History sample paper class 12 Cbse with solution PDF Download

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Today we cover History sample paper class 12 Cbse with solution PDF Download with the help of this article. We also cover some relevant topics such as CBSE Class 12 History Sample Paper 2024 with Solutions PDF Download, history sample paper class 12 cbse with Solution and class 12 history sample paper with solution

History sample paper class 12 Cbse with solution

BoardCBSE
Years2024 (Based on the latest Syllabus)
Class 12th
PapersCBSE Sample paper
SubjectsHistory
MediumEnglish
Provides Mcqs, Verry shorts, Shorts, Long answer and map works
SectionsA, B, C, D, E
Max. Marks80
Times3 hrs


Section A


CBSE Class 12 History Sample Paper with Solutions PDF Download

Section A consists of 21 questions of 1 mark each 

1. Which of the following dynasties did queen Prabhavati belong to?

(a) Gupta

(b) Maurya

(c) Kushana

(d) Vakataka

2. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?

(Harappan Site)   (Location) 
(A) MandaUttar Pradesh
(B) RakhigarhiSindh
(C) NageshwarGujarat
(D) KalibanganRajasthan

Codes

(a) (ii) and (iv)

(b) (i) and (iv) 

(c) (ii) and (iii)

(d) (iii) and (iv)

3. Which of the following is the correct chronological sequence of the ruling dynasties of India? 

(a) Kushans, Mauryas and Guptas

(b) Mauryas, Guptas and Shakas

(c) Mauryas, Shakas and Guptas

(d) Guptas, Shakas and Mauryas

4. Look at the figure given below and identify the structural feature marked as ‘A’ of the Sanchi stupa from the following options. 

(a) Harmika

(b) Anda

(c) Yashti

(d) Chhatri

5. Which of the following countries ‘Duarte Barbosa belonged to?

(a) Russia

(b) Portugal 

(c) Spain

(d) France

6. Which of the following statements regarding the “Nath sect of Medieval India is not correct?

(a) The Nath sect mostly came from artisan groups 

(b) They expressed themselves in common language

(c) They were the devotional people from North India.

(d) Amir Khusro was the prominent one from this sect

7. Why was Vijayanagara named as Hampi? Select the appropriate option from the following 

(a) This name was given by Krishnadeva Raya to Vijayanagara

(b) This name was derived by Colin Mackenzie, an antiquarian. 

(c) This name was derived from the local Goddess named Pampadevi 

(d) This name was devoted to Vitthals and Virupaksha deities

8. Match the following.

List-I (Lands in the Mughal Empire )List-II (Features)
A. Polaj    1. The land is always being cultivated
B. Paranti 2. Land fallow for three to four years
C. Chachhar 3 Land fallow a year
D. Banjar.   4. Land uncultivated for five years

Codes

      ABCD

(a) 1 3 2 4

(b) 2 3 4 1

(c) 3 4 1 2

(d) 4 3 2 1

9. Arrange the following in chronological order and select the correct order from the following options

1. Santhal Rebellion

II. Riots in Deccan Villages

III. Permanent Settlement in Bengal

IV. First Revenue Settlement in Bombay

Codes

(a) I, II, III and IV

(b) II, III, IV and I

(c) III, IV, I and II

(d) IV, I, II and III

10. Read the given information and identify the leader of the 1857 Revolt from the following options 

  • Nawab of Awadh
  • Was dethroned and exiled to Calcutta
  • British wrongly assumed he was an unpopular ruler

(A) Birjis Qadr

(b) Shah Alam

(c) Wajid Ah Shah

(d) Bahadur Shah

11. Who among the following demanded justice for women, not reserved seats or separate electorates in the Constituent Assembly? 

(a) Malati Choudhary

(b) Hansa Mehta

(c) Begum Aizaz Rasul

(d) Rajkumari Amrit Kaur

12. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). 

Assertion (A) The Lahore session of Congress in 1929 was significant.

