Cbse Board class 12 Sociology Important Questions and Answers Pdf Download  

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Cbse Board class 12 Sociology Important Questions and Answers Pdf Download, Cbse Board class 12 Sociology Important Questions and Answers, Sociology Objective Questions And Answers Pdf 

Class 12 Sociology Important Questions and Answers 

ChapterImportant Model Question Paper
BoardCbse board
Medium English
Study MaterialsFree Study Materials

Sociology Objective Questions And Answers Pdf 

Cbse Board class 12 Sociology Important Questions and Answers Pdf Download   

Q.1. The class system contains the feature of

(a) Hereditary

(b) Competition

(c) Openness

(d) Fixed occupation


Q.2. Primary group has the biggest role 

(a) Providing food 

(b) Protecting health

(c) Forming the ideas and personality 

(d) None of these


Q.3. Association contains the feature 

(a) Formed to fulfil limited interests

(b) System of procedures

(c) Group of individuals

(d) Stagnant 


Q.4. Feature of democracy is

(a) Equality before law 

(b) Universal Franchise

(c) Freedom of Press

(d) All of these


Q.5. Who among the following was the Chairman of the Mandal Commission? (Who among the following was the Chairman of the Mandal Commission?)

(a) B.P. Mandal (B.P. Mandal)

(b) Bindeshwari Dubey

(c) Mangnilal Mandal

(d) None of them


Q.6. When was the National Policy for the Elderly announced?

(a) 1999 

(b) 1998

(c) 1997 

(d) 2000 


Q.7. Which of the following is a speciality of the family? (Which among the following is the feature of the family)-

(a) Universality 

(b) Limited size 

(c) Emotional basis

(d) All of these 


Q.8. ‘Uncle’ comes under which category of kinship? 

(a) Primary

(b) Secondary

 (c) Tertiary

(d) None of these


Q.9. Who was the founder of ‘Satya Shodhak Samaj’? (Who was the founder of ‘Satya Shodhak Samaj’?)

(a) Acharya Ramanuj 

(b) Swami Vivekananda (Swami Vivakananda)

(c) Swami Dayanand

(d) Jyotiba Phule


Q.10. ‘Adivasi Mahasabha’ was an organization (‘Adivasi Mahasabha’ was an organization)

(a) Oraon

(b) Munda’s

(c) Santhal

(d) None of them


Q.11. In which tribe ‘Pariksha Vivah’ takes place? (In which tribe is ‘Marriage by Trial’ found?)

(a) Munda

(c) Naga

(b) Santhal (Santhal)

(d) Pīl (Bhil)


Q.12. Which of the following is a form of tribal religion? (Which of the following is a type of tribal religion?)

(a) Brahmanism 

(b) Totemism

(c) Ojhagiri

(d) All of these


Q.13. Which of the following is a characteristic of rural society? (Feature of Rural society is)

(a) Division of labour

(b) Social Mobility

(c) Dense Population

(d) Agricultural business (Farming)


Q.14. The author of ‘Caste and Class in India’ is written by

(a) Iravati Karve

(b) S.B. Ketkar (S.V. Ketkar)

(c) G.S. Ghurye (GS. Ghurye) 

(d) M.N. M.N. Srinivas


Q.15. Dr. B.R. In which state was Ambedkar born? (In which state was Dr. B.R. Ambedkar born?)

(a) Gujarat

(b) Uttar Pradesh

(c) Maharashtra

(d) Madhya Pradesh 


Q.16. In which province of India are Hindus a minority? (Hindu minorities are found in which Indian province?)

(a) Haryana

(b) Punjab

(c) Jammu and Kashmir

(d) Kerala


Q.17. Which of the following is an institution? (Which of the following is an institution?)

(a) Village

(b) Nation

(c) Marriage 

(d) Farmer Union


Q.18. The main basis of price determination of a commodity in the market is

(a) Competition

(b) Demand and supply of goods

(c) Quality of goods 

(d) Value of services


Q.19. The basis of inequality in India is-

(a) Caste

(c) Gender

(b) Community

(d) All of these 


Q.20. What is the short form for ‘Akashvani’ in English?

(a) AIR

(b) NIR

(c) AIM

(d) NIM


Q. 21. Write three functions of caste. (Write three functions of caste.)

Ans. Following are the three functions of caste-

(i) Caste provides social recognition.

