Directing Class 12 Notes CBSE Business Studies Chapter 7 (Free PDF Download)

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Directing Class 12 Notes CBSE Business Studies Chapter 7 (Free PDF Download)

Chapter No07
ProvidingNcert solutions
Chapter NameDirecting
SubjectBusiness studies
Medium English
Study MaterialsFree VVI Study Materials are Available
Download PDFdirecting class 12 notes pdf download

directing class 12 notes

Directing the head of the lesson means directing human performance to achieve organizational or enterprise goals. In fact, the function of direction is to guide the employees, give them necessary orders and instructions, supervise their work and work and resolve the problems arising during the execution period, so that organizational goals and objectives can be achieved.

4 1

Direction has various importance like – 

1. Beginning of activities. 

2. Objections at all levels of management. 

3. Basis of coordination. 

4. Means of Motivation 

5. Facility of change. 

6. Establishment of the sub.

There are four main elements of direction-

1. Motivation, 2. Leadership, 3. Communication, 4. Supervision.

Supervision means teaching the work to the employees and seeing that they are working as per orders and controlling them. Supervision has special importance in the field of management because supervision makes good use of physical resources and directs human efforts to achieve the set goals.

Motivation means the process that creates excitement in a person to work. Motivation is the human aspect of management. Motivation is an important function of the system which motivates the people working in the organization to achieve the set goals. Due to this the management work is done efficiently.

According to Mallow’s ideology of need hierarchy, “A person’s needs are infinite and there is orderliness in them. To generate interest and strength towards work in a person, it is necessary to satisfy his needs one after the other in sequence. Man can be motivated by satisfying his strong needs.” Leadership refers to the quality of a person on the basis of which he commands a group of followers.

Guides and coordinates their activities as a leader. Leadership plays a very important role in the field of management. No organization, no matter how equipped, has been able to replace the leadership till date. In today’s changed circumstances, whether the organization is economic, religious, social, political or spiritual, leadership is of utmost importance in all.

The exchange of ideas, facts, opinions or feelings between two or more people is called communication. In fact, communication is a continuous process in which two or more people mutually exchange their messages, ideas, feelings, opinions and arguments etc. Communication is the cornerstone and life force of modern business and management.


Q.1 . What is direction? (What is Directing.) 

Ans. Direction is a managerial function which provides guidance to subordinates. Due to this the management work is done efficiently.

Q. 2. Define direction. (Define Direction.)

Ans. Directing includes those processes and techniques which are used to issue orders and instructions and to see whether all the activities of the enterprise are being completed as per plan or not. 

Meaning of Direction is to influence and motivate the subordinates in such a way that they voluntarily contribute fully in achieving the objective of the organization.

Q.3 . What are the main elements of direction? (What is the main elements of Direction?)

Ans. The main elements of direction are as follows-

(i) Supervision 

(ii) Motivation 

(iii) Communication 

(iv) Leadership

Q.4. Explain the importance of direction. (Explain the importance of Directing.)

Ans. Direction has the following importance-

1. Necessary in planning,

2. Initiation of actions,

3. Necessary at all levels of management,

4. Basis of coordination,

5. Means of motivation,

6. Facility of change,

7. Stability of the enterprise,

8. Increase in efficiency of employees.

Q.5. What is the importance of communication in management? (What is the importance of communication in management?

Ans. Communication has great importance in management for the following reasons:

1. For maximum production at minimum expenditure, it is essential to exchange mutual ideas from time to time between the owner, management and employees. 

2. It is necessary to have effective communication to discuss and take decisions as soon as possible and to implement them. 

3. Messaging is necessary to bring coordination between departments.

4. Messaging is essential for effective leadership. 

5. Due to effective communication, cooperation and collaboration in management increases.

Q.6. Define communication. (Define Communication.)

Ans. According to Lewis Allen, “Communication is the sum of all those elements that one person uses when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another person. This is a bridge of meaning. “It involves a systematic and continuous process of doing, listening and understanding.”

Q. 7. Define leadership. (Define Leadership.) 

Ans. In the words of Koontz and O’Donnell, “Leadership is the process of influencing individuals so that they will willingly and enthusiastically strive to achieve organizational goals.”

Q. 8. Enumerate the features of Leadership.

Ans. (i) It is a continuous process. 

(ii) Through this quality a group of subordinates can get the desired work done voluntarily.

(iii) It depends on the circumstances and environment. 

Q. 9. Explain the difference between manager and leader.

Ans. Difference between manager and leader- First, managers are formally in the organization whereas leaders can also be outside the organization. Secondly, the main aim of managers is the progress of the organization’s objective whereas leaders are concerned only with the needs and aspirations of their followers. 

Third, managers have created authority while leaders have permissive authority. Followers give them the right to direct and administer themselves. Certainly, when managers act as leaders, they have formal authority which emanates from the trust and confidence of subordinate employees.

Q. 10. What is motivation? How many types of motivators are there? (What is Motivation? How many types of incentives.)

Ans. “Motivation is done by oneself or another person to achieve certain tasks.”

There are two types of motivators- 

(i) Monetary motivation (ii) Non-monetary motivation. 

Q. 11. What is monetary stimulus? (What is Financial incentives?)

Ans. Monetary motives are those that can be directly evaluated in terms of money. These motivations fulfill the physical and social respect needs of the employees. It can have the following forms: 

(i) Salaries and wages. 

(ii) Bonus. 

(iii) Commission. 

(iv) Premium

(v) Financial benefits – free house, ears, servants etc.

Q. 12. What are non-monetary incentives? (What is Non-financial Motivation?)

Ans. These are not directly related to currency. Man has many non-financial needs, such as mental peace, security, promotion etc. These motivations have the following forms: (i) Competition, (ii) Security system, (iii) Appreciation, (iv) Development opportunities, (v) Job security, (vi) Labor welfare system.

Q. 13. Explain the elements of motivation. (Explain the factor of Motivation.) 

Ans. These are the following- 

(i) security, 

(ii) Opportunities for progress and advancement, 

(iii) Feeling of belonging, 

(iv) Recognition.

Q. 14. Tell the tools of motivation. (Give the tools of Motivation.)

Ans. Motivation comes from the following things – (i) Financial motivation, (ii) Non-financial motivation. 

Q. 15. Enumerate the types of communication on the basis of organizational management. (Enumerate the type of communication on the basis of Organization Relationship)

Ans. (i) Formal communication (ii) Informal communication.

Q. 16. Explain the characteristics of communication. (Write the characteristics of Communication.)

Ans. Main features of communication – 

(i) The line of communication system should be as direct and short as possible. 

(ii) Its path should be known with certainty. (iii) Full line of communication should be used. 

(iv) There should be a definite formal communication system for every employee of the organization. 

(v) There should be qualified persons at the transmission centers of communication.

Q.17. Define messaging or communication. (Define Communication .) 

Ans. “Communication system is a medium for exchanging words, letters or information, ideas and opinions.” – Fred Ziemeyer

Q.18. Write the factors of Effective Communication.)