Reason (R) Proclamation of commitment of ‘Poorna Swaraj’ or complete independence was passed.

Codes

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of А

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

13. Which of the following pairs is correctly matched? 

First Millennium Thinker  Country they Belonged
(a) Zarathustra  Iran
(b) Kungzi        Japan
(c) SocratesRome
(d) Mahavira Sri Lanka

14. Which one of the following regions of Harappa was called as ‘Ganeshwar Jodhpur Culture’? 

(a) Nageshwar

(b) Khetri

(c) Amri

(d) Chanhudaro

15. Which of the following statements is not correct about Vedic culture? 

(a) The early Vedic tradition was compiled between BCE 1000 to 1600 CE.

(b) The Rigveda consists of hymns in praise of Agni, Indra and Soma.

(c) The Rajasuya and Ashvamedha Yajnas were performed by Kings.

(d) Many Vedic ideas were found in the Upanishads.

16. Match the following.

List-l (Culture) List-ll (Saints)
A. Alvar 1. Guru Gobind Singh
B. Nayanar2. Andal
C. Sufism3. Karaikkal-Ammaiyar
D. Sikhism 4. Baba Farid

Codes

     ABCD

(a) 1 3 24

(b) 1 2 3 4

(c) 2 3 4 1

(d) 4 2 3 1

17. Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?

StateLeader of 1857 Revolt
(a) Kanpur Tantya Tope
(b) Madhya PradeshShah Mal
(c) Bihar Kunwar Singh
(d) Uttar PradeshGonoo

18. Which of the following information is correct about Ain-i-Akbari? 

I. It was written in Arabic by Abdul Raji.

II. It was a 16th-century document, written by Abul Fazl in the Persian language.

III. Sipah-Abadi, covers the military and civil administration.

IV. Mulk-Abadi, deals with the fiscal side of the empire.

Codes

(a) II, III and IV

(b) III, IV and I

(c) IV, I and II

(d) I, II and III

19. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). 

Assertion (A) Zamindars defaulted on payments in the Permanent Settlement.

Reason (R) Prices of the agricultural produce were low.

Codes

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

(c) A is true, but R is false

(d) A is false, but R is true

20. Who among the following in the Constituent Assembly proposed a ‘horizontal tricolour national flag of saffron, white and green in equal proportion’? 

(a) Rajendra Prasad

(b) Jawahar Lal Nehru

(c) Mahatma Gandhi

(d) KM Munshi

21. Who among the following travellers was from Portugal? 

(a) Antonio Monserrate

(b) Domingo Paes

(c) Peter Mundy

(d) Francois Bernier



Section B


Section B consists of 6 questions of 3 marks each

22. ‘Mohenjodaro was a planned urban centre. Support the statement with suitable statements. 

23. Describe the main teachings of Buddhism. 

Or Describe the teachings of Jainism.

24. ‘Kabir is known as one of the saints whose philosophy has greatly influenced the Bhakti Movement.’ Justify the statement with suitable points. 

25. How revenue from the land was the economic mainstay for the Mughal Empire? Explain with examples.

Or Explain the role of village panchayats in the Mughal rural society. 

26. How did the rebels of 1857 emphasize the vision of unity? Explain with examples:

27. Explain the arguments given in favour of a strong centre in the Constituent Assembly. 


Section C


Section C consists of 3 questions of 8 marks each

28. How were the inscriptions of the Maurya period deciphered? Explain the limitations of epigraphy. 

Or How do historians come to know about the Maurya period? Explain the administrative structure of the Mauryan empire.

29. Analyse the features of the sacred centre of the ‘Vijayanagara Empire’. 

Or Examine the architectural and ritual features of ‘Mahanavami Dibba’. 

30. How did the ‘Salt Satyagraha’ of Gandhiji become the All-India campaign in opposition to the British? Explain with examples. 

Or

“As a consequence of the Non-Cooperation Movement, the British Raj was shaken to its foundation for the first time since the revolt of 1857.” Explain the statement with examples.


