History sample paper class 12 cbse With solved pdf download

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History sample paper class 12 cbse With solved pdf download, sample paper of history class 12 cbse, history sample paper class 12 cbse 2023

history sample paper class 12 cbse solved

Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs
PapersCBSE Sample paper

Section A consists of 21 questions of 1 mark

History sample paper class 12 cbse With solved pdf download

1. Consider the following statements regarding Harappan Civilisation and choose the correct option. 

I. The Harappans ate plants and animals products.

II. Evidence of ploughed field was found at Banawali.

III. Lothal is a small town which was famous for crafts production.

IV. Bones of deer and gharial are also found.


(a) Only (i) is correct

(b) Only (i) and (ii) are correct

rk each

(c) Only (i) and (iii) are correct

(d) Only (i) and (iv) are correct

2. Identify the feature of Harappan Civilisation. 

I. It was a large rectangular tank.

II. It was in a country yard surrounded by a corridor on all four sides.

III. There were rooms on three sides.

IV. Water from tank flowed into a huge drain.

(a) The Great Tank

(b) The Great Bath

(c) The Great Washroom

(d) Great Wall

3. Match the following.

1.RajgirA. Anga
2. ChampaB.Magadha
3. VaranasiC.Kashi
4. KaushambiD.Vatsa


(a) A-2, B-1, C-3, D-4

(b) A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3

(c) A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1

(d) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4

4. Identify the states related to the sixteen Mahajanapadas with the help of the given information.

(1) • It was the most powerful Mahajanapada Initially, Rajagriha (Rajgir) was the Capital, but later shifted to the Pataliputra.


(a) Magadha

(b) Vatsa

(c) Anga

(d) Avanti

5. Read the following statements carefully and identify the name of the movement from the information given below. 

1. It was led by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

II. The Congress supported this movement and Mahatma Gandhi sought to conjoin it to the Non-cooperation Movement.

(a) Khilafat Movement

(b) Salt Satyagraha Movement

(c) Deoband Movement

(d) Wahabi Movement

6. Choose the incorrect option from the following statements with reference to Buddha’s life. 

(a) He was born in Lumbini, Nepal.

(b) He attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya (c) He gave his first sermon in Sarnath.

(d) He attained Nirvana in Vaishali.

7. was the ruler of Bhopal who provided money for the preservation of the ancient site of Sanchi Stupa. 

(a) Shahjehan Begum

(b) Jahanara Begum

(c) Rukayya Begum

(d) Roshanara Begum

8. Which of the following characteristic features is not related to the bricks found in Harappan sites? 

(a) Sun-dried bricks

(b) Baked bricks

(c) Coloured bricks

(d) Standard ratio of bricks

9. The Brihadeeswara temple is constructed by rulers of 

(a) Vijayanagar Empire

(b) Chalukyas Dynasty

(c) Chola Empire

(d) Hoysalas Dynasty

10. In which of the following places the independent government was proclaimed during Quit India Movement? 

(a) Lucknow

(b) Calcutta

(c) Muzaffarpur

(d) Satara

11. Which among the following Sufi saint was called as the lamp of the entire land? 

(a) Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi

(b) Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki

(c) Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya

(d) Shaikh Fariduddin Ganj-i-Shakar

12. Which among the following is written by Abul Hamid Lahori? 

(a) Akbar Nama

(b) Jahangir Nama

(c) Alamgir Nama

(d) Badshah Nama

13. Which is the meaning of ‘Shabad’ from the given extract?

(a) Guru Nanak expressed his ideas through hymns called ‘Shabad’.

(b) Sufi songs

(c) Persian text containing poems

(d) All of the above

14. The Mansabdari System as the Administrative System introduced by Mughal Emperor …… in

(a) Jahangir, 1569

(b) Babur, 1527

(c) Akbar, 1571

(d) Shahjahan, 1629

15. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). Assertion (A) Santhals felt that it was high time to rebel against the zamindars. (1)

Reason (R) Zamindars continuously increasing their control over the forest areas.


(a) Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

16. Identify the person shown in the circle 

(a) Abul Kalam Azad

(c) BR Ambedkar

(b) GB Pant

(d) Lal Bahadur Shastri

17. Kabir’s poetry has literary as well as a philosophical significance. Select the most appropriate option from the following that describes this essence.

(a) God is one who just has different names.

(b) God is vested in all saguna forms.

(c) God is a philosophy in isolation from rituals.