Ans. The elements are as follows – (i) The element should be clear, definite and simple. (ii) Familiar, appropriate, detailed communication structure. (iii) High quality relations between officers and subordinates. (iv) Use of different types and techniques of communication as per the situation (v) To encourage timely communication.

Q. 19. Enumerate the characteristics of direction. (Enumerate the features of Supervision.)


(i) Directing acts as a link between the preparatory work and controlling work of management. 

(ii) The objectives of direction are the audience of its form. 

(iii) It is a continuous process.

(iv) Its time comes from subordinates. 

(V) It is this process around which all the performers are surrounded.

Q.20. What is the meaning of inspection or supervision? (What is the meaning of Supervision?)

Ans. The meaning of supervision is to provide direct and immediate guidance and control to the employees working under him to get the work done properly. 


Q. 1. Define direction. (Define Direction.)

Ans. Following are the main definitions of direction: 1. Theo Haimann – “Directing includes that process and technique.

Are included which are used to issue orders and instructions and to see whether all the activities of the enterprise are going according to plan or not. The entire execution revolves around direction.”

2. Dimock – “Direction is actually the heart of administration, which includes determining the area, giving orders and instructions and providing dynamic leadership.”

3. Koontz and O’Donnell – “The managerial work of guidance and supervision of subordinates is called direction.”

Q2. What are the elements of direction? (What are the elements of Direction?)

Ans. Following are the four elements of direction-

1. Motivation: To encourage people to work with good, enthusiasm and initiative spirit.

2. Leadership – Effective leadership has a magical effect on getting people to work.

3. Supervision – The supervisor prepares the way for effective execution by keeping an eye on the work in order to achieve the expected results and getting the work done as per the plan. 

4. Communication – Communication is the basic point of direction.

Q.3 . Explain the functions of direction. (Explain the functions of Direction.) 

Ans. Functions of Direction – Following are the main functions of direction:

1. Command——Giving orders to subordinates is the main function of direction. Orders are usually given in scalar chain form from bottom to top.

2. Supervision: To get satisfaction whether the subordinate employees are working as per orders or not, it is necessary for the manager to supervise their work.

3. Guidance, Interpretation and Coaching (Guidance, Interpretation and Coaching) It is the responsibility of the director to make proper arrangement of orders, to explain its working procedure by working as a model, to guide the subordinates by correcting their errors in front of them. .

4. Co-ordination: The main objective of an industrial establishment is to earn maximum profit whereas the objective of the employees is to get maximum salary or more dividend i.e. bonus and to attain higher positions as soon as possible. Both these types of goals are mutually opposed to each other. Therefore, the success of direction lies in establishing complete harmony between these two viewpoints.

Q.4. Explain the process of direction. (Clarify the process of Directing) 

Ans. Process of Directing

1. Defining the goals and objectives 

2. Organizing the efforts

3. Measuring the work 

4. Developing the people: To streamline the process of directing, Koontz and O’Donnell introduced some principles of directing.

The principles have been developed which are as follows-

1. Principle of individual contribution towards goals – Management should be capable enough to motivate them for better performance.

2. Principle of harmony in goals-Assimilation of personal goals into the objectives of the organization.

3. Principle of efficiency of direction – Effective direction leading towards achievement of goals and objectives at minimum cost.

4. Principle of unity of command

5. Principle of direct supervision – Combining objective methods of supervision and control with direct personal supervision. 

6. Principle of justification of instructional techniques.

7. Theory of managerial communication.

8. Principle of completeness and comprehensiveness.

9. Theory of information.

10. Principle of strategic use of informal organization – Managers should recognize informal organization and make maximum creative use of it. 

11. Theory of leadership.

Q.5. Give five principles of direction. (Give five principles of Direction.)

Ans. Principles of Direction— 

1. Principle of Individual Contribution to Objectives – Managers should try to ensure that their subordinate employees work with the best efficiency.

2. Principle of Harmony of Objective: Managers should establish cordial relations with each employee and possible conflicts can be prevented.

3. Principle of Efficiency of Direction – Effective direction can achieve its objective at minimum cost.

4. Principle of Unity of Command: Within a business organization, subordinates should be answerable to only one source and receive orders from only one source so that there can be unity in orders.

5. Principle of Direct Supervision: As far as possible, the manager should himself inspect the work of the subordinates.

10. 6. Describe the functions of a supervisor. (Explain the functions of Supervisor.)

Ans. Supervisors have the authority to take independent decisions regarding employee-related tasks. Its main functions are as follows-

(a) Work Planning – The main function of the supervisor is planning, and he determines the order of priority in various tasks.

(b) Partition of Work – The supervisor distributes the work among the employees working under him according to their specialties and qualifications. This increases the efficiency of workers.

(c) Motivation – The main job of the supervisor is to encourage the employees under him to work with more interest and dedication and to increase their morale.

(d) Controlling – The supervisor exercises complete control over all the activities of his department, so that the set objectives can be achieved.

(e) Training and Guidance – The supervisor arranges training for all the employees of his department and guides the employees to overcome their difficulties and problems. 

(f) Making proper arrangements – The supervisor makes proper arrangements of materials, machines etc. in the organization and provides proper working facilities to the workers.

Q.7. What are the tools of motivation? (What are the tools of Motivation?) 

Ans . Tools of Motivation: Human beings get motivation from many things. These can be kept in two categories – 1. Financial and 2. Non-financial. 1. Financial Motivation: Money has great importance in our lives, it is a symbol of social status. 

Frederick Taylor described monetary incentives for motivation. The method of giving some part of the extra profit on production more than the normal production was adopted. These incentives include commission, bonus, profit sharing, share ownership plans etc.

Although it is true that the needs of employees are fulfilled by money, it is not correct to say that it is the main driving force. Sometimes, instead of money, employees are also motivated by other things like working conditions. In India, where there is a lot of unemployment and poverty, financial or monetary motivation is still important.

2. Non-Financial Motivation: These are those motivations which are not directly related to money or currency like mental peace, security, promotion, welfare, facilities, job satisfaction, appreciation of work. Man has many non-financial needs, etc. The position of tenure or factory also acts as a motivation. 

If the office is at a suitable location and its decoration is attractive then it will motivate the employees. Similarly, one can be motivated by giving a break for food or water during work. 

Various workers can also be encouraged by giving them respectable names of their posts. For example, cluck can also be denoted by giving it the name of off-accent.

The biggest drawback of non-financial motivations is that they are not always effective. One must be very careful while choosing non-financial motivations for each employee.

Q.8. Write the characteristics of leadership. (Write down the characteristics of Leadership.)

Ans. Characteristics – Following are the main characteristics or characteristics of leadership.

1. Following by Others – For effective leadership, it is necessary that the number of people following the orders of the leader is sufficient.

2. Leadership is a personal quality (Leadership is a personal quality) Leadership is that quality found in a particular person by which he inspires other people to work.

3. Ideal Conduct – A leader can provide efficient leadership to the subordinates only through his ideal conduct, that is, the leader should not only be a speech giver but should also be loyal to the organization.