Section D


Section D consists of 3 Source based questions of 4 marks each

31. Read the given source and answer the questions that follow.

A Tiger-like Husband

This is a summary of a story from the Adi Parvan of the Mahabharata.

The Pandavas had fled into the forest. They were tired and fell asleep; only Bhima, the second Pandava, renowned for his prowess, was keeping watch. A man-eating rakshasa caught the second of the Pandavas and sent his sister Hidimba to capture them. 

She fell in love with Bhima, transformed herself into a lovely maiden and proposed to him. He refused. Meanwhile, the rakshasa arrived and challenged Bhima to a wrestling match. Bhima accepted the challenge and killed him. The others woke up hearing the noise. 

Hidimba introduced herself and declared her love for Bhima. She told Kunti: “I have forsaken my friends, my dharma and my kin; and good lady, chosen your tiger-like son for my man whether you think me a fool or your devoted servant, let me join you, great lady, with your son as my husband.”

Ultimately, Yudhisthira agreed to the marriage on the condition that they would spend the day together but that Bhima would return every night.

The couple roamed all over the world during the day. In due course, Hidimba gave birth to a rakshasa boy named Ghatotkacha. Then, the mother and son left the Pandavas. Ghatotkacha promised to return to the Pandavas whenever they needed him.

(i) How was Hidimba’s culture different from Pandavas? 

(ii) Why did Kunti approve Hidimba’s plea for Bhima? 

(iii) How did the incident prove Kunti’s far-sightedness? 

32. Read the given source and answer the questions that follow.

A language with an enormous range

Al-Biruni described Sanskrit as follows. If you want to conquer this difficulty (i.e. learn Sanskrit), you will not find it easy, because the language is of an enormous range, both in words and inflexions, something like Arabic, calling the same thing by various names, both original and derivative, and using the same word for a variety of subjects, which, to be properly understood, must be distinguished from each other by various qualifying epithets.

(i) How did Al-Biruni compare Sanskrit with Arabic?

(ii) Give an example of the work Al-Biruni translated in Arabic from Sanskrit.

(iii) Analyse the reason why Sanskrit is considered a language with an enormous range.

33. Referring to the condition of Zamindars and the auction of lands, the Fifth Report stated. The revenue was not realised with punctuality and lands to a considerable extent were periodically exposed to sale by auction. 

In the native year 1203, corresponding with 1796-97, the land advertised for sale comprehended a jumma or assessment of sicca rupees 28,70,061, the extent of land sold bore a jumma of assessment of rupees 14,18,756 and the amount of purchase money sicca rupees 17,90,116. In 1204, corresponding with

1797-98, the land advertised was for sicca rupees 26,66,191, the quantity sold was for sicca rupees 22,74,076 and the purchase money sicca rupees 21,47,580.

Among the defaulters were some of the oldest families in the country. Such were the rajahs of Nuddea, Rajeshaye, Bishenpore (all districts of Bengal) and others, the dismemberment of whose estates at the end of each succeeding year, threatened them with poverty and ruin, and in some instances presented difficulties to the revenue officers, in their efforts to preserve undiminished the amount of public assessment.

(i) Examine the reason for calling it a ‘Fifth Report’. (1)

(ii) Why were the activities of the East India Company closely debated in England?

(iii) Analyse any two limitations of this report.


Section E


Section E consists of Map based questions of 5 marks

34. (i) On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols. 

image 1

(a) Ujjaiyini – A Mahajanapada.

(b) Kalibangan-A matured Harappan site.

(c) Panipat – A territory under the control of the Mughals.

Or

(d) Thanjavur An empire of the Medieval period.

(ii) On the same outline map, two places regarding the centre of the Indian National Movement have been marked as ‘A’ and ‘B’. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.


Answers


1 (d) Vakataka

2 (d) (iii) and (2)

3 (c) Mauryas, Shakas and Guptas

4 (a) Harmika

5 (b) Portugal

6 (d) Amir Khusro was the prominent one from this sect.

