Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 18 Recent Developments in Indian Politics

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This chapter is very important {Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 18) Many questions have been asked from this chapter in the examination and this chapter is very important for the students because from this chapter we understand the politics of the world.

So students, after reading this article, you will get a lot of marks from this chapter in the exam, because the questions related to all the exams have been described in it, so definitely read it completely.

I myself have been a topper of class 12th and I know what type of questions are asked in class 12th exam. At present, I am also playing the role of a teacher, and also make my students practice important information and topics of class 12th. I have written the question-answer article here with my experience of more than 5 years. With the help of this post, you will be able to get very good marks in Political Science from this chapter in the exam.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 18 Recent Developments in Indian Politics

Chapter No18
ProvidingVvi questions & answers
Chapter NameRecent Developments in Indian Politics
SubjectPolitical Science
Medium English / Political Science
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available

key points of the lesson | Recent Developments in Indian Politics

In the elections of 1984, Congress got huge success under the leadership of Shri Rajiv Gandhi. In this election, Congress got success in 415 Lok Sabha seats, which is a record, but the government with such a large majority had to face problems in the last years due to various allegations. 

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Getty images: Indira Gandhi,

Vishwanath Pratap Singh, who was the Finance Minister in Rajiv Gandhi’s government, resigned from the government and formed a separate party, which was later formed as Janata Dal. Congress got only 197 seats in the 1989 Lok Sabha elections. After this election, the National Front government was formed under the leadership of Vishwanath Pratap Singh.

Under certain circumstances, the Rashtriya Marcha implemented the order of 27% reservation for OBCs on the basis of the recommendations of the Mandal Commission, which created a conflict between the people of the upper classes and the backward classes in the country and created an atmosphere of violence all around. . The order to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission gave a new direction to Indian politics.

Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 18 Recent Developments in Indian Politics
Getty Images: Mahatma Gandhi and Indira Gandhi in 1924

Another issue that affected Indian politics during the National Front government was the construction of a Ram temple in place of the Babri Masjid. The debate on neutrality intensified.

In 1989, the era of the formation of coalition governments started in Indian politics. The National Front was also a coalition government that lasted only till 1991. Elections were held again in 1991, in which Congress succeeded in forming the government, but its dominance ended. 

Thus, after 1989, the decline of Congress started because the importance of regional parties started increasing in the provinces as well as in the center. In the 1996 elections also, a coalition government was formed in which regional parties played an important role. At the beginning of 1996, the government was formed under the leadership of Bharatiya Janata Party leader Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee, which fell only after 13 days. 

Later, with the support of Congress, the United Front government was first formed under the leadership of HD Deve Gowda and then under the leadership of Mr. Inder Kumar Gujral. Due to taking support from Congress, elections were held again in 1999 in which N.D.A. got the majority and the government was formed under the leadership of Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

Very short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q. 1. What is called the Congress system? explain

Ans. The Congress was born in December 1885 and was a coalition party in the early years. Various interests, social groups, and classes lived together in it. This phenomenon was called the ‘Congress System’.

Q. 2. Give some reasons for the decline of Congress in the 1960s. 

  • Ans. (i) The growing popularity of the country’s multi-party system and coalition politics. 
  • (ii) O. B. Due to C., the politics of Mandal and Kamandal was on the horizon of the country for some time. (iii) Emergence of regional parties in many provinces and regions and their association with major political parties leaving many class groups. 
  • (iv) Birth, rise, and development of the Bahujan Samaj Party.
  • (v) Succeeding in doing communal politics by some political parties. 
  • (vi) Politics of procrastination regarding the arrival of Bangladeshis in large numbers after 1971 and their return due to vote politics. 
  • (vii) The Sikh riots of 1984 and the entry of military forces into the Golden Temple in Amritsar or the Blue Star incident before that.

Q.3. What was the biggest feature of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA)? 

Ans. It was a coalition of about 13 political parties (or more) formed under the leadership of the largest opposition Bharatiya Janata Party, whose government was formed thrice under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Its total tenure was about 6 years. Vajpayee was the Prime Minister for the first time only for a few days, but to date all the non-Congress Prime Ministers who have become Prime Ministers, their tenure has been the longest overall.

