Ncert Solutions Home Science Class 12 Chapter 3 Notes PDF

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Home Science Class 12 Chapter 3 Notes PDF,

Home Science Class 12 Chapter 3 Notes PDF

Class12th 
Chapter NameSpecial Needs of Handicapped Children
Chapter number03
Book NCERT
SubjectHome Science
Medium English
Study MaterialsImportant questions answers
Download PDFHome Science Class 12 Chapter 3 Notes PDF

Special Needs of Handicapped Children

In the present chapter, information about the special needs of disabled children has been presented. Disabled children include blind children, deaf children and handicapped children etc. Every child is different from another child physically, mentally, socially and emotionally. Different types of physical deficiency are disability, visual impairment, hearing loss and being free from defects. 

There are three types of mental deficiency. Moderate-normal and C-deficient children have special needs, such as more stimulation, more care, special support, appropriate equipment, special education, socialization etc. A disabled child is one whose physical, mental, emotional and social abilities are different from normal or average and who requires a special education system to develop his full capabilities. 

Ncert Solutions Home Science Class 12 Chapter 3 Notes PDF

There are various causes of eye diseases, such as congenital blindness, acquired blindness, nutritional blindness and blindness can occur due to inadequate medical treatment. Similarly, there can be various causes of deafness, such as conductive deafness, sensory nerve deafness and acquired deafness etc. Disability occurs due to various reasons, such as congenital disability and acquired orthopedic defects etc. Disabled children should be given active immunization and encouragement as per their age so that they can achieve success in their life.


VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q.1. Who is a disabled child? Give two examples.

Ans. According to psychologists, “A disabled child is one whose physical, mental, emotional and social abilities are different from normal or average and who needs a special system to develop his full capabilities, such as a blind or handicapped child.

Q. 2. Give two reasons for physical disability of children.

Ans. There can be many reasons for disability in children. Two of them are as follows-

(a) Disability comes due to hereditary sequence.

(b) Due to injury at the time of birth or after.

Q. 3. When should a child be considered incapable?

Ans. A child should be considered disabled when he cannot use it, such as blind, deaf or blind.

(a) The child is fully aware of his senses.

(b) When the child cannot integrate with the society in which he lives, practical problems arise in him.

Q.4. Give two reasons for visual impairment

Ans. (a) Visual defect can be congenital.

(b) Vision is also lost due to accident.

Q.5. What are the two main causes of deafness?

Ans. Deafness or hearing loss: In this there is some disorder in the hearing power.

(a) Deafness can be congenital.

(b) If a child gets any infection like measles, mumps, infectious disease, then deafness can also occur.

Ans. (a) Deaf children are educated through “oral method and hot flashes”. It is also called Oral Method or Lip reading. Learners and teachers in this

Both require a lot of patience and restraint.

(b) Establish contact through finger gestures by using sign language.

Q.7. What are the two main problems that disabled children have to face?

Ans. Handicapped, lame and blind children are called handicapped children. Their muscles and bones are defective. The main problem of these children is that these children are the center of ridicule of healthy children. Therefore, symptoms like feeling of inferiority, anxiety and frustration arise in them. These children also feel emotionally insecure.

Q. 8. Give examples of which two equipment are available for teaching blind children. 

Ans. Special equipment is required to raise completely blind and visually impaired children.

(a) Braille script – Braille script is used to teach blind children. Through this script, children learn to write and read letters, numbers and alphabets. Braille is a typewriter-like device. 1

(b) Recorded Tapes: Chapters are taped on these tapes and this tape is learned by listening to the sound. These children acquire information through the power of hearing. Nowadays the most modern equipment is computer in which special provision is available for blind people.

Q. 9. What are the types of mental deficiency?

Ans. (i) Moderate mental deficiency,

(ii) General mental deficiency,

(iii) Profound and severe mental deficiency.

Q. 10. What is prenatal exceptionality?

Ans. Many times the child becomes physically incapable during pregnancy itself before birth. It is called prenatal exceptionalism.

Q. 11. What is socialization?

Ans. Living like other normal people of the society and easily following the behavior and culture accepted by the society is called socialization.

Q. 12. What is the meaning of exceptional?

Ans. Exceptional – different from normal. Therefore, it includes both backward and talented children.

