In this military operation, the government successfully killed the militants, but the military operation also damaged the historic Golden Temple. This deeply hurt the sentiments of the Sikhs. Most Sikhs in India and outside India considered the military campaign as an attack on their faith. These things gave more strength to the extremist and moderate groups.

(ii) Some more tragic events put the Punjab problem on a complicated course. On October 31, 1984, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated outside her residence by her own bodyguards. On one hand, the whole country was grief-stricken by this incident, on the other hand, violence broke out against the Sikh community in many parts of North India including Delhi. This violence continued for several weeks.

(iii) More than two thousand Sikhs were killed in Delhi. The country’s capital Delhi was the most affected by this violence. Hundreds of Sikhs were killed in many places in the country like Kanpur, Bokaro, and Chapas. In many Sikh families, no male was left. These families suffered deep emotional trauma and suffered financial loss. What pained the Sikhs the most was that the government took very late steps to normalize the situation. Also, the people who committed the violence were not punished effectively.

6. Two connected events (i) On coming to power after the 1984 elections, the new Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi started talks with moderate Akali leaders. An agreement was reached in July 1985 with Harcharan Singh Longowal, the then-president of the Akali Dal. This agreement is called the Rajiv Gandhi Peoples Agreement or the Punjab Agreement.

Q3. Explaining the root cause of the problem of Jammu and Kashmir, and suggesting the way to solve it.

Ans. Before independence, Jammu and Kashmir was princely state. On the basis of the Government of India Act 1947, Jammu and Kashmir were also given the freedom to remain an independent state or to merge with Pakistan or India. 

Raj Singh of Jammu and Kashmir wanted to remain independent, but due to the invasion of Jammu and Kashmir by Kavalis in 1948, Raja Singh accepted the merger in India in 1948 on the basis of certain conditions. 

But this merger was not accepted by Pakistan and a section of Jammu and Kashmir. On this basis, India’s relations with Pakistan are continuously deteriorating. There was a war between Pakistan and India in 1948 and 1965.

India gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir on the basis of Article 370 of the Constitution of India, on the basis of which Kashmir has its own separate constitution and any law made by the Indian Parliament in Jammu and Kashmir can be implemented only when those laws are implemented in Jammu and Kashmir. Pass the Legislative Assembly of Kashmir. 

After this merger, National Conference leader Mr. Sheikh Abdullah was made the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir and it was also decided that when the situation in Jammu and Kashmir would become normal. The opinion or approval of the people of Jammu and Kashmir will be obtained on this merger.

The problem did not end with this merger, the problem started after this merger. Pakistan not only rejected it but by continuously misleading the people of Jammu and Kashmir on this subject, gave rise to extremism and terrorism there.

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FAQs

Q1. What is the main reason for the problem in Jammu and Kashmir? 

Ans. The main problem of Jammu and Kashmir is the nature of its merger in India. According to the Government of India Act 1947, all the princely states had the right to merge themselves with India or they were also given the right to live independently in Pakistan. The then King Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir initially accepted the status of independence but later accepted the merger in India due to the invasion of Kavils. 

Q2. Why did the Akalis raise the demand for greater autonomy for Punjab? 

Ans. In Punjab, the Akali Dal mostly ran coalition governments. The leadership of the Akali Dal feels that despite the separation of Haryana from Punjab, the position of the Akali Dal has not been strengthened. 

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