(ii) Caste provides social security. 

(iii) Solves caste economic problems.

Class 12 Sociology Important Questions And Answers 

Q. 22. Define kinship. (Define kinship.) 

Ans. Kinship is a system of social relationships and various types of relationships between people related by blood and marriage which makes the people associated with these relationships aware of their social rights and duties.

Q. 23. What is an urban community? (What is an Urban Community?)

Ans. do it yourself

Q. 24. Highlight two factors of industrialization. (Highlight two factors of Industrialization.)

Ans. The following are the two main factors of industrialization- 

(1) Availability of resources: For industrialization to happen, it is necessary to have an adequate amount of resources available. These resources can be of different types. For example, the area where minerals like coal, iron, mica, aluminium, etc. are available. Industrialization can happen here.

(ii) Availability of adequate capital: For industrialization to happen, it is necessary to have an adequate amount of capital available. Industries can’t flourish without capital. In an area where there is adequate availability of electricity and skilled technicians, artisans and labourers are available, it is easier to establish and operate industries. 

Q. 25. What is a secular state? (What is a secular state?)

Ans. An absolute state is a state in which the state does not have any special religion of its own. A secular state is a concept of secularism whereby a state is officially neutral in matters of the national religion, supporting neither any particular religion nor any particular religion. It never discriminates against people based on religion. 

The government cannot compel any person to pay any tax for the propagation or maintenance of religion. Various religions are followed in India. Therefore India is a perfect example of secularism.

Q. 26. Present the details of the Directive Principles of State Policy. (Present an account of directive principles of state policy.)

Ans. From the point of view of convenience, the policy guiding principles were classified as follows-

(1) Directive principles related to economic security – It is the responsibility of the state to provide all its citizens, whether male or female,

(2) Will try to secure adequate means of livelihood. The state will make such arrangements for ownership and control of the country’s material resources that it will benefit everyone. 

(3) The economy should be operated in such a way that wealth and means of production are not centralized in a way that is against the public interest. 

(4) The State shall provide equal pay for equal work to every citizen, whether male or female.

(5) The state will not allow the health, devotion and adolescence of labouring men and women to be misused due to economic circumstances.

The state will make efforts according to its economic resources and within the limits of development so that all citizens can get employment according to their ability.

The state will lay special emphasis on scientific methods in the agriculture sector.

The state will make efforts to ensure that all labourers engaged in agriculture and industry get adequate wages for their living and that their standard of living improves.

(b) Directive Principles related to social interest – The State will take steps towards the organization of Gram Panchayats and they will be provided with enough powers so that they can function as autonomous governance units.

2. Will protect ancient monuments, places of artistic importance and buildings of national importance.

3. The state will also take responsibility for environmental protection and freedom from pollution. 

4. The State shall endeavour to maintain international peace and security.

5. States will give importance to international laws and treaties in their mutual dealings. 6. The Government will keep in mind the educational and economic interests of the State, Scheduled Castes and Tribes and protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.

(c) Directive principles of policy related to justice and education- 

1. The state will make equal laws for all citizens and will try to separate the judiciary from the executive in its services.

2. The state will enhance international peace and security. 

Q. 27. Throw light on the factors of Sanskritisation. (Throw light on the factors of Sanskritization.)

Ans. Culture is the set of ideas and material products that are passed from one generation to the next. Culture regulates social activities. Cultural processes of change reflect the various ways in which they influence the various changes taking place in Indian culture. 

Sanskritization is the most influential concept to explain social and cultural change in India, in the context of which information about various factors or elements of Sanskritization is obtained. In the cultural structure of India. Changes have arisen from both internal and external sources which explain various factors of sanskritization. 

There are various factors to explain the cultural processes in India which can be explained through Sanskritization, Islamization, Westernization and secularization. 

Sanskritisation is a process in which the lower Hindu caste transforms its traditions, customs, principles and lifestyle into the norms of higher and lower castes. Sanskritisation is a process which brings about changes in the status of different castes. 