Q. 13. What is the meaning of genetic exceptionalism?

Ans. Many children also become physically or mentally handicapped due to genetics received from their parents; If there is a defect in the genes present in the parent’s lineage, the child may become blind or deaf or dumb.

Q. 14. What is called an exceptional child?

Ans. When a child is above or below the limits of physical, mental, social and emotional standards of development and growth, then he is called an exceptional child.

Q. 15. What are the types of physical deficiencies? 

Ans. Disability, visual impairment, loss of hearing, stuttering or defective speech etc. are types of physical deficiency.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q. 1. What are the special needs of children?

Ans. – (1) Physical needs.

(2) Emotional and social needs.

(3) The need to love and receive.

(4) Educational requirements.

(5) Oral methods and lip syncing.

(6) Sign language.

(7) Need for self-reliance.

Q. 2. What is meant by general mental deficiency?

Ans. Mild mental deficiency: The intellectual level of these children is lower than that of children with moderate mental deficiency. These children are far behind children with normal intelligence in physical, emotional and language development.

Q. 3. What are the causes of deafness?

Ans. (1) Conductive deafness, such as due to accumulation of earwax, something falling in the ear or swelling in the outer ear.

(2) Sensorineural deafness, such as acquired deafness, congenital deafness, due to defects in the auditory nerve and brain fibers. 

(3) Conductive and acquired deafness due to mixed reasons.

Q.4. Write the characteristics of artificial/missing organ.

Ans. (i) Physical defects awaken inferiority complex in small children.

(ii) Feeling of incompleteness.

(iii) Loneliness-They keep themselves isolated from the social environment.

(iv) Are not able to maintain harmony between their ambitions and work efficiency.

Types of Special Children: 

(i) Physically Handicapped Children

(ii) Delinquent Children 

(iii) Anti-social behavior

(iv) Backward or retarded children (Slow Learners)

(v) Gifted Child

(vi) Problem Child

(vii) Emotionally Maladjusted Child

Most of these children become socially undesirable and find it difficult to adjust to the society. Prominent among this type of children are those with defective body parts.

Q.5. How many types of mental deficiency are there? Enter name.

Ans. There are nine types of mental deficiency-

(i) Idiots, (ii) Imbecile, (iii) Moron, (iv) Border Line Defective,

(v) Below Average, (vi) Average, (vii) Above Average, (viii) Superior, (ix) Very Superior.

Q. 6. What is meant by moderate mental deficiency? 

Ans. Moderate Mental Deficiency – Under this, Morons are studied. These children are smaller and lighter than normal children. The functional development of these children is slower than that of other children. Language development also happens at a slower pace than normal children.

Q. 7. What do you understand by profound and severe mental deficiency?

Ans. Children suffering from profound and severe mental deficiency are permanently under the care of others. Usually they cannot do any work on their own without anyone’s help. 

Q.8. What are the special needs of disabled children?

Ans. (i) To increase and train the power of functional, reflective, cognitive and establishing contacts.

(ii) Teachers should recognize the shortcomings and abilities of such children.

(iii) Help in solving daily problems.

(iv) There is a need to develop the education system.

(v) Give them such training which is according to their age, is functional and is community based.

(vi) Special attention is needed to make such children independent and self-reliant.

Q. 9. What are the special needs of blind children?

(1) Physical needs

(2) The need for love, the need for freedom.

(3) Need for emotional and social security 

Q. 10. What are the factors of blindness?

Ans. (1) Congenital blindness.

(2) Acquired blindness.

(3) Blindness due to lack of nutrition.

((4) Delayed treatment.

Q. 11. What are the symptoms of blindness in a child?

Ans. (1) There is clumsiness and caution in the actions/movements of partially blind children. 

(2) The child complains of headache and blurred vision.

(3) Complains of redness, watering, swelling, itching in the eyes.

Q.12. Write four special needs of a child who has lost half his leg. How can you help him in school?

Ans. Educational needs – The child’s education should include such activities which have the purpose of doing something, such as writing, playing, knitting, dancing and painting etc. How can a weak and disabled child go from one place to another? 

Can move around with the help of crutches, wheel chair or wheel chair. 

(1) He can be helped to climb the stairs by carrying his bag.

(2) He can be made to sit in the front row of the class room

(3) He can be assisted in boarding or deboarding the school bus.

(4) He may be carried by any other person or by a child.