7 (c) This name was derived from the local Goddess named Pampadevi.

8 (a)

9 (c) III, IV, I and II

10 (c) Wajid Ali Shah

11 (b) Hansa Mehta

12 (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

13 (a) Zarathustra – Iran

14 (b) Khetri

15 (a) The early Vedic tradition was compiled between BCE 1000 to 1600 СЕ.

16 (c)

17 (c) Bihar-Kunwar Singh

18 (a) II, III and IV

19 (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

20 (b) Jawaharlal Nehru

21 (b) Domingo Paes

22 Mohenjodaro was a planned urban centre due to its following features

Citadel It was smaller but higher than the lower town. It was walled and was physically separated from the Lower Town. Here, the buildings were constructed with mud brick platforms. Here, we find some structures that were probably used for special public purposes. These included the warehouse and the Great Bath.

Drainage System Mohenjodaro had a carefully planned drainage system. The roads and the streets were laid out along an approximate ‘grid’ pattern, intersecting at right angles. It seems that streets with drains were laid out first and then houses were built along them. Every house had its bathroom paved with bricks, with drains connected through a wall to the street drain.

Usage of Standard Bricks The quality of sun-dried bricks or baked bricks also proves the concept of planning. All the bricks were of a standard ratio.

23. The main teachings of Buddhism are as follows: The world is transient and constantly changing. It is also soulless as there is nothing permanent or eternal in it.

Sorrow is intrinsic to human existence.

By following the path of moderation between (self-punishment) and self-indulgence, human beings can use these worldly pleasures.

Buddha advised kings and gajapatis to be humane and ethical, Buddha regarded the social world as the creation of humans rather than of divine origin.

Buddha emphasised individual agency and righteous action as the means to escape from the cycle of rebirth and attain self-realisation and nibbana which means the extinguishing of ego and desire. 

Or Following are the important teachings of Jainism

Life All Over the World The entire world is animated. It is believed that even the stones, rocks and water have life.

Not to Harm Any Living Being No living being should be given any injury. The basic philosophy of Jainism is not to harm or cause injury to human beings, animals, plants and insects. The principle of ahimsa is emphasised within Jainism.

Practice of Asceticism and Penance The cycle of birth and re-birth is shaped through karma. If one is to escape from this cycle of karma, one must practice asceticism (self-discipline) and penance (self-punishment). It is possible if one renounces the world. So, one has to live in a monastery to attain salvation.

Five Vows Jain monks and nuns take five vows not to kill, not to steal, not to tell a lie, not to possess property, and to observe celibacy (self-discipline).

24. Kabir is one of the most important examples of a poet-saint. His philosophy has greatly influenced the Bhakti Movement in the following ways.

He coordinated Hinduism and Islam by giving a universal path that could be followed by both Hindus and Muslims.

He composed poems in a concise and simple style resonating with the admiration of a factual guru. After being illiterate he wrote his poems in Hindi mixing with Awadhi, Braj, and Bhojpuri languages.

• He had given the people an authentic fact about what the religion of human beings should have. This has helped the common people to understand his message very easily.

25. The Mughal Empire’s economy was based on the revenue from the land. So it was important for the Mughal state to create an administrative machinery to have control over agricultural production and to fix and collect revenue from the large empire which was expanding rapidly.

This administrative machinery included the office (daftar) of the diwan who was responsible for looking after the budget system of the empire. Thus, revenue officials and record keepers entered the agricultural domain and became important people in shaping agrarian relations

Emperor Akbar classified the lands and fixed a different revenue to be paid by each. These were Polaj, Paranti, Chachar and Banjar. There were several systems for land revenue collection

(1) First, kankut in which the word kan signifies grain, and kut means to estimate or appraisal. The crops should be cut and estimated in three lots, the good, the middling, and the inferior. The land taken by appraisement gives a sufficiently accurate return

(ii) Secondly, batai, also called bhaoli. In this system, the crops are reaped stacked and divided by agreement in the presence of the parties.