(d) God is based on reincarnation.

18. Which one of the following dynasties built ‘Hiriya Canal’ in Vijayanagara? 

(a) Tuluva

(b) Sangama

(c) Aravidu

(d) Saluva

19. What was the reason of Simon Commission visited to India? Choose the correct option from the following.

(a) To suggest changes in Constitution.

(b) To granting special privileges to minorities.

(c) To granting separate electorate to Dalits.

(d) To enquiring the excesses of Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

20. Why did Mahatma Gandhi reach Dandi?

(a) Because he wanted to break the Salt Law.

(b) Because he wanted to organise a satyagraha there.

(c) Because he was forced to go there by the British.

(d) Because he wanted to give a speech there.

21. What was founded by Britishers to acquire more cotton? 

(a) The Cotton Supply Association

(b) The Manchester Cotton Company

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of the above

Section B consists of 6 questions of 3 mark

22. How did archaeologists made a division between the social and economic life of the Harappan people? 

23. What were the arguments in favour of greater power to the province? 

24. Why was the Charkha chosen as the symbol of nationalism?

25. What were the salient feature of temple architecture under the Vijayanagara Empire?

26. Write about any three sources that are used by historians to study Mauryan Empire. 


What are the limitations of inscriptional evidence in understanding political and economic history of India? 

27. Analyse Bernier’s account of the urban centres. 

Or Explain the views of Bernier about a more complex social reality of the Mughal Empire. 

Section C consists of 3 questions of 8 marks

28. Discuss the nature of the Revolt of 1857. What values were reflected by Indians during the Revolt of 1857?


Describe how the British celebrated those, who they believed saved the English and repressed the rebels during the Revolt of 1857?

29. Who were the Alvars and the Nayanars? What relations they had with the Southern states?


The wide range of text produced in and around Sufi Khanqahs had helped immensly in reconstruction of history of Sufism. In this regard explain Malfuzat, Maktubat and Tazkiras as the sources used to reconstruct the history of Sufi traditions. 

30. Describe the features of the famous Sanchi Stupa in accordance to the structure and sculpture. 

Or Discuss the development in sculpture and architecture associated with the rise of Vaishnavism and Shaivism. 

Section D consists of 3 Source based questions 

31. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Name of Satavahana Kings from Inscriptions These are the names of several generations of Satavahana rulers, recovered from inscriptions. Note the uniform title Raja. 

Also note the following word, which ends with the term puta, a Prakrit word meaning ‘son’. The term Gotami-puta means ‘Son of Gotami’. Names like Gotami and Vasithi are feminine forms of Gotama and Vasistha Vedic seers after whom gotras were named.

Raja Gotami-puta Siri-Satakani Raja Vasithi-puta (sami-) Siri-Pulumayi Raja Gotami-puta sami-Siri- Yana-Satakani

Raja Madhari-puta svami-Sakasena Raja Vasathi-puta Chatarapana-Satakani

Raja Hariti-puta Vinhukada Chutukulanamda-Satakani Raja Gotami-puta Siri-Vijaya-Satakani

(i) What is the importance of gotra in Brahmanical practice?

(ii) How was Satavahana gotra practice different from the Brahmanical practice?

(iii) What position did women enjoy in the Satavahana society?

32. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Colin Mackenzie

Born in 1754, Colin Mackenzie became famous as an engineer, surveyor and cartographer. In 1815, he was appointed the first Surveyor General of India, a post he held till his death in 1821. 

He embarked on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India’s past and make governance of the colony easier. 

He says that “It struggled long under the miseries of bad management before the South came under the benign influence of the British Government.”

By studying Vijayanagara, Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain “much useful information on many of these institutions, laws and customs whose influence still prevails among the various tribes of natives forming the general mass of the population to this day.”

(i) Who was Colin Mackenzie? 

(ii) Mention what Mackenzie did to make governance of the colony easier. 

(iii) According to him, what benefits would the East India Company gain after studying Vijayanagara? Explain in brief.

33. Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.

“British element is gone but they have left the mischief behind.”

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel said

It is no use saying that we ask for separate electorates, because it is good for us. We have heard it long enough. We have heard it for years, and as a result of this agitation we are now a separate nation. 

Can you show me one free country where there are separate electorates? If so, I shall be prepared to accept it. But in this unfortunate country if this separate electorate is going to be persisted in, even after the division of the country, woe betide the country; it is not worth living in. 

Therefore, I say, it is not for my good alone, it is for your own good that I say it, forget the past.