4. Leadership includes guide, conducting, directing and preceding – the leader defines the objectives of his organization and guides the subordinates to achieve them. Coordinates, helps in operational methods and gives orders and instructions from time to time to accomplish the objectives efficiently and in a coordinated manner.

5. Leadership is a continuous process – Leadership process is continuous. Thus, as long as the organization exists, the leadership remains. 

6. Leadership is essential in all spheres – Leadership is essential in all places like economic, social, political, industrial etc. 

7. Planned and clear orders: Under leadership, all orders are given after careful consideration and with clear meaning. 

Q. 9. Explain the nature of leadership. (Explain the nature of Leadership.)

Ans. Nature of Leadership: The true nature of leadership is clear from the following-

1. Leadership is a branch of management – ​​“It is not necessary for a good leader to be a good manager, but a good manager should have many qualities of a good leader.”

2. Leadership exists because some people are habitual to follow some one (Leadership exists because some people are habitual to follow some one) Some people are not self-reliant. They work only as per the orders and instructions of the persons. Therefore there is a need for leadership.

3. Leadership transforms even the impossible into reality (Leadership Transforms Impossible into reality) Sometimes leadership faces challenging situations and makes even the seemingly impossible tasks possible. 

4. Leadership is a dynamic and developing process—Leadership is a never-ending process and daily provides new opportunities for the manager according to the changing circumstances.

5. Leadership creates Individual relationship between manager and his subordinates. Leadership is such that it establishes personal relationship between managers and the subordinates working with them by providing necessary information. 

Q.10. Define supervision.

Ans. Important Definitions 1. According to Bala, “Vestion means giving direct and immediate advice to the employees working in the execution of any work and establishing control over them.” (According to Viteless, “Super- vision refers to the direct and immediate guidance and control of subordinates in the performance of their task.”)

2.R. On the basis of C. Davis, “Through the process of supervision, it is believed that whatever work is being done is being done on the basis of some plan and instructions.” (“According assuring that the work is being done in accordance with the plan and instructions.”)

3. According to an American Labor Act, “Supervisors are those persons who have the authority to make independent decisions regarding the selection, firing, discipline, remuneration and other related functions of employees.” (On the Basis of an American Law, “Supervisors are those having authority to exercise independent judgment in hiring, discharging, disciplining, rewarding and taking other actions of a similar nature with respect to employees.”)

Q. 11. Mention five qualities of a good supervisor. (List five qualities of a Good Supervisor.)

Ans. Qualities of a Good Supervisor—

1. Technical Competence – For good and continuous production. 

2. Administrative Skill – For administration, management and control. 

3. Personal Character: It is also necessary for the supervisor to have good character. 

4. Decision Making Power: The supervisor should have the quality of decision making power.

5. Qualities of good Leadership: A supervisor should also have the qualities of a good leader.

Q. 12. Write the names of the systems of supervision. (Name the techniques of supervision.)

Ans. Techniques of Supervision- Technical systems refer to those policies and arrangements which a supervisor uses to supervise the employees working under him.

The following are the types of these systems-

1. Autocratic System or Authoritarian Supervision (Autocratic Technique)

2. Democratic Technique

3. Free Rein Technique. 

Q.13. What is the importance of supervision? (What is the importance of Supervision?)

Ans. Importance of Supervision – In the present era, supervisors have an important place in the field of supervision. This is the officer who has direct relation with the officers. He provides them with necessary instructions and orders and takes care of their welfare.

Inspires them and conveys the orders of his superiors to them and conveys their suggestions and complaints to the superiors. Therefore, it would not be inappropriate to say that he is a friend, philosopher and guide of the workers. Therefore, the key to the motivation of workers lies in the hands of these supervisors. do the work of

Q. 14. What are the duties of a supervisor? (What are the functions of a Supervisor)

Ans. To provide functions of supervisor. 

1. To provide effective leadership and planning to the workers. 

2. Treating workers humanely 

3. Proper distribution of work among workers

4. To inspire friends. 

5. To organize the labor force properly.

6. To measure personal qualities of workers in scientific trade. 

Q. 15. Write the responsibilities of supervisors. (Write down the responsibilities of Supervisors.)

Ans. Responsibilities of Supervisor – The responsibilities of the supervisor are as follows-

(a) Production related responsibilities

1. To direct the employees. 

2. Giving suggestions and leading the employees.

3. To produce more and better varieties. 

4. To control production.

(b) Responsibilities towards employees-

1. To treat employees humanely. 

2. To develop the competency of employees. 

3. Making adjustments with employees. 

4. To create a cooperative work environment.

Q. 16. What is official supervision? (What is Autocratic Technique?)

Ans. Autocratic Technique: In this technique the authority remains centralized with the supervisor. More reliance is placed on orders full of precise and specific instructions and the supervisor is more strict. 

The complete activities of the workers are controlled. Where there is no discipline among the employees or for some reason the employees cannot be trusted. There it proves to be more suitable. Such a policy cannot be used in the present era.

Q. 17. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of authoritarian supervision. (Mention the merits and demerits of autocratic technique.)

Ans. Benefits (Merits) of this system are as follows:

1. Quick decision 

2. Strict discipline 

3. Increase in productivity 

4. Strict control on the type of work.

Demerits – This system has the following demerits –

1. Lack of ability to take initiative among subordinates. 

2. Lack of human relations. 

3. Dictatorship of supervisors. 

4. High attrition rate. 5. Lack of two-way messaging.

Q. 18. What is consultative supervision? (What is Consultative Technique?) Or, what is democratic supervision called? (What is Demoactic Technique?)

Ans. Consultative Technique or Democratic Technique – In this technique the principles of democracy are completely followed. Its main feature is that the supervisor consults the employees under him in policy formulation. Its purpose is to provide them an opportunity to give suggestions. If someone is really useful then it is immediately accepted on the basis of its qualities. In this system, employees understand that they also have some importance in the business. In this method, formal seminars and meetings are organized to interact with the employees. 

Q.19. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of consultative supervision. (Mention the merits and demerits of consultative 

Ans. Benefits – It has the following benefits-

1. Increase in the ability to take initiative among subordinates. 

2. Method in improving the morale and enthusiasm of subordinates. 

3. Improvement in human relations. 

4. Increase in production. 

5. Development of qualified supervisors.

Demerits ——It also has the following demerits-

1. Delay in taking decisions 

2. Tendency to compromise in decisions. 

Q. 20. What is independent supervision? (What is independent supervision?) Or, What is the technique of free rein? (What is free rein technique?)

Ans. Independent Supervision or Free rein technique – This technique is based on completely opposite assumptions. Under this, the supervisor tries to develop the hidden abilities of the employees by giving them opportunities to work independently. 

After clarifying the limitations of policies, methods and programs, they themselves only provide general guidance by giving free rein to the employees for editing. For the success of this policy, complete freedom and facility of communication, open supervision and voluntary delegation of powers is necessary.

Q. 21. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of open rebate technique. (Mention the merits and demerits of free rein technique.)