(ii) Thirdly, khet-batai in which the fields are divided after they are sown,

(iv) Fourthly, lang batai in which after cutting the grain, the crops were arranged in heaps and divided Each takes his share home and turns it into profit.

The role of village panchayats in the Mughal rural society was

The village panchayat was responsible for the administration of the village. All the functions such as security, health, and cleanliness, primary education, law and order, irrigation, construction work and making arrangements for the moral and religious upliftment of the masses were performed by the Panchayat

The village panchayat was responsible for keeping accounts of the income and expenditure of the village

The village panchayat had the function of regulating the rural society.

The village panchayat acted as the court of appeal that would ensure that the state carried out its moral obligations and guaranteed justice.

• The village panchayats had the authority to levy fines and inflict more serious forms of punishment like expulsion from the community.

26. The rebels of 1857 had emphasized the vision of unity in the following ways

• The proclamation of revolt in 1857 appealed to all sections of the population irrespective of caste and creed. Even if the proclamations were issued by Muslim princes or in their name, they took care of the sentiments of Hindus.

The revolt was a loss or a gain equally to both Hindus and Muslims

The Ishtar was a symbol to show the existence of different communities under the Mughal Empire.

The proclamation issued in the name of Bahadur Shah appealed to the people to join the fight under the standards of both Muhammad and Mahavira During the uprising, religious divisions between Hindus and Muslims were absent despite British

attempts to create such divisions For example, the British spent 50,000 to incite the Hindu population against the Muslims in Bareilly, Western Uttar Pradesh in December 1857, but the attempt failed

27. The arguments given in favour of a strong centre in the Constituent Assembly were

BR Ambedkar declared that he wanted a strong and united centre, stronger than the centre under the Government of India Act of 1935. The supporters argued that a strong centre could stop the communal outburst

Gopalaswami Ayyangar declared that the centre should be made as strong as possible.

Balakrishna Sharma, a member from the United Provinces, also emphasised the need for a powerful arid strong centre. He believed that a strong centre could plan for the well-being of the country, mobilise the available economic resources, establish a proper administration and defend the country against foreign aggression.

Leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru also supported the demand for a strong centre as the country was going through a phase of transformation. Many areas or regions of the country wanted to establish themselves as a separate entity.

28. The inscriptions of the Mauryan period had been deciphered in the following ways

  • Deciphering Brahmi Most scripts used to write modern Indian languages are derived from Brahmi. This script was used in most Asokan inscriptions.
  • From the late 18th century, European scholars, with the help of Indian pandits, could study several manuscripts in Bengali and Devanagari and compare their letters with older specimens.
  • Scholars, who studied early inscriptions sometimes assumed these were in Sanskrit, although the earliest Inscriptions were, In fact, in Prakrit. It was only after decades of careful investigations by several epigraphists that James Prinsep was able to decipher Asokan Brahmi in 1838.
  • Deciphering Kharosthi Kharosthi is used in the inscriptions of North-West. Coins of Indo-Greek kings who ruled over the area
  • (C 2nd-Ist century BCE) contained the names of kings written in Greek and Kharosthi scripts. European scholars could read the Kharosthi script by comparing the letters. The language used in Kharosthi was Prakrit.
  • The limitations of epigraphy were Technical Limitations Sometimes letters are very faintly engraved and thus doubts arise.
  • Damaged or Missing Letters Sometimes Important letters are damaged or missing in the Inscription. It makes the work of epigraphists more difficult.
  • Lack of Clarity It is not always easy to be sure about the exact meaning of the words used in the inscriptions, some of which may be specific to a particular place or time. So, scholars are constantly debating on alternative ways to read inscriptions
  • Undeciphered Inscriptions Thousands of inscriptions have been discovered, but not all have been deciphered, published and translated. Many inscriptions were destroyed and only a fraction is available to us.