Q. 28. What is the Dalit movement? (What is the Dalit movement?

Ans. The Dalit movement is related to the Scheduled Castes which was led by Jyotiba Phule, Tukaram, Baba Saheb Ambedkar and E.V. Leaders like Ramaswami Perrier. The Bhakti movement played a special role in the eradication of untouchability. Dayanand Saraswati provided a democratic basis to the Hindu society. Swami Vivekananda gave the message of compassion and brotherhood and instilled a sense of self-confidence and self-respect among the Dalits. Jyotiba Phule co-founded Shodhak Samaj in Maharashtra. Struggled against the oppressive policies and forces of Hindu society.

B.R. Ambedkar took the Dalit movement forward through his ideas. Ambedkar was also the creator of the Indian Constitution. Therefore, issues related to the rights and protection of Dalits were institutionalized under constitutional provisions. The Dalit Panther Movement was started by Dalits in Maharashtra due to which a new consciousness developed in the intellectual world.

Q. 29. Throw light on Chipko’s movement. (Throw light on Chipko’s movement?) 

Ans. Chipko movement is a movement related to environmental protection. It was led by Sunderlal Bahuguna. Supporters of this movement used to forbid people from cutting trees. If they did not agree, they would stick to the tree so that the tree could not be cut. For this reason, this movement is called the Chipko movement. 

Q. 30. Explain the role of telecommunication in social change. (Discuss the role of telecommunication on social change.) 

Ans. do it yourself

Q. 31. Explain the change in rural and urban class structure. (Discuss the changes in rural and urban class structure.)

Ans. The class structure of people living in rural areas is related to the rural environment, whereas the urban class structure is related to the city areas. At present, people living in rural areas settle in urban areas to earn livelihood and improve their standard of living and lifestyle. Due to this, changes begin to occur in the rural and urban communities and class structure. 

Urbanization is the process in which people start living in towns and cities instead of living in villages. They use such methods to convert agriculture-based residential areas into non-agricultural urban residential areas. The growth of urban centres is the result of increased industrial and commercial activities. 

The rapid increase in the population of towns and cities 

these are due to an increase in the number of non-agricultural households. On the other hand, in rural areas, they are related to rural lifestyle, farming and rural environment and culture and customs. When people from villages start coming to cities, the class structure changes.

class 12 Sociology important questions and answers 

Q. 32. Analyze the levels of the project. (Analyze the stages of project work.) 

Ans. The stages of project work are as follows- 

(1) Selection of problem. (ii) Choosing a topic of interest to the project maker. (iii) The subject is within the resource limit. (iv) To be definite in the problem. (v) Determination of study area. about the usefulness of

(vi) Selection of information.

(vii) Determination of methods and techniques of study. (viii) Compilation of facts. 

Q. 33. What is dedication towards education? 

Ans. Reading, writing and working on discipline in life is called education. An educated person is disciplined. There is recognition of good and bad in it. Only through education can a person achieve his goal in life. Keeping all these things in mind, having a feeling in the heart is called dedication towards education. 

When a man completely attracts himself towards education and dedicates his existence to it, then such a man is successful in achieving the purpose of his life. 

An educated person is viewed with respect in his family as well as among the people in his neighbourhood and society. When a person is completely dedicated to education, then such a person becomes a teacher, doctor, engineer, lawyer, judge and administrative officer as well as a good politician.

Q. 34. What is patriarchy? Explain its main features. (What is Patriarchy? Discuss its main features.) 

Ans. Patriarchy is a system in which the power and authority of men are given more importance than that of women by tradition and rules of behaviour. features- 

(i) Men dominate in patriarchy. 

(ii) It is related to male identity which includes the qualities of control, power, force, rationality, strong work ethic and competitiveness. 

(iii) In a patriarchal system, the centre of activity and progress rests on men and they are the centre of taking the society forward. 

(iv) In this, the responsibility of controlling family situations rests on men. 

Q. 35. What is casteless politics? (What is casteless politics?)

Ans. The politics which is not inspired by any particular caste is called casteless politics. This kind of politics is not based on caste but is based on clean policies and rules. This kind of politics creates a good environment among the people in the society and the country. Also, people of any caste are not harmed. However, the caste system is more prevalent in India. That is why imagining casteless politics today is a mere pretence.

Q. 36. What is class? Discuss its characteristics. 

Ans. Class is a group of people who have similar social status. Many situations are found in every society. As a result, many classes are found according to them. When society is divided into different groups based on something other than birth, each group is called a class.