Ans. Benefits – It has the following benefits-

1. The sense of responsibility increases among the employees. 

2. Presence of supervisor is not necessary. 

3. The efficiency of the supervisor increases. 

4. Subordinate employees develop and their initiative ability and morale increases.

Demerits – It also has the following disadvantages-

1. Decrease in productivity.

 2. Delay in taking decisions. 

3. Attempt to avoid responsibility. 

Q. 22. Write the functions of supervision. (Write down the functions of supervision.)

Ans. Functions of Supervision: As per the American Labor Act definition, the functions of a supervisor have been explained that a supervisor is a person who is entrusted with the job of selecting, firing, disciplining, remunerating employees and other related tasks. There is a right to take independent decisions. Therefore, a supervisor has the following duties-

1. Organization and Direction, 

2. Training and Guiding, 3. Appraisal of Subordinates,

4. Motivation of Subordinates, 

5. Controlling 

Q. 23. Explain the difference between supervision and direction. (Distinguish between Supervision and Direction.)

Ans. Distinction between Supervision and Direction – Often the words supervision and direction are considered to have the same meaning because there is a lot of similarity between these two words. But there is a lot of difference between these two words – 1. Direction – Managers in the organization call the process of taking work from their subordinates as direction or leadership.

1. Supervision – When a lower level manager (foreman, chargeman or overseer) takes care of the work of his subordinates, then it is called supervision.

2. Usually three types of tasks are included in the work of directing – leadership, motivation and communication.

3. Supervision – It is a branch of direction of the management. Keeping in mind the plans of the organization, the management gives various instructions from time to time and the supervisor follows those instructions.

Q. 24. What do you understand by ‘ability to supervise’? (What do you mean by span of supervision?)

Ans. Meaning of Span of Supervision: The capacity of supervision, control or management means the maximum number of employees working under a supervisor whose work he can easily monitor with full efficiency.

No matter how skilled and clever a person is, his ability to work is limited. He can work only to a certain extent. Considering the importance of the supervisor, here by the capability of the supervisor, we mean the number of employees under a supervisor whose work he can easily and effectively supervise. It is also called Span of Control. 

Every observer’s ability to observe is limited. Therefore, there should be only as many employees under the supervisor whose work he can easily oversee. According to McFarland, “Span of control is the number of subordinates whom a manager supervises.” Often this is also known as extension of supervision.

Q. 25. Give four factors which affect the span of Supervision.

Ans. Factors affecting Span of Supervision

1. Competence of the Supervisor – Every person has different abilities and capabilities related to leadership, communication and motivation. Similarly, supervisors also have different qualifications. A more skilled, qualified and experienced supervisor can supervise more people in less time than an ordinary supervisor.

2. Time available for Supervision: The extent of supervision will also depend on whether the supervisor has his own time for supervision. Then they can supervise more people than otherwise they would be able to supervise less people. 

3. Facility of Specialists – Where experts and instructions are used, supervisors can keep an eye on the work of relatively more people. But where there are temporary plans which keep changing frequently, the work of fewer people can be supervised at a time.

Q.26. What is the importance of ability to observe? (What is the importance of span of supervision?)

Ans. Importance of Span of Supervision – The power, capability and efficiency of the supervisor is limited like all human beings. Similarly, the time of his establishment is also limited. As a result, due to limited capacity and time, he can efficiently supervise, direct and lead the work of only a limited number of employees. 

If there are more employees under him than required, then he will neither be able to supervise their work properly nor will he be able to give the right advice at the right time, due to which the organization will become lax and the employees will become careless. 

On the other hand, if there are less employees than required under the supervisor, then he will also become lazy and will quarrel with the subordinates without any proper reason. This will be in line with the Balinese proverb ‘An empty mind is the devil’s workshop’. On the other hand, there will be an increase in the levels of management due to which inefficiencies in communication and control will arise. Thus, the number of subordinates should neither be more nor less than necessary. 

The number of employees should be such that their work can be looked after efficiently. Therefore, it is necessary that to achieve the objectives of the organization, the number of subordinates of the supervisor should be pre-determined on the basis of facts. 

Q.27. Write a note on narrow versus detailed observation.

(Write a note on Narrow Versus Wide Span of Supervision.) Ans. Narrow versus Wide Span of Supervision – The question often arises whether one supervisor should supervise many employees or fewer employees when a supervisor supervises the work of many employees.

If it does, it is called detailed ability to supervise. But when a supervisor looks after very few employees, he is called a supervisor with narrow capability and the organization where a supervisor with such capability is found is called a vertical organization.

Both types of supervisory capacity have their own characteristics. 

Q. 28. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the ability of a narrow observer. (Mention the merits and demerits of Narrow Span of Supervision.)

Ans. Benefits: It has the following benefits-

1. It is even more suitable in industries with limited capacity. 

2. In this, even if the supervisors are not very skilled and trained, they handle the work because they have to control less employees. 

3. In this, due to less number of employees under the supervisor, their work can be supervised more closely so that proper and effective control can be maintained over the employees. 

4. Personal relationships are established between the supervisor and the employees because the supervisor has enough time to listen and solve the problems of each employee.

Demerits – It has the following demerits –

1. Due to more inspectors, the number of managerial levels increases due to which problems of communication and coordination arise. 

2. In this, more number of supervisors have to be hired which increases the cost. 

Q. 29. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of detailed supervisory capacity. (Mention the merits and demerits of wide span of Supervision.) 

Ans. Benefits – Its benefits are as follows –

1. Due to less number of inspectors, the number of management levels is less, as a result of which there is a good system of communication and coordination. 

2. This system proves beneficial for the managers because they get many tasks done by the supervisors which increases their efficiency which is helpful in determining policies. 

3. In this, the inspection expenditure is less as compared to other systems because a single supervisor can inspect the work of many employees. Therefore, fewer supervisors have to be employed.

Demerits: Its defects are as follows-

1. Due to the large number of employees under the supervisor, there is a lack of personal connection due to which cordial human relations are not established. 

2. This system does not prove to be suitable in industries with limited supervisory capacity. 

3. In this system, supervisors should be more skilled and trained, who are sometimes difficult to find. There is also a financial burden on the supervisor asking for higher salary. 

Q.30 . What are the responsibilities of a supervisor to his employees? (What are the responsibilities of a Supervisor towards workers?) 

Ans. A supervisor has the following major responsibilities towards his employees:

1. To provide effective leadership to the employees.

2. To treat employees humanely.

3. To win the confidence of the employees under you and to awaken cooperation and team spirit among them. 

4. Listening, understanding and resolving the complaints of your employees. To convey their suggestions to senior officials.

5. To measure personal qualities of employees on scientific basis.

6. To make the employees aware of the policies of the organization and boost their morale. 

7. Motivating employees and praising their work. 

8. To help the employees in adjusting with the circumstances.

Q.31. What are the job responsibilities of a supervisor? (What are the responsibilities of a Supervisor towards work?)


1. To make proper distribution and planning of work among the workers.

2. To organize the labor force properly.

3. To keep giving information about new methods of work and new ideas and implement them by making them suitable to the circumstances.