Non-relevance of Inscriptions Inscriptions were composed in praise of kings and patrons. Not everything that is economically or politically important was recorded in the inscriptions, e.g. routine agricultural practice and the joys and sorrows of the common man were not mentioned in the inscriptions.

Or

Historians came to know about the Maurya period from the following sources

  • Things found in archaeological excavation, especially sculpture are regarded as an important source
  • Contemporary works like writings of Megasthenes, and Arthashastra by Chanakya are important sources regarding that period. It gives an idea about the Mauryan administration.
  • The Mauryas were also mentioned in later Buddhist, Jaina, Puranic and Sanskrit literature.
  • The administrative structure of the Mauryan empire was • Administrative control was strongest in areas around the capital and the provincial centres. Taxila and Ujjayini were situated on important long-distance trade routes.
  • • Suvarnagiri was important for utilising the gold mines of Karnataka. Communication along both land and riverine routes was vital for the existence of the empire.

Megasthenes mentions a committee with six sub-committees for military coordination activity. These were

(i) One looked after the navy.

(ii) Second-managed transport and provisions.

(iii) Third was responsible for foot soldiers.

(iv) Fourth for horses.

(v) Fifth for chariots

(vi) Sixth for elephants.

29. The features of the sacred centre of the Vijayanagara Empire were

The temples have structures of a very large scale that must be symbolic of imperial authority. The best examples are raya gopurams or royal gateways that often made the towers on the central shrines look smaller and indicated the presence of the temple from a great distance. They might also be the symbols of the power of kings, who have authority over the resources, techniques and skills needed to construct these extremely tall gateways.

Other important features are mandapas or pavilions and long pillared corridors that often run around the shrines within the temple complex. An important feature of the temple complexes was the chariot streets that extended from the temple gopuram in a straight line. These streets were paved with stone slabs and lined with pillared pavilions in which merchants set up their shops.

Local nayakas continued the traditions of fortification and temple building. Some of them constructed the most spectacular gopurams.

The site of Vijayanagara was inspired by the existence of the shrines of Virupaksha and Pampadevi. Vijayanagara kings claimed that they ruled on behalf of the god Virupaksha. The halls in the temple were used for various purposes.

Some spaces had images of Gods to witness special programmes of music, dance, drama, etc. Other spaces were used for marriages of deities, and some others were meant for the deities to swing in

The main deity of the Vitthala temple was Vitthala, a form of Vishnu generally worshipped in Maharashtra Like other temples, Vitthala temple also had several halls and a unique shrine designed as a chariot.

One of the important features of Vitthala temple was the chariot streets. It extended from the temple of Gopuram in a straight line. These streets were paved with stone slabs and lined with pillared pavilions in which merchants set up their shops

Or

The architectural features of Mahanavami Dibba were that Mahanavami Dibba was located at one of the highest points in the city.

It was a massive platform or stage rising from a base of about 11,000 sq ft to a height of 40 ft.

It supported a wooden building and the base of the platform was covered with relief designs or carvings

The ritual features of Mahanavami Dibba were Rituals associated with the Mahanavami Dibba probably coincided with Mahanavami ie the ninth day of the ten-day Hindu festival during the autumn months of September and October.

It is known as Dussehra in North India, Durga Puja in Bengal and Navaratri or Mahanavami in peninsular India. The Vijayanagara kings showed their prestige, power and control over the empire on this occasion.

  • Various ceremonies were performed on this Mahanavami like 
  • worship of image.
  • worship of the state horse

the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals dances, wrestling matches, a procession of highly decorated horses, elephants and chariots and soldiers were the main attractions of this occasion. 

The rituals were presented before the king and his guests by the chief Nayakas and subordinate kings. Thus, the rituals associated with the Mahanavami Dibba were significant. Salt Satyagraha of Gandhiji became the All-India

30. campaign in opposition to the British as it was a widespread movement. The movement started with the famous Dandi March on 12th March 1930. Gandhiji along with 78 of his followers began his foot march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a village of seashore in Surat district, about 375 km away from Sabarmati Ashram.