One day, we may be united. The British element is gone, but they have left the mischief behind. 

We do not want to perpetuate that mischief (hear, hear). When the British introduced this element they had not expected that they have to go so soon.

They wanted it for their easy administration. That is all right. But they have left the legacy bad. Are we to get out of it or not?

(i) Why separate electorate was considered as a mischief?

(ii) Explain Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel’s views on the issue of separate electorates system.

(iii) In what ways did Sardar Patel explain that “The British element is gone, but they have left the mischief behind”?


(ii) Place of Jalianwala Bagh Massacre

Section E consists of Map based question of 5 marks

34. A. Locate and label the following.

(i) Place of Quit India Resolution

(iii) One centre of National Movement in Gujarat

(iv) One city of importance in South India

B. On the given political outline map of India, two places associated with Asokan Pillar inscriptions are marked from 1 and 2. Write their names.


1 (d) Only (1) and (iv) are correct

2. (b) The Great Bath

3. (a)

4. (d) Magadha

5. (a) Khilafat Movement

6. (d) He attained Nirvana in Vaishali

7. (a) Shah Jahan Begum

8. (c) Coloured bricks

9. (c) Chola Empire

10. (d) Satara

11. (a) Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi

12. (d) Badshah Nama

13. (a) Guru Nanak expressed his ideas through hymns called ‘Shabad’.

14. (a) Akbar, 1571

15. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

16. (a) Abul Kalam Azad

17. (a) God is one who just has different names.

18. (b) Sangama

19. (a) To suggest changes in Constitution.

20. (a) Because he wanted to break the Salt Law.

21. (c) Both (a) and (b)

22. Archaeologists generally use certain strategies to trace whether there were social or economic differences amongst the people living within a particular culture. These include studying burials and things of luxuries, etc. Burials At burials in Harappan sites, the dead were generally laid in pits. Sometimes, there were differences in the way the burial pit was made. In some instances, the hollowed-out spaces were lined with bricks.

Some graves contain pottery and ornaments. Jewellery has been found in burials of both men and women at the cemetery in Harappa. In some instances, the dead were buried with copper mirrors. Burials containing jewellery, precious stones can be of rich men and women. While other burials may be of common people. Items of Luxury or Utility Another strategy to identify social differences is to study artefacts, which

archaeologists broadly classify as utilitarian and luxuries. The first category (utilitarian) includes objects of daily use made fairly easily out of ordinary materials such as stone or clay. These include querns, pottery, needles, flesh-rubbers, etc and are usually found distributed throughout settlements.

Archaeologists assume that the objects were luxuries if they are made from costly, non-local materials or with complicated technologies e.g. little pots of faience (a material made of ground sand or silica mixed with colour and a gum and then fired) were probably considered precious because they were difficult to make and must have used to store costly items.

23. The argument in favour of greater power to the provinces were K Santhanam from Madras, defended the rights of the states. He believed that a reallocation of power was necessary not only to strengthen the state but also the centre.

He felt that centre would not be able to function properly if it was overburdened. The centre would be made stronger if some of its functions were transferred to the states.

Santhanam belleved that the proposed allocation of powers would cripple the states. The fiscal provision, would impoverish the states since most taxes, except land revenue, had been made the preserve of the centre. Thus, it was not possible for states to undertake any project of development without sufficient finances.

24. Charkha was chosen as a symbol of nationalism because of the following reasons

• Dignity of Labour Charkha symbolised manual labour. Mahatma Gandhi always believed in the dignity of labour. He liked to work with his own hands only and he encouraged manual work.

• Machines Enslave Human Beings Gandhiji opposed machines, as they enslave human beings He adopted Charkha, as he wanted to glorify the dignity of manual labour and not of the machines and technology.

A Medium of Self-reliance Gandhiji believed that Charkha could make a man self-reliant, as it adds to his income.

• Break the Boundaries of Caste System The act of spinning at Charkha wheel enabled Gandhiji to break the boundaries of traditional caste system. Gandhiji wanted to make Charkha as a symbol of nationalism. So, Gandhiji encouraged other national leaders to spin Charkha for some time daily,

25. The salient feature of temple architecture under the Vijayanagara empire were

They introduced the construction of huge gateways around the temple. It was called Raya gopuram and were constructed on such a massive scale that it often dwarfed the towers on the central shrine.