Q. 4. Analyze one political problem of a coalition government. 

Ans. There is no uniformity of views in coalition politics. Time and again the parties leave the alliance and that is why often the alliances keep on breaking or changing. This reduces the faith of the people in the multi-party system. Often they become supporters of a two-party or three or sometimes even a one-party system. Coalition governments are temporary, less dynamic, and operate under the hanging sword of danger. 

Q.5. What do you understand by coalition politics?

  • Ans. (i) Politics in which, before or after the elections, mutual agreement is reached in the formation of the government or in any other matter (such as the presidential election) and according to the generally accepted minimum common program, the politics in the country (as an opposition party or ruling group) as) then such politics is called coalition politics.
  • (ii) After the elections of 1937, Congress formed a joint government in some provinces. 
  • (iii) United Front Governments by VP Singh and Chandrashekhar are examples of coalition politics.
  • (iv) Explain the politics of the National Democratic Alliance under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and the Progressive Alliance (UPA) formed under the leadership of Dr. Manmohan Singh. 

Q.6. Discuss an important feature of the United Front.

Ans. (i) The United Front government was first formed under the leadership of V.P. Singh and C.P.M. to keep Congress away from power. And the Bharatiya Janata Party kept supporting him. 

(ii) After some time the United Front government was formed under the leadership of Chandrashekhar. Devi Lal’s Lok Dal and Congress continued to support him. He continued to lead the United Government only for 7 months.

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Q.7. Explain the formation of the National Front.

Ans. In the 1989 elections, the Janata Dal was the result of the merger of the Lok Dal, Jan Morcha, Congress (S), and the Janata Party before the elections. The Janata Dal then joined forces with several other regional parties to form the National Front. Among these regional parties were Tamil Nadu’s D.M. Of. Party, TDP of Andhra Pradesh Etcetera. The National Front formed the government in 1989 under the leadership of Vishwanath Pratap Singh with outside support from the Left parties and the BJP.

Q. 8. What were the main issues in the 1989 election? 

Ans. In the elections of 1989, the press government was formed under the leadership of Rajiv Gandhi. Congress got 415 seats in this election. But gradually the credibility of the government kept on falling. Many types of scandals came to the fore. Finance Minister and Defense Minister Shri Vishwanath Pratap Singh, who was in Rajiv Gandhi’s government, not only resigned from his post in the context of kickback discussions in various defense deals but also resigned from the Congress and formed a new party, Jan Morcha. Later merged with other major opposition parties to form the Janata Dal. 

The results of the 1989 election gave a new direction to Indian politics. Corruption was the main issue in the 1989 elections, Mr. Vishwanath Prasap Singh, who was already a man with an honest image, emerged as Mr. Clean. Congress had to face defeat in this election.

Q. 9. Explain the increasing participation of backward classes in political power.

Ans. The backward class of India has traditionally been a supporter of the Congress party, but after the implementation of 27% reservation based on the recommendations of the Mandal Commission, the backward class became politically aware and the politics of reservation made other backward classes important in the elections… 

The Mandal Commission identified the socially and educationally backward classes and marked various castes as backward classes. There was competition among the backward classes. In this way, the participation of backward-class people in political power increased. Many parties came into existence to further their interests. In this process, leadership was developed among the backward classes. 

Q. 10. Explain the rise of the Bahujan Samaj Party in Indian politics.

Ans. In Indian politics, the Bahujan Samaj Party is playing an important role in many states, especially in Uttar Pradesh and the Center. Mr. Kanshi Ram has played an important role in the awakening movement of the Bahujan Samaj and in forming the Bahujan Samaj Party. The Bahujan Samaj Party broke away from the vote bank traditionally supporting the Congress, which mainly included Harijans, Muslims, and backward classes. Kumari Mayawati is providing leadership to Bahujan Samaj Party.

Short answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q. 1. Which civic issues strengthened the Bharatiya Janata Party since 1986? Or, what was the Shah Bano case? What anti-Congress stand did the Bharatiya Janata Party take on this?

Ans. (i) Two such things happened in 1986 which made the BJP as a Hinduist party important in terms of politics. 

(ii) The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Shah Bano. Conservative Muslims considered this decision of the court to be an interference in their ‘personal law’. 