4. To control the quantity and variety of production.

5. To maintain discipline among the workers.

6. To do all those necessary works which are necessary for increasing production in today’s era.

7. To implement the policies and instructions set by senior officials.

Q.32. What are the responsibilities of a supervisor? (What are the responsibilities of a supervisor towards Management?)


1. To inform about work progress.

2. To cooperate in the work of officials.

3. To put before the officers the necessary suggestions related to matters related to employees, such as salary, promotion, transfer, difficulties and removal. To do or get their work done.

4. To understand the viewpoint of the officers and according to their viewpoint and ideas

5. To listen patiently to the suggestions and criticisms of officers and consider them. 

Q.33. What are the responsibilities of a supervisor towards his colleagues? (What are the responsibilities of a supervisor towards his associates?)


1. Working together with everyone. 

2. To provide necessary support to its associate departments and employees.

3. To help in making their plans and works successful and to give appropriate suggestions. 

4. To give the information sought by his colleagues and other departments correctly and at the right time.

Q.34. Explain the difference between narrow and detailed supervisory capacity. (Give distinction between Narrow and Wide Span of Supervision.)

Ans. Distinction between Grand Wide Span of Supervision Narrow capacity

compressed capacitycomprehensive monitoring capability
, There are many levels of management or supervisors in it.There are fewer supervisor levels in this
2. A select number of persons are supervised by the supervisor.In this only the work of the subordinates is supervised.
3.In industries with limited capacity, more supervisors are hired.Detailed observation capability reduces the number of discourses
4. Organizations in which limited capacity of supervisor is found are called vertical organizations.On the contrary, organizations which have wide supervisory capacity are called flat organizations.
5. Due to the large number of people giving instructions in a narrow organization, the problem of coordination is greater.In a large organization, the problem of communication is less and the communication system is also free.

Q.35. What is the meaning of conveyance? (What is meant by Communication?)

Wide Span] of Supervision

1. There are less levels of supervision in it.

2. In this only the work of subordinates is supervised.

3. The number of supervision is less in detailed supervisory capacity.

4. On the contrary, the organizations which have wide supervisory capacity are called flat organizations.

5. In a large organization, the problem of coordination is less and the communication system is also smaller.

The word Communication is derived from the Latin word Communis, which means we make any idea or fact common with some people, that is, we create a condition of common understanding among them towards that idea.

Communication system means making people with disabilities active by providing different information to two or more people. It is necessary for the success of the organization that in the absence of communication system, work like organization, planning, direction etc. cannot be done. The main objective is to propagate ideas. Communication work is done through signs, words and symbols. For example, in college, classes start and end when the bell rings, train movement starts when the guard gives green signal, etc.

Communication system is an important part of management. All the functions of management are based on planning, direction, control, organization etc. communication system. In its absence their editing is impossible.

Q.36. Mention five characteristics of message vehicle (communication). (Describe five characteristics of Communication.)

Ans. Characteristics of Communication— 

1. Exchange of Ideas – The messages of communication are such that one can easily understand each other’s thoughts. To exchange ideas, information or messages between two or more people in written or written form. To ring a bell for a holiday. 

2. Use of Words as well as Symbols: It is unnecessary to have people carrying the message because no single person can carry the message on his own. 

3. At least two people (At least two Parsons) cannot do the minimum for conveying the message.

4. Mutual Understanding: Message delivery is complete only when the other person understands the message correctly. If what has been said does not resonate correctly in the other person’s mind, the message will be considered incomplete.

5. There is direct exchange of ideas and messages between direct and indirect communication, whereas the essence of direct communication is to give information to each other through people.

Q.37. Explain the difference between formal and informal messaging/communication. (Differentiate between Formal and Informal Communication.)


Informal CommunicationFormal Communication
1. These messages are mostly written.1. These communication channels are mostly verbal and friendly.
2. There is a fear of power behind formal messaging.2. There is no fear but intimacy in informal messaging.
3. Its route is decided in advance. Its beginning and end can be known.3. It passes through crooked routes. It is difficult to find this beginning and end.
4. Proof of formal conveyance is maintained.4. There is no proof of this.
5. It is the result of rights and responsibilities given by the institution.5. Friendly behavior among officers is the result.
6. This communication is related to authorized works.6. This communication is related to both authorized and unauthorized works.

Q.38. Explain the difference between oral and written communication. (Distinguish between verbal and written communication.)


verbal communicationwritten communication
1. It is oral.1. It is written.
2. It can be kept confidential.2. There is lack of privacy in it.
3. Money and time are saved in oral communication.3. There is a lot of expenditure on ink, paper etc. for writing messages.
4. In this the person receiving the message can clear his confusion.4.It is taking time to clear up the confusion.
5. In this, due to personal contact, a feeling of cooperation is maintained.5. There is a lack of personal contact.
6. It is more effective because it can be made interesting through facial expressions.6. It is less effective.
7. In this, the reaction of suspicion on the recipient of the message can be known immediately.7. There is no such thing in this.

Q.39. Explain the different types of message transmission. (Give the different types of Communication.)


(A) On the Basis of Direction – 1. Downward Communication,

2. Upward Communication, 3. Horizontal Communication.

(B) On the Basis of Organizational Relationship

1. Formal Communication, 2. Informal Communication.

(C) On the basis of expression – 1. Verbal/Oral Communication,

2. Written communication.

Q. 40. Describe five obstacles of communication or communication system. (Explain five barriers of communication.)

Ans. Barriers of Communication – These barriers are as follows –

1. Problem of Language: If the sender of the message and the receiver of the message know different languages ​​or the receiver of the message is illiterate or the message is unclear or confusing, then the importance of communication reduces and becomes ineffective.

 2. Inefficient Manager: If the person sending the message

If the deceased officer himself is incompetent and inefficient, if he does not have knowledge of facts or actual circumstances, if he does not know the art of communication, then the purpose of conveying the message is not achieved. 

3. Mutual distance – Due to the distance between the sender and receiver of the message, immediate gratification related to the message is not received. As a result, different meanings are derived from the message and one accepts it as per his understanding. 

4. Mechanical barriers – Due to any kind of malfunction in the devices used for communication, the message becomes unclear and distorted. Sometimes there is a lot of delay in sending and the appropriate time for receiving the message has also passed. 5. Haste in decision – Sometimes the employee receiving the message draws conclusions and starts expressing his reaction even before listening to the message completely. As a result communication fails. 

Q. 41. Tell the ways to remove the barriers to communication. (State the measures to overcome the obstacles of Communication.)

 Ans. Suggestions to overcome the Barriers

of Communication)—Obstacles can be removed by the following measures-

1. The language of communication should be simple and clear.

2. Efforts should be made to establish a direct relationship between the message sender and the message receiver.

3. Sweet human relations should be established in the organization.

4. The language of the message should be simple and clear.

5. A feeling of mutual harmony and trust should be created in the organization.

6. Along with formal communication system, informal communication system should also be used.

7. There should be enough time for the message.

Q.42. Describe the constraints of communication system. (Describe the Problems of Communication.)