• They also started the construction of long, pillared corridors also called as mandapas. It ran around temple shrines within the temple complex. For Instance, the Kalyana mandala of Virupaksha temple was meant to celebrate the divine marriage.

• Another important feature of the temple complex was the chariot streets that extended from temple gopuram in the straight line. These streets were paved with stone slabs and lined with the pillared pavilions in which merchants set-up their shops.

• In construction of temples and public buildings they also utilised the widespread use of sculptures, It was meant for decorational purpose. For instance, the Hazara Rarna temple included scenes from the Ramayana sculpted on the inner walls of the Shrine.

26. Historians have used a wide variety of sources to study the history of the Mauryan Empire. Some of the sources are as follows

• Things found in archaeological excavation, especially sculpture, are regarded as important sources.

• Contemporary works like writings of Megasthenes, Arthashasthra by Chanakya are important sources regarding that period. It gives an idea about Mauryan administration.

• The Mauryas were also mentioned in later Buddhist, Jaina, Puranic and Sanskrit literature.


The limitation of inscriptional evidences in understanding the political and economic history of India are as follows

Several thousand inscriptions were discovered, but not all of them were deciphered or translated.

• The context of inscriptions invariably projected the perspective of the person who commissioned it. For instance, routine agriculture practices, the joys and sorrows of common people were not mentioned in these inscriptions,

From the mid-20th century, historians became more interested in political and economic changes in society. This led to fresh investigations of old sources. Here, inscriptions had their own limitations to interpret the political and economical history of India.

27. The picture of urban centres from Bernier’s account was

• The cities and towns were ruined with contaminated air, its fields overspread with bushes and full of dirty stagnant water. • Bernier described Mughal cities as camp towns. This

means these towns owed their existence and depended on the imperial court for their survival. He believed that these came into existence when the imperial court moved in and they would decline once

when the imperial court moved out.

not have Bernier suggested that urban centres did viable social and economic foundations and wer dependent on imperial protection.


Bernier’s descriptions give hints about a more comple social reality. His views about this were as follows

• He felt that artisans had no incentive to quality of their manufactures, since profits WE appropriated by the state. Manufacturing was th everywhere in decline. improve the

He also pointed out that large quantities of the World’s precious metals flowed into India, at manufactures were exported in exchange of go and silver.

He also noticed the existence of a prosperou merchant community, engaged in long-distance exchange.

28. Nature of Revolt of 1857

The main ground for the uprising had been prepared by the soldiers. The soldiers working in the British army had revolted, therefore it was called as sepoy mutin Important and immediate cause of the revolt was that the soldiers refused to use the greased cartridges Moreover, there were many other causes such as annexation of Awadh, loss of employment for artisan and high taxation on peasantry. It was the first war of Independence, Lakhs of artisans farmers and soldiers struggled together against the British rule.

At most of the centres of the revolt, leadership was provided by traditional leaders, taluqdars and religious leaders. Prominent among them were Nana Sahib at Kanpur, Rani Laxmi Bai at Jhansi. Hindus and Muslims took part in this revolt unitedly. The masses except some middle class and urban intelligentsia who kept themselves of aloof, took active part in the struggle against the British at almost all centres of uprisings.

Values Reflected by Indians

The Revolt of 1857 showed certain values. These were • The sepoys who were called rebels by the British, appealed to all sections of the society irrespective of caste, creed or religion. Thus, it shows unity among the people.

• The rulers of Princely States appealed to their subjects and the people of those states came forward in large numbers. Moreover, at many places under the insistence of rebels and peasants rulers were compelled to provide leadership to the revolt. It shows faith, trust and loyality.

• The ishtaharas put up by the sepoys shows the existence of different communities under the Mughal empire which shows harmony and peaceful co-existence.

Common people helped the sepoys, peasants gave food and everyone helped in whichever way they could. This reflects the general care and concem for every person. Thus, the revolt show unity, concem and compassion among the people.


The British celebrated those who they believed saved the English and repressed the rebels during the Revolt of 1857 by the various types of paintings which were meant to provide a range of different emotions and reactions also in an example of this type, ‘Rellet of Lucknow, which particulan painted by Thomas Jones Baker in sence they remarkable in this ones Henry Lawrencen tiste Commissioner of Lucknow gathered all the Christians and took refuge along-with them in heavily fortified residency after the rebel forces besieged Lucknow

Lawrence was killed, but the residency continued to be defended under the command of Colonel Inglis. On 25th September, James Outram and Henry Havelock arrived out through the rebel forces and reinforced the British Garrisons,

Twenty days later, Collin Campbell who had been appointed as new commander of the British forces in India, reached with huge reinforcements and rescued the besieged British Garrison. In British accounts, the siege of Lucknow became a story of survival heroic resistance and the ultimate triumph of British power. The arrival of Collin Campbell has been depicted as an event of celebration in Jones Barker’s painting. Campbell, Havelock and Outram, the three British heroes have been painted in the middle of the canvas. The gestures of the hands of the persons standing around thern forcefully attract visitors to the middle of the painting.