  • The violation of salt law by Gandhiji was a signal of the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Soon, this movement spread like wildfire through the length and breadth of the country.
  • This march made Gandhiji a centre of attraction for the whole of the world. The European press and the American press published detailed accounts of the Salt March conducted by Gandhiji.

Undoubtedly, it was the first national movement in which women participated in large numbers. Kamala Devi Chattopadhyay, the renowned socialist worker advised Gandhiji not to keep the movements limited to men-folk only. A large number of women along with Kamala Devi violated the salt and liquor laws and courted arrest collectively.

As a result of the Salt Movement, the colonial rulers understood clearly that their authority was not going to remain permanent in India and now they will have to give some participation to the Indians in power,

As a consequence of the Non-Cooperation Movement, the British Raj was shaken to its foundation for the first time since the revolt of 1857 in the following ways

• The revolt of 1857 came as a complete surprise to British authorities and provided massive encouragement to millions of Indian nationalists. The country’s unity was strengthened, and many Indian schools and colleges were established.

• The British government was taken aback by the magnitude of the Non-Cooperation Movement. It drew participation from both Hindus and Muslims demonstrating the country’s communal harmony. The movements along with the Khilafat Movement encouraged people to go for popular action against the British was never seen before in colonial India

  • These actions were 
  • Students boycotted schools and colleges run by the government
  • Lawyers refused to attend court

The strike was organised by the working class in many towns and cities. There were 396 strikes in 1921 involving 600.000 workers and a loss of seven million workdays Forest laws were violated by hill tribes in Northem Andhra

  • Farmers in Awadh refused to pay taxes.
  • Peasants in Kumaun refused to carry loads for colonial officials.
  • The Congress Party’s popularity among the people was established as a result of this movement.
  • People became aware of their political rights as a result of this movement. They had no fear of the government

31. (1) The Hidimba culture was different from the Pandavas In terms of their beliefs, customs, rituals and many other social practices, as well as their geographical and historical contexts.

(1) Kunti approved Hidimba’s plea for Bhima because she recognised Hidimba’s sincerity and devotion towards Bhima and believed that Bhima would be happy in the company of Hidimba.

(iii) Kunti’s approval of Hidimba’s plea for Bhima demonstrated her far-sightedness as a mother and a leader. She recognised that Bhima’s happiness and well-being were more important than traditional societal expectations and that her support for Hidimba would strengthen Pandava’s ties with the local community and benefit them in the long run.

32. (1) Al-Biruni was a Persian scholar who lived in the 11th century. He compared Sanskrit with Arabic and noted similarities and differences in their grammatical structures and vocabulary, as well as in their literary and philosophical traditions.

(i) Al-Biruni translated Patanjali’s Sanskrit work on grammar into Arabic. He also translated the works of Euclid, a Greek mathematician, into Sanskrit.

(ii) Sanskrit is considered a language with an enormous range because it has a vast and complex vocabulary, with a variety of synonyms, antonyms, and homonyms, and a rich tradition of literature and philosophical texts. It also has a sophisticated grammatical structure, with intricate rules for syntax, tense, and mood, which allows for precise and nuanced expression.

33. (i) The reason for calling the Fifth Report has shaped our conception of the events that took place in rural Bengal in the late 18th century. It also became the basis of intense parliamentary debates on the nature of the East India Company’s rule in India.

(ii) The activities of the East India Company were closely debated in England because the company held a monopoly over trade with India and had significant political and economic power. There were concerns about corruption, exploitation, and abuses of power, which led to calls for greater regulation and oversight of the company’s activities.

(iii) The two points of limitations regarding the Fifth Report are

• It exaggerated the downfall of Zamindari power and the rate at which Zamindars were losing their lands.

• The report was biased as it wanted to highlight the maladministration of the East India Company in India.

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