Q. 13. What are the special needs of children with disabilities?

Ans. (i) Need for greater stimulation

(ii) Need for greater care 

(iii) Need for special assistance

(iv) Need for appropriate equipment 

(v) Need for special education

(vi) Need for socialization

Q.14. Write four special qualities of socially backward children and tell what contribution the school can make in fulfilling their basic needs?

Ans. Socially and physically backward children include (i) blindness, (ii) deafness, (iii) muteness, (iv) physically handicapped and orphan children from very poor families. 

Cooperation with teachers and fellow students in school-

(i) Collaboration in establishing harmony in the class.

(ii) To provide emotional security.

(iii) To boost his morale by not feeling pity on him.

(iv) Considering their disability, helping them in sports and other activities.

Q. 15. What are the special needs of children with artificial/missing limbs? 

Ans. (1) Naturopathy, (ii) Social and emotional needs (iii) Physical needs (iv) Educational needs.

Q. 16. Describe the special services for disabled children.

Ans. Some special services should be provided to disabled children which are related to their individual needs like-

(i) Getting children examined as soon as possible by specialists like orthopedic surgeon and neurologist.

(ii) To provide surgical and ancillary services, such as physiotherapy and occupational therapy. 

(iii) Psychological monitoring and providing mental services as per requirement.

(iv) Insertion of artificial limbs. (v) To provide proper education and pre-vocational training from early years.

(vi) To provide financial assistance for their food, shelter etc. and grants for educational equipment etc. (vii) To arrange for proper entertainment.

Q. 17. Explain different types of disability.

Ans. Disability is related to physical, speech defects and neurological defects – 

(i) Disability, (ii) Visual impairment, (iii) Hearing loss, (iv) Children with stammering or defective speech, (v) Mental deficiency. 

Q. 18. Write the definition of disabled child.

Ans. According to Baker, “A disabled child is a child whose physical, mental, emotional and social abilities are different from the normal average and who requires a special education system to develop his full potential.

Q. 19. Write the types of special children.

Ans. Types of Exceptional Children – The specialties of children are mainly related to the following areas-

1. Physically Handicapped Children – Blind children, deaf children, disabled children.

II. Socially Handicapped Children 1. Mentally Retarded Children 2. Talented or Gifted Children.

3. Children with Language Disorder. Problem Children

4. 5. Emotionally Maladjusted Children.

6. Backward Children.

7. Antisocial Behaviour.

8. Delinquent Children.


LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. What special facilities should be there in a normal school so that handicapped children can also get education? What will be the benefits of doing this?

Ans. A disabled child can be facilitated to get education by providing the following facilities in a normal school: 

(a) There should be arrangements for them to move around freely in the school. He can move around in school with the help of crutches and a wheeled chair. Classes should be on the ground floor so that disabled children can reach them and they do not have to climb up and down again and again.

(b) In the education of disabled children, such activities should be included in which there is a feeling of doing something, like writing articles, knitting, painting, making clay toys etc. so that they can become self-reliant by learning abilities and they develop self-confidence and self-reliance. Emotions can develop.

(c) There should be such arrangements in the external activities of the school that they can also participate.

(d) Other colleagues should be given such education that they should be helpful to them and not by teasing them and making them suffer from inferiority complex. 

(n) There should be proper medical arrangements so that medical aid can be provided easily when the occasion arises.

(f) There should be transportation facilities so that one can easily reach school. In traffic, both the driver and the conductor should be instructed to smoothly disembark while boarding so that they do not become victims of accidents again.

(g) Free education should be given so that they can easily get training and become self-reliant.

Q. 2. What are the mental and physical needs of other children studying in your school? How can the school help in adjustment?

Or, What are the special needs of a blind child? Give such suggestions which will be helpful in bringing necessary harmony in his education and personal life.

Ans. Special Needs of a Blind Child: To make a blind child self-reliant, it is very important to provide him every kind of help to make him self-reliant and financially capable. To get satisfactory results, special attention should also be paid to their physical, social and emotional needs.

Physical Needs: Parents of a blind child should pay special attention to his food, drink and clothes. They should be taught their daily activities like toilet, bathing, wearing clothes, eating food etc. They should be given special help to move around the house carefully without dropping things or causing harm to themselves. Such children should be trained in traveling from early years. these from oneself and the environment

Should be thoroughly introduced to. Due to physical weakness, these children soon fall ill. Therefore, it is very important for parents to take them to the doctor. Need for Love – Every child needs a feeling of love and security.

is needed. These feelings create confidence in him to establish relationships with others. The society of a blind child is his parents only. Parents’ acceptance of their child’s disability helps in solving the child’s problems and instills confidence in him. The feeling of loving and being loved helps children with disabilities move forward rapidly on the path of development.