The victorious figures of the heroes in the middle symbolising the re-establishment of British power and control is the main objective of these paintings and was to reassure the English in the power of their government. These paintings clearly conveyed the message that crisis was over and the revoit had been finished and the British had succeeded in re-establishment of their power and authority.

29. Alvars were those who were immersed in devotion of Vishnu and Nayanars were leaders who were devotees of Shiva. They sang hymns in Tamil in praise of their gods and travelled from one place to another.

The following relationship existed between the state and Alvars and Nayanars

• There is evidence for states like those of the Pallavas and Pandyas during sixth to ninth centuries CE. Though Buddhism and Jainism had support from merchant and artisan communities from centuries, but they received only occasional royal support.

• Opposition to Buddhism and Jainism was one of the major themes in the poet’s Tamil bhakti hymns. This could be seen in compositions of the Nayanars. Historians explained this opposition as a competition between members of other religious traditions for

royal support. • Powerful Chola rulers of ninth to thirteenth centuries supported Brahmanical and Bhakti traditions by

sion among the people. making land grants and constructing temples of Vishnu and Shiva.

Some of the most magnificent Shiva temples, like those at Chidambaram, Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram were constructed with the support of Chola rulers. During this, some of the most beautiful representations of Shiva in bronze sculpture were produced.

The visions of the Nayanars inspired artists. Vellala peasants respected both Nayanars and Alvars. So, rulers tried to win these peasants support as well. By building very impressive temples, the Chola kings tried to claim divine support and proclaim their own power and status. These kings also introduced the singing of Tamil

Shiva hymns in the temples under royal patronage, taking the initiative to collect and organise them into a text called Tevaram

From inscriptions, we have evidence that around 945 CE, Chola ruler Parantaka 1, had dedicated for religious purpose, the metal images of Appar, Sambandar and Sundarar in a Shiva temple.


The Sufism in India started after the arrival of Shaikh Muinuddin Sijzi at Ajmer in 1191 AD. He initiated the Chisti Silsila in India. Gradually the Sufis all over the country began to organise communities around their hospices which was also known as Khanqah. 

These Khanqah apart from serving the centre of all social life related to the Sufism also served as centre where wide variety of text were composed. This text help immensly in our understanding about Sufism and in their historical reconstruction. The important text composed around Khanqah are discussed below

Malfuzat It means uttered i.e. conversations of Sufi saints. Fawa’id-al-Fu’ad is an example of early text on malfuzat

It was the collection of conversations of Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya, compiled by Amir Hasan Sijzi Dehlavi, a noted Persian poet.

Malfuzats were compiled by different Sufi silsilas with the permission of the shaikhs. The ultimate motto of these texts was to teach moral values. We can see several such texts from different parts of the subcontinent, including the Deccan.

Maktubat It means written collections of letters written by Sufi masters to their disciples and associates. These give us information about the shaikn’s experience of religious truth that he wanted to share with others. They also show the life conditions of the recipients and are responses to their aspirations and difficulties.

They include both difficult and daily life regular activities. Maktubat-i Im Rabbani, written by Naqshbandi Shaikh Ahmad are among the most frequently discussed by scholars. The ideology of Shaikh Ahmad was different from the liberal and non-sectarian views of Akbar.

Tazkiras it means to mention and memorialise biographical accounts of saints. The fourteenth century Star-ul-Auliya of Amir Khwurd Kirman was the first Sufi tazkira written in India. It was mainly about Chishti saints. 

The most famous tazkira was the Akhbar-ul- Akhyar of Abdul Haqq Muhaddis Dehlavi. The authors of the tazkiras often tried to establish the previous history of their own orders and glorify their spiritual ancestors

30. The Sanchi Stupa was built in the 2nd century BCE and regarded as one of the important stupas in India. It was discovered in 1818 The structural features of the Sanchi Stupa are The stupa originated as a simple semi-circular mound of Earth, later called Anda. Above the anda was the harmik, a balcony-like structure that represented the abode of the gods. 