Ans. Barriers of Communication: Although modern means of message transmission are being used today, there are many obstacles in efficient message transmission which are as follows-

1. Line and Staff Relationship being bad.

2. Higher level of organization.

3. Use of poor language.

4. Hiding Weakness by Superiors

5. Failure to Communicate. 6. Fear to Communicate.

7. Unclarified Assumption. 8. Bad Environment.

9. Use of Wrong Words

10. Inefficient Adjustment Period.

11. Distrust i

Q. 43. Describe the disadvantages of formal communication.

Ans. Demerits of Formal Communication

tion)- Its disadvantages are as follows – 1. Increase in the Work Load of higher officials.

2. Distortion of information is a defect of formal messaging. As information and messages pass through certain routes and through many hands, their nature changes.

3. Even in formal communication, officials do not take action with full enthusiasm and interest, rather they also take only formal action. 

4. There is delay in the delivery of information in formal messaging. As a result, immediate action cannot be taken on it. 5. There is wastage of labour, time and money.

Q.44. Explain five benefits of oral communication. (Mention five Advantages of Verbal Communication.)

Ans. Advantages of Verbal Communication – Its benefits are as follows-

1. Saving money (Economic): It saves money because neither paper, ink nor a writing staff is required.

2. Time Saving – Time taken in writing messages is saved. So that it can be delivered to the employees quickly.

3. Effective – It has a great impact on the listeners because through this the manager can make it interesting through facial expressions and gestures instead of asking questions.

4. Clarity: Under this the listeners can question their misconceptions. Due to this, there is more clarity in verbal communication.

5. Cooperative Environment (Faster Friendly Spirit) With the help of verbal messaging, personal contact increases between managers and employees, which creates a sense of cooperation among them.

Q.45. Explain the meaning of ‘transmission interval’. increases. (Write down the meaning of ‘Communication Gap’.)

Ans. Communication Gap – For the progress and efficient operation of the organization, it is necessary that there should be a two-way communication system in the organization so that all types of information, instructions, suggestions, complaints can be exchanged from employees to managers. The program should continue. But it takes something for each message to reach. 

This time is called transmission interval. The more this gap increases, the less effective the messaging becomes. To minimize the gap, informal messaging has become necessary. But for formal messaging, it is necessary to be careful in its use. Today, in almost big organizations, the inter-communication system reduces the time lag.

Q.46 . Explain five objectives of communication. (Describe five objectives of Communication.)

Ans. Objectives of Communication: The objectives of communication are-

1. To create coordination between various parts of the enterprise. 

2. To disseminate information about changes in the procedures of the organization to the employees. 

3. To reduce labor turnover of employees. 

4. To provide coordination between employees and owners. 

5. To raise the morale of employees thereby increasing their efficiency.

Q. _ 47. Explain the characteristics of formal communication. (Describe characteristics for Formal Communication.)

Ans. Characteristics of Formal Communication – Its characteristics are as follows –

1. Formal communication is usually written.

2. Exchange of information takes place according to a steep ladder. Formal communication is three-way dynamic.

3. (i) For downward orders, instructions,

(ii) Upward – For suggestions, complaints and reports.

(iii) For horizontal coordination among different departments.

4. In formal communication only authorized and well thought out information is exchanged.

5. The method, series and effectiveness of formal communication are predetermined.

Q.48. Explain the characteristics of informal communication. (Describe characteristics of Informal Communication.)

Ans. Characteristics of Inform [Com. mitunication]—

1. Informal communication is verbal.

2. It happens on the basis of direct signals. 

3. Informal communication, both authorized and unauthorized

4. There is no evidence of informal communication

Is. Is related to tasks.

5. Informal communication is the result of friendly behavior between officials.

Q.49. Explain five benefits of formal communication. (Mention five advantages of Formal Communication.)

Ans Advantages of Formal Communication- 

1. In formal communication, almost all the benefits of written communication are obtained.

2. There is unity of command in formal communication due to which officers can have complete control over their subordinates.

3 Formal communication is appropriate and effective which strengthens the organization. 

4. Formal communication is written which can be kept safe for future reference.

5. Following a definite and pre-planned path in the process of communication helps in achieving the goals of the organization.

Q.50. Explain five benefits of informal communication. (Mention five advantages of Informal Communication.)

Ans. Advantages of Informal Communication—

1. Informal communication is very effective.

2. Informal communication is mostly verbal. Hence the expenditure is very less. 

3. Mutual co-operation and goodwill develops by sitting face to face and talking informally.

4. In informal messaging, the matter becomes known to all concerned very soon. Is. It is a fast, effective and flexible means of conveying messages.

5. Through informal communication, the true opinion of the people working in any organization is known which helps in determining policies.

Q.51. Explain the disadvantages of informal communication. (Mention Disadvantages of Informal Communication.) 

Ans. Disadvantages of Informal Communication

cation) – 

1. Informal communication, being oral, cannot be used as evidence. 

2. Rumors and misunderstandings develop due to informal communication. 

3. Informal communication has neither a beginning nor an end. Therefore, they are very difficult to control. 

4. By the time informal communication is brought under control, it has already caused harm to the organization. 

5. Informal communication often does not reach the person for whom it is meant.

Q.52. Mention five disadvantages of Verbal Communication. 

Ans. Disadvantages of Verbal Communication-

1. No Availability of Future Reference – If a dispute arises in the future, due to there being no record in the verbal communication, it can also be known what message was actually given to the employees. Besides, there is no proof of it in case of running of court etc. 

2. Incomplete – During oral communication, the messenger is not able to convey all the things and some important facts are left out. 

3. Requires Preparation – Many times when the message has to be delivered to a large number of people, the messenger has to do a lot of preparation for it due to which valuable time is wasted.

4. Presence of the message receiver (Requires Receiver) For oral message it is necessary that the person to whom the message is to be conveyed is not available. If it is not available. Verbal conveyance is not possible. 

5. Dangerous: In verbal communication, the messenger can do something wrong or say something which should not be said. It is often seen in public meetings with leaders that out of excitement they say some wrong things which has an adverse effect on what is heard.

Q.53. Write the names of the stages of communication process. (Write down the name of steps of Communications Process.)

Ans. Communication Process—

1. Message or communication – The communication that the sender wants to give to the recipient. The message to be transmitted may be in the form of an order, instruction, report or request etc.

2. Communicant – In the messaging process, the sender is the message sender.

Through this, messages are given orally or in written form to the lower or upper authorities. 

3. Medium of Communication – There are many mediums of message – written or oral or symbolic. The sender of the message has to decide which medium is most suitable for different circumstances.

4. Message recipient (Audience) – Message recipient is the person or group of people to whom the sender wants to convey his message.

5. Reaction – It is very important to know what reaction the message sent by the message sender had on the message receiver, that is, the meaning in which the sender wanted to give his message to the receiver. Whether the recipient has accepted it in the same sense or not. If the recipient has understood the message correctly then communication is considered successful. 

Q.54. What qualities should an excellent messenger have?