(iii) This move of the government was opposed by many women’s organizations, a community of Muslim women, and most of the intellectuals. The BJP criticized the Congress government’s move, terming it an unnecessary concession to the minority community and ‘appeasement’. 

Q. 2. A far-reaching change in India was the emergence of anti-religious politics during the rule of Janata Dal. Explain.

Ans. (i) Janata Dal was formed in 1980. From then till 1986, a far-reaching change took place in the country. This change was due to the rise of politics based on religious identity. 

(ii) After the collapse and disintegration of the Janata Party, supporters of the erstwhile Jana Sangh formed the Bharatiya Party (BJP) in 1980. In the beginning, the BJP adopted a much larger political strategy than the Jana Sangh. 

(iii) After 1986, this party started emphasizing the elements of Hindu nationalism in its ideology. BJP chose the path of ‘Hindutva’ politics and adopted the strategy of mobilizing Hindus. 

Q.3. B. D. Who was Savarkar? In what words did he explain the importance of Hinduism?

Ans. Introduced. D. Savarkar was a great freedom fighter and revolutionary of India, who participated in the independence of the country by meeting revolutionaries from within and outside the country. In June 1909, Madan Lal Dhingra, a close friend and companion of his, killed the British officer (i.e. Sir William Curzon) in London, who was responsible for the killings of many innocent people in India. V

Hinduism and its interpretation – The term ‘Hindutva’ or ‘Hindupan’ was coined by V.D. Savarkar and while defining it, he described it as the foundation (foundation) of the Indian (and in his words Hindu) nation. He means to say that only one can be a citizen of the nation of India who accepts the land of India not only as a ‘fatherland’ but also as his ‘virtuous land’.

(Proponents of Hindutva argue that a strong nation can be built only on the basis of accepted national culture. They also believe that the basis of nationalism in the context of India is only Hindu culture (which is very liberal and whose digestive power is amazing) What can happen?

Q.4. Write a short note on the Ayodhya dispute topic. 

Ans. Ayodhya had historic buildings years old. It was probably built in the 16th century. Often Hindus, pundits, scholars, etc. kept claiming that it was an ancient Hindu temple, and possibly on the orders of Babur, the mosque was built here during his reign. Most Muslims and scholars claimed that it was a mosque during the time of the first Mughal Emperor Babur. Most Muslims used to call this mosque located in Ayodhya as Babri Masjid. It was built by the Gorkhakis (emirs and courtiers of Babur). In fact, Mirbaki was a soldier of the Mughal emperor Vavar.

Many Hindus still believe that Davar was not a very liberal ruler. He demolished the Ram temple built in the birthplace of Lord Ram (Ayodhya) and built a mosque at the same place. Whether the structure or building of Ayodhya is a temple or a mosque, this dispute between the people of both communities took the form of a court case. The lawsuits went on for several decades. Finally, in the 1940s, the Babri Masjid was locked on the orders of the court and the matter remained with the court.

A February 1986 verdict by the Faizabad District Court ruled that the compound of the Babri Masjid should be opened to allow Hindus to worship there as they consider the place sacred. 

As soon as the lock of the compound of Babri Masjid was opened, there was mobilization on both sides. Many Hindu and Muslim organizations started trying to mobilize their respective communities on this issue. The BJP has made this its biggest election and political issue. The BJP, along with some pro-Hindu organizations such as the Shiv Sena, Bajrang Dal, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, and Vishwa Hindu Parishad, conducted frequent symbolic and mobilization programs. 

Q5. What was the impact of the recommendations of the Mandal Commission on Indian politics? 

Ans. The Mandal Commission was constituted by the Janata Party government in 1979 to identify the backward-class people and to ensure reservations for them in educational institutions and government jobs. In which educational and social backwardness was considered as the basis. The Mandal Commission had given its report in 1980 itself. But it was implemented in 1989 by VP Singh’s government. 

Due to the implementation of this report, in which 27% of reservation was arranged, violent fights started throughout the whole country. After the implementation of this report, the politics of reservation started in India, which polarized society and politics. The backward classes became involved in the struggle for political power. Due to this both the politics of the provinces and the center were affected. Were? v.

Q.6. What are the main reasons for the decrease in the influence of Congress after the 1989 elections? 