There was a mast called the yashti, arising from the harmika and it was surmounted by a chhatri or umbrella. Around the mound, there was a railing separating the sacred space from the world. There were stone railing and the gateways, which were richly carved and installed at the four cardinal points.

• An elevation of the great stupa provides a vertical perspective

• Art historians identified the scene depicting the gateways as a scene from the Vessantara Jataka. They often try to understand the meaning of sculpture by comparing it with textual evidence.

• Many symbols like empty seat, wheel, tree were used to indicate the different teachings of Buddhism in Sanchi stupa. For instance, the empty seat was meant to represent the Mahaparinibbana and wheel stood for the first sermon of Buddha.

Other sculptures for example, a beautiful woman

swinging from the edge of the gateway holding a tree, depicted Shalabhanjika, who as a woman whose touch caused trees to flower and bear fruit. Depiction of animals like elephants, horses, monkeys and cattle were found there. Animals were used as symbols of human attributes, e.g. elephants were depicted to signify strength and wisdom.

There is a motif in Sanchi Stupa that a woman

surrounded by lotuses and elephants, which seems to be sprinkling water on her, as if performing on Abhisheka or consecration. Some historians thoug that it was Maya, the mother of Buddha, while othe identified her with a popular Goddess (goddess of good fortune). Gajalaksh


Vaishnavism and Shaivism are the two branches Hinduism. In case of Vaishnavism, Lord Vishnu we regarded as the chief deity. In case of Shaivism Log Shiva was regarded as the chief deity. Both traditions were part of the Bhakti movement.

This tradition of Vaishnavism and Shaivism al impacted the tradition of architecture and sculpture. The temples developed the house deities. The initial temples were small and simple. It was a small room called Garbhagriha. Later it expanded, a tall structure was but on the Garbhagriha. It was called Shikhara. The walls of the temple were decorated with sculpture. Later the temples had an elaborate structure. They have assembly halls, huge walls, big gateways and arrangements for the supply of water. Soon temples were built that had huge entrance and big halls for the comfort of visitors

Many of these temples were carved out of rocks, These artificial caves were turned into temples. The most important were the Ajivikas, that developed as a sect during the reign of Ashoka. Later a good example of the rock-cut temple is the Kailash Nath temple of the 8th century. It was carved out of a single piece rock. Sculpture was yet another way of expression. Deities were given many shapes and forms in the sculpture Shiva has been shown in the form of Linga. Many deities have shown in different forms.


(1) ‘Gotra’ had immense importance in Brahmanical practice. Women were expected to give up their father’s gotra and adopt that of their husband after marriage and the members of the same gotra could not marry.

(ii) Satavahana gotra practice was different from Brahmanical gotra practice. Women who married Satavahana rulers retained their father’s gotra after marriage. Also some women belonged to same gotra as that of husband’s gotra, which was against the principle of exogany as mentioned in the Brahmanical texts.

(i) Women enjoyed respectable position in Satavahana society. As the Satavahana rulers were identified through metronymics, this suggests that mothers were important and had a respectable place in society.

For example Gotami’s son was known as Gotami-Puta, Vasithi’s son was called Vasithi-Puta The matrilineal descent maintained the name of mother instead of father.

32. (1) Coliny Mackenzie was a famous engineer, surveyor and cartographer. In 1815, he was appointed as the first Surveyor General of India.

(ii) Colin Mackenzie embarked on collecting local histories. He surveyed historic sites of the empire. His purpose was to better understand India’s past and make governance of the colony easier.

(iii) Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain much useful information from his studies.

The company could know about the institutions, laws and customs of Vijayanagara. In fact, the various tribes and natives which have formed the general mass of the population to this day bear deep influences of these facts.

33. (i) Separate electorates was considered as a mischief because in the name of giving representation to minorities, Britishers divided two major communities of India politically.

(ii) According to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, separate electorates would be suicidal to the minorities and would do tremendous harm to them and the whole society.

It was a demand that had turned one community against another, divided the nation, caused bloodshed and led to the tragic partition of the country. He argued that it would permanently isolate the minorities, make them vulnerable and deprive them of any effective say within the government.

(iii) Sardar Patel said that British policy of separate electorate created a division in the people of India and divided them on the basis of religion. This division culminated with partition of the country. Britishers have left the country but negative consequence of that policy still haunted Indians.


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