(What characteristics should be possessed by a good Communication?) Ans. श्रेष्ठ सन्देशवाहन के गुण (Characteristics of a good Communication)— 

1. It should be brief. 

2. It should be completely clear and simple. 

3. It should be a mix of effective language and content. 

4. It should be purposeful and meaningful. 

5. There should be a question-answer system in it.

6. It should include as much informality as possible. 7. Its manifestation should be such that it develops human relationships. 

8. There should not be anything in it which would hurt the self-esteem of the recipient of the message. 

9. He decides what kind of action is desired from the recipient of the message. 

Q.55. Write five characteristics of written communication. (State five characteristics of written communication.) 

Ans. Characteristics of Written Communication


1. Written communication is written. 

2. If there is a considerable distance between the sender and receiver of the message, then this method costs very little. 

3. The message is in completely clear written form. Therefore there is no difficulty in understanding. 

4. Since the message is written, it can be used as a reference at any time. 

5. There is no need for direct personal contact between the sender of the message and the recipient of the message.

Q.56. What is “Information Re-entry System”? (What is Feedback?)

After sending the message, the sender wants to know how the recipient of the message will react. Ans. ‘Information Reintegration System’ is a recent concept of message vehicle. The message was a response. To what extent has he understood the message and whether he agrees with it or not. The knowledge of this does not come to the messenger in any other way but only through ‘feedback’ or ‘information input’.

 This can happen only through the medium. In summary, it is a definitive indicator of the extent to which the recipient of the message has actually understood and accepted it. According to Dr. Ghopal, “The function of reinterpretation is to ensure that the message originally conveyed has been properly understood by the recipient.”

Feedback is necessary for effective control because only on the basis of this it considers further action. For feedback, it is necessary to have a two-way message because the feedback of a one-way message is zero.

Q.57. What are the benefits of an effective information retrieval system? (What are the merits of an effective Feed back system?) 

Ans. Merits of Feed back System – For effective communication, the sender of the message should also take action to confirm it so that there can be confidence that the message receiver is understanding the message correctly, he should take action on it. There is no difficulty or complaint of any kind in doing so and the action taken by them is correct. 

If the receiver of the message does not fully understand something or has doubts about something, the sender of the message can repeat his message, give clarifications to remove doubts or misunderstandings and thus help to correct them. Can inspire.

Q.58. Explain the basic elements of communication. (Mention the basic elements of Communication.) 

Ans. Elements of Communication 

1. Information or message – Through this, information, order, direction, complaint etc. whatever has to be conveyed from one class to another.

2. Sender – This is a person who contacts another person to send his thoughts, information or message.

3. Receiver of the message – The person for whom the message is meant is called the message receiver. This is the reader, listener or viewer.

4. Communication Channel: This is the medium through which messages are exchanged. It can be written, oral, formal, informal etc. 

5. Symbols – Many times the message is not expressed in words but is expressed through symbols. Like pictures, signs, gestures etc.


Q. 1. Give the meaning and definition of direction. Explain its elements. (Discuss meaning and definition of direction. Explain the elements direction.)

Ans. Meaning of Direction – Modern scholars use the word direction in a broad sense. Today, direction does not mean merely directing the employees to do their work but creating such an environment for production that the employees voluntarily work together with full enthusiasm and as per their ability. Thus, in today’s changing circumstances, more importance has been given to the human element in the work of direction.

Definitions: Major definitions of direction are as follows:

1. According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “Directing and leading is an inter-personal aspect in management work through which subordinates can contribute effectively in achieving the objectives of the organization.” Agreed and encouraged to do so.” 

2. The second definition has been given by Kunduz and O’Donnell as follows – “To effectively direct subordinates, the manager has to do motivation, communication and leadership.”

3. According to Theo Haimann, “Directing includes the technical process of issuing orders and it decides whether the work is being carried out as per the basically fixed plan or not.” Elements of Direction – Following are the four main elements of direction:

1. Leadership, 

2. Motivation, 

3. Communication system, 

4. Communication System (Supervision)

1. Leadership — Leadership is the ability to awaken in other people the desire to follow a common objective. Thus, leadership means that quality of a particular person by which he guides other people and directs their work as a leader.

2. Motivation: Motivation is considered the heart of management functions. It includes any feeling or desire which makes a person’s will in such a way that he gets motivated to work. Thus, motivation means that psychological stimulation which encourages people towards work and provides maximum satisfaction.

3. Communication System – Communication system means making the people of the organization active by providing various information to two or more people. For the success of an organization, it is necessary that it has proper communication system. In the absence of communication system, work like organization, planning, direction etc. cannot be done. Its main purpose is transmission of ideas. Communication is done through signs, words and symbols. Like in college, classes start and end with the ringing of the bell, train movement starts with the signal of green and red flag of the guard etc. 

4. Inspection or Supervision: Supervision, inspection or management means getting the subordinate employees to work properly and inspecting or guiding them. The word supervision is made up of three elements – (i) giving instructions, (ii) guiding and (ii) controlling. When these three elements come together at one place, the word ‘supervision’ is born. Thus, these three elements are included in supervision.

Q.2 . What are the characteristics of direction? Describe the importance of direction. What are the characteristics of Direction? Discuss its importance.) 

Ans. Characteristics or Nature of Direction – The following characteristics of direction clarify the nature of directing work –

1. Direction is important in managerial functions – Direction initiates organized efforts. Planning prepares the organization, appointments, policies and background for the work, but directing actually makes the work possible. 

2. Direction is a Continuous Process – Managers have to give direction, advice and training to their subordinate employees continuously and regularly. Thus it is a continuous process. 3. Direction is a Pervasive Function – Every manager has to direct his subordinate employees at every level. In the absence of direction, there cannot be coordination, unity and efficiency in management work.

4. Direction has Dual Objectives: Direction mainly has two objectives-

(i) To prepare employees to assume greater responsibility, and

(i) To make the employees work according to the pre-determined plan.

5. Direction is related to Behavioral Efficiency – The function of direction is to have a close relationship with the general intelligence and efficiency of the management because the manager motivates and encourages his subordinate employees through his behavior.

Importance of Direction—Whatever can be said about the importance of direction will be less. Just as a boat cannot move forward without a rudder, similarly no organization can successfully complete its business activities without direction. “Direction is the heart of business or management, orders are given through it. 

Q. 3. Describe the principles of direction. (Explain the principles of Direction.) 

Ans. Principles of Direction – According to Koontz and O’Donnell, the following 11 principles of effective direction – 

1. Principle of personal cooperation in achieving the objectives – Managers should try so that their subordinate employees can work with the best efficiency.

2. Principle of sweetness of purpose – Managers should establish cordial relations with each employee so that possible conflicts can be prevented.

3. Principle of efficiency of direction: Effective direction can achieve its objective at minimum speed.

4. Principle of unity of command – Within a business organization, subordinates should be answerable to only one person and should receive orders from a single source so that there can be unity in orders.

5. Principle of direct supervision – As far as possible, managers should themselves inspect the work of subordinates.

6. Principle of choosing appropriate method of direction – The method of giving instructions should be according to the needs of subordinate employees and the nature of work.

7. Principle of managerial communication system – In every organization, the manager should be the main communication system.