Characteristics of a class: The following are the characteristics of a class- 

1. Hierarchy of Status Group – In every society different types of groups do not have equal status. Some groups are of highest social status, some are of lowest social status and some are of middle social status, that is, there are fluctuations in these groups.

The sequence continues.

2. Feeling of Superiority and Inferiority: Different social status classes are found in society. There is a feeling of high and low according to social status among the members of these classes. Members of one class consider members of another class either superior or inferior to them.

3. Class Consciousness- Class discrimination is found in every class. Class consciousness is the basis of its organization. Class consciousness determines the behaviour of the members. Class conflict occurs only because of class consciousness.

4. Restricted Social Relation – Social distance remains between two classes because both are below the same level. People of higher social status (class) have the least contact with people of lower class.

5. Open System – Class is an open system. Class membership is based on karma. Therefore, due to their good deeds, hard work, honesty, efficiency etc., people from the lower class move to a higher class. In this way, class is an open system.

6. Not Based on Birth – The basis of class is not ‘birth’. Membership in a class does not depend on what caste or family a person is born into. a person of upper caste

Or even after being born into a good family, if he is not capable and skilled then he goes into the lower class. 7. Sub-Class- Every class has some subclasses. For example, there are three sub-classes of upper class – upper-upper class, upper-middle class and upper-lower class.

8. Life Opportunity-Equality is found in the standard of living of people of every class. The lifestyle of one class is different from the lifestyle of another class. But people of one class have the same lifestyle and level of comfort. 

9. Class situation – Every class has a situation whose basis is economic. 

Q.37. Throw light on the reasons for population growth in India. 

Ans. do it yourself

Q.38. Give suggestions to remove communalism. (Give suggestions for removal of communalism.)

Ans. Suggestions to remove communalism: The following measures can be taken to remove communalism:

1. Abolition of communal parties political parties emphasizing religious allegiance should be banned or abolished by the government. 

2. Promoting nationalism- Feelings of nationalism should be inculcated in the minds of people so that the feeling of devotion towards the nation can be awakened among them.

3. Inter-religious marriage should be encouraged among the youth to give people from different communities an opportunity to come closer to each other and know each other, which will reduce the social distance between members of different religious groups. The government should also encourage people for inter-religious marriages give rewards to those who do inter-religious marriages and give them social and economic incentives.

4. To make people aware, efforts should be made through mass media to change the attitude of people towards other communities. People should be told its positive aspects and efforts should be made to maintain mutual relations and harmony.

Q39. Write an essay on ‘Women’s Movement in Independent India’. (Write an essay on ‘Women’s movement in independent India’?) 

Ans. Women’s Movement- The beginning of the 20th century saw an increase in women’s organizations at the national and local levels. 

Women’s India Association Indian Women’s Association (Indian Women’s Association; WIA 1971), All-India Women’s Conference (All India Women’s Conference; AIWC 1926), National Council for Women in India (India National Council of Women in India (NCWI) are names that are recognized by all even though many of them started from a limited field of work. Their scope of work expanded with time. 

For example, initially, A.I.W. C. thought that ‘women’s welfare’ and ‘politics’ were unrelated. A few years later, his presidential speech said, “Can the Indian man or woman be free if India remains a slave? How can we remain silent about our national independence which is the basis of great reforms?”

It can be argued that this period of activism was not a social movement. This could also have been opposed.

It is often believed that only middle-class educated women participate in social movements. Part of the struggle has been to remember the broader history of women’s participation. 

During the colonial period, women participated along with men in the struggles and revolutions that started in tribal and rural areas. The Tebhaga movement in Bengal, the Telangana armed struggle of the former Nizam regime and the revolution against slavery of the Warli tribe in Maharashtra are some of the examples.

One issue that is always raised is that if the women’s movement was an active movement before 1947, then what happened to it later? 

One explanation for this is that many of the women participants in the national movement became engaged in the work of nation-building. Others hold the trauma of partition responsible for this stagnation.

There was a renewal of the women’s movement in India in the mid-1970s. Some call this the second phase of the Indian women’s movement. While many concerns remained the same, there were changes in both organizational strategies and ideologies. 