Emotions – Emotions are naturally present in every human being. Can you name some emotions?

You are familiar with the emotions of love, hate, jealousy, fear and happiness. Small children do not have their emotions under their control. But as the child grows. Starts to control his emotions. Due to fear and dread his intestines become loose. unbalanced feeling

Children have partial loss of bladder control due to which they leak urine. The feeling of sadness reduces appetite and worsens health. When children cannot control their emotions, they start having body convulsions and foaming at the mouth.

Need for Emotional and Social Security: Parents and siblings should give their full love and affection to disabled children when they are scared and stressed. In an environment of constant affection and cordiality, children will be able to free themselves from stress and will also be able to subjugate their emotions. As a result, they will be able to integrate easily into their social environment. Social environment is very essential for the development of disabled children.

Need for Independence — Parents should help the disabled child to explore his environment well so that he can complete his daily activities independently. Initially he may face difficulty in combing his hair, closing buttons and tying his shoelaces, but by continuously encouraging him, his self-confidence will be awakened. The child’s self-confidence can be increased by giving professional advice from time to time. This will increase his self-reliance. Have you seen a blind person walking with a ‘white stick’? A bell can also be attached to such a stick.

Educational Needs – Low vision, partially blind and completely blind children can be educated. Books with large print and well-lit tables can be of great help to children with visual impairments. Instead of black, green or gray color palette, unglazed paper and light black pencil will greatly improve the child’s vision. Children with disabilities can learn quickly with the help of special equipment and special teachers.

Q.3. What are the special needs of children with artificial/missing limbs? 

Ans. Special needs of children with artificial/missing limbs – These children have more needs than blind or deaf children.

Physical needs: The need to complete one’s daily routines properly is most important. Parents should help the child in daily work but let him do the work himself. Most parents blame themselves for the child’s disability and are overly indulgent. As time passes, the child begins to seek and receive help rather than being independent or self-reliant. 

Artificial organs are the gift of science. These compensate for physical defects. The person begins to look normal and can function normally.

Through Physiotherapy, disabled children are helped to use their bodies fully. Good results have been achieved by providing proper training to work with artificial shoes and limbs.

Social and emotional needs-Play is an essential part of socialization. Children with disabilities mostly find themselves left out from such group programs. Such discrimination has a negative impact on the socialization of children. Due to this the child remains disappointed and sad. 

Feels and feels neglected. Social discrimination and stigma create obstacles in the collective behavior of the child. The child’s self-esteem diminishes due to the pity of parents and friends. Social beliefs like “disabled mind, disabled body”

These are gifts” harm the child’s personality. Such children are mostly of stubborn nature. To make them independent and self-reliant, disabled children need love, kindness and proper training.

Educational needs – The child’s education should include such tasks in which there is a purpose to do well, such as writing, playing, knitting, dancing and painting etc. How can a weak and disabled child go from one place to another? He can move around with the help of crutches, wheel chair or wheel chair.

Q.4. Describe three specific symptoms of polio. Also write three precautions to be taken while taking care of such patients. 

Ans. Polio – This disease mostly occurs in children of 1-2 years. This disease is caused by virus infection. Symptoms – (i) Polio starts with high fever in the child.

(ii) The viruses of this disease affect the nervous system of the child due to which the effective organ becomes almost useless and starts drying up.

Treatment and prevention – (i) Anti-polio medicine must be given to the child in the form of drops at the right time and at the right interval.

(ii) The Government of India provides free polio medicine to every small child through the Polio Pulse program to protect children from physically disabling diseases like polio.

Q.5. How will you help a child suffering from polio to have favorable conditions in school?

Ans. The child could not take oral polio drops during his childhood. As a result he suffered from polio. He became disabled. To adapt such a child to school,

Help can be provided in the following ways- 

(i) He can be helped to climb the stairs by carrying his bag.

(ii) He can be made to sit in the front row of the class room. 

(iii) he can be assisted in boarding or deboarding the school bus,

(iv) His bag can be carried by any other person or child.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Commerce Stream


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