8. Principle of message knowledge – If the subordinate employee cannot understand the message given, then the communication system adopted will prove to be useless. Therefore, there should be appropriate communication system for efficient guidance.

9. Principle of Information: For an effective communication system, it is necessary that there should be direct and continuous exchange of necessary information so that the guidance work can be done successfully. 

10. Principle of Leadership: For effective directing work, the manager should have leadership qualities.

11. Principle of use of informal organization – If necessary for efficient direction, the manager should also make informal relations with the employees.

Q. _ 4. Explain the chain of needs of buffalo and explain its importance in the motivational process. (Explain Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and its importance in the motivation process.) 

Ans. Famous psychologist ABRAHAM H. MASLAW has developed a grounded framework for understanding human needs. Maslaw proposed two things- 

1. Every man’s needs depend on what he already has. Only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior—a completely satisfied need cannot influence behavior.

2. Needs are ranked on the basis of importance.

1. Psychological Needs: These include those needs by which human life can be saved and maintained. For example, food, clothing, shelter, water and other necessities of life. These things are needed not only for oneself but also for the family.

2. Security Needs – Once psychological needs are satisfied, people want that these desires continue to be satisfied without any hindrance in the future. This gives a kind of feeling of security to the person. For example, if a person has got food or shelter, he would like to continue getting these things in the future also. 

3. Social Needs: Social security includes the need for common nature and companionship. Under this, there is the need for love and sympathy of the people around us. These needs come from friends at work and from the family community outside the job. 

4. Ego Needs – These types of needs require self-esteem satisfaction. These needs can be achieved by recognizing good work, setting challenging tasks and providing opportunities to employees to continue doing good work, getting good offices, additional rights, etc.

5. Self actualization needs: According to Maslow, the need for continuous actualization means “the desire of a person to become everything according to his capacity”. The needs are fulfilled by the conscience of the person.

1. It is not necessary for most people to follow this series.

2. Not everyone is always dissatisfied.

3. Every person tries to satisfy several needs at a time. Despite these shortcomings, Maslow’s need chain is very important and it has an important place in the theories related to motivation. Because it was Maslow who first understood the meaning, importance etc. of motivation and propounded it for achieving organizational objectives. 

Q.5. Define motivation. What is its importance in management? (Define Motivation. What is its importance in the management?) 

Ans . Meaning of Motivation – The dictionary meaning of motivation is, “That element within a human being that encourages him to work.” The simple meaning of motivation is to awaken readiness in a person to do certain work. Motivation includes all those activities through which workers and employees are motivated to do maximum and best work in achieving the objective of the enterprise. goes. This is such an important function of management in which employees are treated as human beings instead of being treated as mere means of production.

Definitions: Some eminent scholars have defined motivation as follows –

1.If it is present, then he can search for such works and resources which could help and encourage him. According to M. D. Jusius, “Motivation is the act of motivating oneself or another person to achieve certain tasks.” Motivation is related to the desire to work. If the employee has the desire to work Do money.

2. According to McFarland, “Motivation means the method in which emotions, feelings, desires, aspirations, efforts or needs are used to direct, control and explain standard behavior.”

3. According to Brech, “The problem of motivation is a key to practical management and in practice it is the main task of the chief management officer.” Therefore, it can definitely be said that the spirit of the organization is a reflection of motivation at a higher level.

It is clear from the above definitions that motivation means eagerness, tension or excitement to undertake desirable activities. This excitement may be in the manager himself or in the subordinates themselves. Significance of Motivation- Rensis Likert on Motivation

Is considered the basic basis of management. Motivation management is an effective tool to encourage a work group. This is such an important function of management in which workers and employees are treated as human beings instead of being treated as mere means of production. It is the responsibility of every manager to encourage his subordinates, to awaken the feeling of efficiency in them so that they can contribute maximum in achieving the objectives of the organization. 

Q.6. Explain the nature of motivation. (Explain the Nature of Motivation.)

Ans. Nature of Motivation: Many important aspects of human behavior are included in motivation. Such as – desires, control, needs, goals, etc., all the covers of man are motivational because these are done with the aim of satisfying his physical, mental, social and psychological needs. Some elements are found in it which create values ​​to increase the standard of living of a person. Efforts have been made to remove this mental strain through motivation. In other words, human behavior is controlled by motivation. Environment

The process of motivation is a cyclical process. It begins with stress and anxiety in which an intense urge to unfulfilled desires is felt on the person. 

Thereafter a restlessness is born and means to satisfy that desire are searched for. Ultimately, that desire is fulfilled to the extent possible or the goal is modified, when the person evaluates the achievement and takes a decision about his future conduct, then the motivation cycle is completed.

Q.7. Explain the principles of motivation. (Explain the principles of Motivation.) 

Ans. Theories of Motivation Motivation of individuals

Much has been written regarding; Different scholars have propounded theories of motivation on the basis of their experience and studies. But Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzvarum and McGregor Mr. F. The contribution of M. Stogill and Rensslichert is major. The principles of motivation can be described as follows-

1. Maslow’s Need Priority Theory – This is a more concrete theory related to motivation. It is based on the belief that man does not work to fulfill only one type of need, but works to fulfill many types of needs. Maslow propounded his theory

While doing this, human needs have been classified into five parts – 

(i) Physiological Needs – This includes the basic needs of humans – food, clothing and shelter. 

(ii) Safety Needs – It is very important for every person to have employment and economic security for the welfare of his life. 

(iii) Social Needs i.e. needs to maintain relations with the society as a unit.

(iv) Need for self-respect (Ego Needs) – Needs to achieve such a position in the world that a human being gets proper respect.

(v) Self Fulfillment Needs – The need to get such a profession, through which a person can get the opportunity to use his skills and his abilities can be fully developed.

Maslow has named the above needs as subjective needs. The desire to exert influence over others is called egoistic need. But one need does not override another until the earlier need is generally satisfied. 

2. Achievement Expectation Theory—Motivation

This principle of Shri F. Propounded by M. Stagill in which importance was given to the three elements of interaction, achievement and expectations. Every person often wants to achieve something in daily life. 


(i) There is lack of honesty and truthfulness. 

(ii) Are basically lazy and have less desire to work. 

(iii) Want to avoid work responsibility. 

(iv) Not interested in success. 

(v) Are indifferent to the needs of the organization. 

(vi) Tend to be guided by others. 

(vii) Are not clever and intelligent.


Q.1. What is the meaning of motivation? (What is the meaning of Motivation) 

Ans. According to McFarland, motivation means the method in which emotions, desires or needs are considered and used to direct, control and explain behavior. 

Q.2. Explain the qualities of a successful leader. (Explain the qualities of a good leader)

Ans. Ordway Teed has described the following 10 qualities of a successful leader – 1. Physical and nervous strength, 2. Knowledge of purpose and direction, 3. Enthusiasm, 4. Friendship and cordiality, 5. Loyalty, 6. Technical proficiency, 7. Decision-making ability, 8. Intelligence, 9. Technical acumen, 10. Confidence.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Commerce Stream

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