Ans. In the 1989 elections, there was a decline in the influence of Congress, the main reasons for which were the following-

  • (i) Increasing corruption in Congress governments
  • (ii) Lack of charismatic leadership 
  • (iii) Increasing indiscipline in Congress
  • (iv) Rise of Vishwanath Pratap Singh as a charismatic leader 
  • (v) Leadership crisis in Congress in 1991
  • (vi) Development of regional parties
  • (vii) Uncertainty at the Center
  • (viii) Increasing role of regional parties in central politics
  • (ix) Misuse of the provisions of the Constitution by the Congress Governments at the Center
  • (x) Away from the traditional vote bank of Congress
  • (xi) Development of Dalit politics 
  • (xii) Development of OBC politics

Q.7 What do you understand by coalition politics? How was the National Front government formed? explain.

Ans. After elections, when any one political party does not get enough majority to form the government, then there is an agreement among many political parties in such a way that they form a coalition government on the basis of the consent of the minimum common program, such a government is called a coalition government. They say. In the 1989 elections, the National Front government was formed when Congress did not get a sufficient majority.

Which was a coalition government because the Janata Dal was the main party in it and some regional parties together formed the national front and formed the government with the external support of the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Left parties. In 1989, the practice of coalition governments started in India, which is still going on today. United Front government from 1996 to 1999, N. D.A. The coalition government of and now since 2004 U.P.A. The coalition government is running.

Q8. How did the Babri Masjid controversy affect Indian politics? 

Ans. Communalism has been a negative legacy of Indian politics which is actually a product of British rule. Communalism is affecting the Indian society and politics even today. Babri Masjid and Ram Mandir dispute divided Indian society and politics. Some political parties have politicized this dispute. Its frenzy increased in such a way that on November 6, 1992, fundamentalists destroyed the disputed structure, which led to a spate of communal clashes. The Godhra incident and communal riots in Gujarat in 2002 are the results of this spark. This dispute has divided society and increased hatred and tension among themselves, which has been used by political parties in their own interest.

Q.9. Explain the impact of coalition politics on the political system of India. 

Ans. After 1989, the era of coalition politics is continuing in the country. Coalition governments are not only running at the center but coalition governments are running in many states as well, such as coalition governments are running in West Bengal, Kerala, Maharashtra, Jammu Kashmir, and Punjab. The role of regional parties has been important in coalition governments. The politics of alliance has influenced Indian politics in both ways i.e. in a negative way as well as in a positive way which can be understood in the following areas-

  • (i) Political instability
  • (ii) Increasing role of regional parties
  • (iii) Fulfillment of regional interests and aspirations 
  • (iv) Effect on the relations between the center and the provinces
  • (v) Influence on the politics of the states
  • (vi) Impact on the nature of the Indian federal system
  • (viii) Change in the status of political institutions and posts. 

Q.10 Mention some of the main features of coalition politics.

V Ans. Coalition politics is prevalent in many countries of the world. It originated in India after 1989. Today coalition governments are running in many states and centers of India. Despite some of its demerits, there are definitely some qualities which are as follows- 

  • (i) Determines the possibilities of government formation in the event of hung Parliament and Legislative Assemblies.
  • (ii) The federal system has been strengthened. 
  • (iii) The center has given a new shape to the relations of the provinces.
  • (iv) It is helpful in the development of regional parties and the fulfillment of regional aspirations and interests. 
  • (v) The position of the states has strengthened.

Long answer Type questions

Class 12 Political Science Notes
Class 12 Political Science Notes

Q. 1. What do you understand by coalition government? Explain the role of regional parties in coalition governments. 

Ans. When no political party gets the necessary majority to form the government after the elections and many political parties come together to separate their disputed issues and form a joint government on the basis of agreeing on a minimum common program, then it is called a coalition government. 

This situation occurs in a multi-party system when the influence of national parties decreases and the influence of many regional parties increases, due to which no party gets a clear majority due to the division of votes among many political parties. After 1980, the role of regional parties started increasing in India. Prior to this, despite having a multi-party system, Congress dominated. Some national parties remained but their position remained weak in front of Congress. 

Congress dominated the period from 1950 to 1980. After the 1980s, regionalism developed due to various reasons on the basis of which regional parties were formed. The number of these regional parties continued to increase due to various reasons that in the decade of 1990s, the national parties got dwarfed in front of the regional parties. 