There was an increase in movements called autonomous women’s movements. The word ‘autonomous’ was a reference to the fact that, unlike other women’s organizations that had links to political parties, it was ‘autonomous’ or independent from political parties. It has been experienced that political parties tend to keep women’s issues separate.

Apart from organizational changes, there were some new issues which were addressed. For example, many campaigns have been run over the years about violence against women. You must have seen that the names of both father and mother are there in the school application form. 

This was not always true. Similarly, women’s movements have led to important legal changes. Issues of land ownership and employment have been fought alongside demands for rights against sexual harassment and dowry.

Q. 40. Read the following passage and answer the following question.

Ans: Studying the audience of the serial ‘Ramayana’ reveals a high level of interaction between the audience members and their favourite characters. Many other people said that they used to talk to their favourite characters through Doordarshan. The number of viewers watching this serial was 65 to 90 per cent in North India and 30 to 40 per cent in South India. 5 crore viewers watched the telecast of ‘Ramayana’. 

Question: Q. In your opinion, why were the audiences so interested in this serial?

Ans. In our opinion, the audience was very interested in the serial Ramayana because of the high level of interaction between all the characters in that serial. This means that there is ongoing interaction between all the characters who act. 

In the book Ramayana, the poet has described the incidents of Ram, Lakshman, Sita abduction, Ravana and the burning of Lanka in poetic form. The audience was very interested after seeing this. Along with this – the Ramayana serial also gives knowledge about all the events of the Hindu religious book Ramayana and how the story of this book has culminated.


  1. Introducing Indian Society
  2. The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society
  3. Social Institutions: Continuity and Change
  4. The Market as a Social Institution
  5. Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion
  6. The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
  7. suggestions for projects work
  1. Structural Change
  2. Cultural Change
  3. The Story of Indian Democracy
  4. Change and Development in Rural Society
  5. Change and Development in Industrial Society
  6. Globalisation and Social Change
  7. Mass Media and Communications
  8. Social Movements


  1. Introducing Indian Society
  2. The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society
  3. Social Institutions: Continuity and Change
  4. The Market as a Social Institution
  5. Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion
  6. The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
  1. Structural Change
  2. Cultural Change
  3. The Story of Indian Democracy
  4. Change and Development in Rural Society
  5. Change and Development in Industrial Society
  6. Globalisation and Social Change
  7. Mass Media and Communications
  8. Social Movements

कक्षा 12 समाजशास्त्र एनसीईआरटी नोट्स

  1. भारतीय समाज का परिचय
  2. भारतीय समाज की जनसांख्यिकीय संरचना
  3. सामाजिक संस्थाएँ: निरंतरता और परिवर्तन
  4. एक सामाजिक संस्था के रूप में बाजार
  5. सामाजिक विषमता एवं बहिष्कार के स्वरूप
  6. सांस्कृतिक विविधता की चुनौतियाँ
  7. परियोजना कार्य के लिए सुझाव
  1. भारत में सामाजिक परिवर्तन एवं विकास
  2. सांस्कृतिक परिवर्तन
  3. भारतीय लोकतंत्र की कहानी
  4. ग्रामीण समाज में परिवर्तन और विकास
  5. औद्योगिक समाज में परिवर्तन और विकास
  6. भूमण्डलीकरण और सामाजिक परिवर्तन 
  7. जनसंपर्क साधन और जनसंचार
  8. सामाजिक आंदोलन

वस्तुनिष्ठ प्रश्न MCQs

  1. भारतीय समाज का परिचय
  2. भारतीय समाज की जनसांख्यिकीय संरचना
  3. सामाजिक संस्थाएँ: निरंतरता और परिवर्तन
  4. एक सामाजिक संस्था के रूप में बाजार
  5. सामाजिक विषमता एवं बहिष्कार के स्वरूप
  6. सांस्कृतिक विविधता की चुनौतियाँ
  1. भारत में सामाजिक परिवर्तन एवं विकास
  2. सांस्कृतिक परिवर्तन
  3. भारतीय लोकतंत्र की कहानी
  4. ग्रामीण समाज में परिवर्तन और विकास
  5. औद्योगिक समाज में परिवर्तन और विकास
  6. भूमण्डलीकरण और सामाजिक परिवर्तन 
  7. जनसंपर्क साधन और जनसंचार
  8. सामाजिक आंदोलन

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