Regional parties not only form governments in their respective states but also played an important role in forming and running the government at the center. The following issues remained such that divided the society, on the basis of which the political behavior of the people changed and the number of regional parties increased. These issues were-

  • (i) Reservation 
  • (ii) Temple-Masjid dispute (Babri Masjid and Ram Mandir) 
  • (iii) Backward class politics 
  • (iv) Women’s politics 
  • (v) Politics of minorities 
  • (vi) Tribal politics 
  • (vii) Dalit politics 
  • (viii) Regionalism.

Q. 2. Throw light on various major events from 1990 to 2004 in Indian politics.

Ans. After the 1989 elections, coalition politics started in India. From 1989 to 2004, U. P.A. Till the formation of the government, the cycle of events went on with great speed, due to which there were widespread changes in Indian politics. In the last 20 years, the following major themes have dominated Indian politics.

(i) Fluctuations in the influence of Congress – Congress has been a major political party in India with a glorious history. Indian politics has been dominated by Congress in the 1970s. There have been continuous Congress governments at the Center and in the provinces, but after 1970, there has been a decrease in the dominance of Congress. Congress remained out of power from 1989 to 90 but came back to power in 1991. From 1996 to 2004, the mass base of Congress decreased and remained out of power till 2004. In 2004 again Congress emerged as the leader of the largest party in the Parliament and is leading the coalition government. 

(ii) Politics of reservation – Since 1989, the issue of reservation dominated the politics of the country. Actually reservation politics is taking place which has greatly affected the Indian political system. In 1989, the National Front government made arrangements for 27% reservation for the backward classes based on the recommendations of the Mandal Commission, which was initially opposed and violence took place in the country, but after some time it was accepted by all, and backward Everyone is competing to join the class. Very

(iii) Ram Mandir and Babri Masjid Controversy – The Babri Masjid dispute greatly influenced Indian politics after 1990 and gave rise to communal tension and hatred, which the Bharatiya Janata Party took advantage of.

Q3. Write a short note on Gujarat Anti-Muslim Riots, 2002. 

Ans. Background It is said that an unfortunate incident took place at Godhra (Gujarat) railway station. The immediate provocation of this violence proved to be very harmful. The Yogi car of a train coming from Ayodhya (Uttar Pradesh) was full of servants and for some unknown reason, it caught fire.

In this fire accident, 57 people died alive by burning. Some people spread the rumor that Muslims might have set fire to the train compartment standing at Godhra or would have set it on fire. Rumors are very dangerous and harmful. Rumors related to the Godhra accident spread like wildfire all over Gujarat. There was large-scale violence against Muslims in many parts. This orgy of violence continued for almost a month. About 1100 people were killed in this violence.

In order to stop the riots against Muslims, the National Human Rights Commission asked to provide relief to the families of the victims and to immediately hand over the guilty rioters to the law and give adequate punishment. The commission said that the police and the government machinery have not performed their duty. The government has given relief to many people. Cases are going on against many people, but it has to be accepted that rioting or organizing riots due to terrorism and communalism are not in any way compatible with the democratic system of our country. 

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Q. 1. Throw light on the causes of coalition politics. 

Ans. Since 1989, coalition governments have been running almost continuously in India, for which the following main reasons-
(i) Increasing number of regional political parties
(ii) Decline in the influence of national parties
(iii) Shinku Parliament and Legislative Assemblies
(iv) Division of society into different socio-economic classes 
(v) Increasing influence of power politics
(vi) Agreeing on a Common Minimum Program
(vii) Coordination with regional parties by national parties (viii) Pressure politics of regional parties.

Q. 2. What was the impact of the demolition of Babri Masjid in 1992 on Indian politics? 

Ans. On December 6, 1992, the disputed site of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya was vandalized by kar sevaks and Hindu fundamentalists, leading to riots and communal tension across the country. At the same time, political parties and intellectuals condemned it, but this incident polarized the Hindu votes, which benefited the Bharatiya Janata Party in the 1996 elections, in which it emerged as the largest party in the Lok Sabha. The demolition of Babri Masjid added a dark chapter in the history of India.

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