Ncert Solutions Home Science Class 12 Chapter 4 Notes PDF

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Home Science Class 12 Chapter 4 Notes PDF, Ncert Solutions Home Science Class 12 Chapter 4 Notes PDF, Home Science Class 12 Chapter 4 Notes PDF

Home Science Class 12 Chapter 4 Notes PDF

Class12th 
Chapter NameAlternative child care Substitute Child Care
Chapter number04
Book NCERT
SubjectHome Science
Medium English
Study MaterialsImportant questions answers
Download PDFHome Science Class 12 Chapter 4 Notes PDF

Alternative child care Substitute Child Care


In the present chapter, information regarding alternative care of children was presented. Have gone. Taking care of children is essential for their development. Especially taking care of children at home and outside is very important for the proper growth and development of children. Family is the only institution which provides a suitable environment for the upbringing of a child. 

A child learns many things while living under the love and protection of his parents. A normal child comes in contact with many people inside and outside the house in daily life. Such as parents, siblings, grandparents, neighbours, crèches and other crèches.

Ncert Solutions Home Science Class 12 Chapter 4 Notes In Hindi PDF

The child comes in contact with the parents and other concerned people and they become connected with each other and through joint efforts he is made physically and mentally capable. The environment and care received at home affects his entire personality. Family influences like parents, guardians, siblings, relatives are directly found in the emotional and intellectual development of children. 

Additional arrangements for infants and children such as crèches, day care centres, kindergartens, integrated child development services, anganwadis. By having alternative care for infants and children, their physical, mental and social development takes place properly.

They live together in the house and take care of other family members in the absence of parents. The presence of grandparents and other members in the house has a deep impact on the personality of the child. Apart from this, elder members of the family, grandparents support the parents in raising the child and also guide the parents. 

Grandparents provide love, security and recognition, which he may not be able to get even from his parents. By telling stories, tales and riddles to the child, grandparents develop physical qualities in the child and tell him about their traditions and civilizations.

Q. 1. What is the target group of Integrated Child Development Scheme?

Ans. (i) Children aged 0-6 years.

(iii) All pregnant and lactating mothers.

(ii) Women aged 15-40 years.

Q. 2. In what four ways can kindergarten help in enhancing the health of children?

Ans. Kindergarten (i) Children who turn 3 years old are sent to nursery school or kindergarten to prepare themselves for going to higher school.

(ii) Here children are given education through informal methods. (iii) They learn about basic concepts while playing.

(iv) There are opportunities to identify and highlight the hidden talent within the child. Children are taught through stories, songs, painting etc.

Q. 3. What are the different types of alternative child care?

Ans. (1) From elder brothers and sisters (2) From relatives/neighbors (3) From hired help (4) From crèche/care center (5) From pre-nursery/nursery school/kindergarten.

Q.4. What is meant by mobile crèche?

Ans. The crèches run along the work area of ​​the parents are called mobile crèches. For this, research, use of evidence, publication and dissemination of information is done at the national level.

Q.5. What is alternative child rearing?

Ans. Taking care of a child to fulfill his basic needs in the absence of mother or father is called alternative child rearing.

Q.6. What is Integrated Child Development Scheme?

Ans. – This scheme was established in 1975 with the belief that group schemes are more effective in providing lump sum facilities. Hence it is called Integrated Child Development Scheme.

Q. 7. Ten-year-old Malti takes care of her two-year-old brother. Tell two advantages and disadvantages of this system.

Ans. Advantages – (i) There is no expense. (ii) Disadvantages of the child staying in a familiar environment only: 

(1) A ten year old child does not have the ability to take care of a child; children are not mature enough to take care of them. (ii) ten years old

Q.8 What are the special needs of children up to three years of age?

Ans. (1) Feeding the child as per his needs

(2) Keeping the child clean

(3) To provide him rest and sleeping facilities 

(4) Giving toys to play.

(5) To provide exercise facilities.

(6) To provide clean and safe environment.

Q. 9. I.C.D.S. tell the objectives of

Or I.C.D.S. Write two objectives of the supplementary nutrition program of the Integrated Child Development Scheme.

Ans.I. C.D.S. Objective of ICDS – 

(a) Improvement in health and diet of children aged 0-6 years. 

(b) To lay the foundation for the psychological and physical development of children. 

(c) To reduce the rate of malnutrition, death, illness and school dropout. 

(d) I.C.D.S. Making plans to make it successful and maintaining coordination in implementing them. 

(e) To increase the knowledge of mothers about the general health and dietary needs of children.

Q. 11. I.C.D.S. What are the two useful services of?

Ans. 1. Supplementary food and 2. Vaccination.

Q. 12. Why would Mrs. Verma prefer to keep her two-year-old son in a creche than her ten-year-old daughter?

Ans. If a ten-year-old girl is made to take care of her younger siblings, the following four harms or dangers can occur:

(i) The child may drop the younger brother or sister; Injury may occur as a result. 

(ii) He does not have the knowledge of the basic needs of the child, like water and feeding milk. Due to which the child will suffer from hunger and thirst. 

(iii) A ten-year-old girl may put solid food in the mouth of a younger sibling, which can choke the child and cause respiratory obstruction. 

(iv) She is not capable of handling the situation of urination or defecation by a small child.

Q. 13. Tell four functions of kindergarten. 

Ans. (1) To arrange a homely residence for orphan and helpless children.

(2) To arrange for their food and clothing etc. 

(3) To educate them so that they can become good citizens.

(4) To teach them goodwill and love towards others.

Q. 14. Apart from getting vaccinated, what two measures should a mother take so that her child does not fall ill?

Ans. Apart from vaccinations, a mother should adopt the following measures to protect her child from the disease-

(a) Rules of cleanliness should be followed. Cleanliness should be maintained while feeding milk. Physical hygiene should also be taken care of.

(b) By giving the child a balanced and nutritious diet and getting medical checkups done from time to time.

Q. 15. Define alternative child rearing.

Ans. Taking care of the basic needs of the child in the absence of mother or both parents is called alternative child rearing.

Q. 16. What is called crèche?

Ans. It is a place where a child can be left in proper care until his/her parents return from work. This is a residential, child care place.

Q. 17. What is meant by mobile crèche?

Ans. – Mobile crèches are those places of child care, where the children of working parents, people busy in farms, industries and factories are taken care of. These centers are run along with the work area of ​​the parents. hence they are called mobile crèches

Q. 18. What services are provided by the Integrated Child Development Scheme?

Or Explain the three services available under the Integrated Child Development Scheme. 

Ans. Integrated Child Development Scheme provides the following services.

(a) supplementary food

(b) health services

(c) vaccination

(d) Health and diet education

(e) informal education

All these services have been provided in the villages through Anganwadi centres.


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Tell four functions of kindergarten?

Ans. This service work started from Koswad in Maharashtra and Bhavnagar in Gujarat. This includes both the services which are also provided by crèches and nursery schools. The Kindergarten caters to all the needs of children up to 6 years of age. of its

are the following- 

(a) To take care of the children of working women till 0-6 years. 

(b) Making arrangements for vaccination, medical check-up, entertainment and mid-day meal etc.

(c) To develop social feeling.

(d) To inculcate in the child the habit of taking care of himself.

(e) To remove children from unhealthy environment.

Q. 2. What four ways can siblings take care of children when parents go out to work?

Ans. Parents are responsible for the proper upbringing of their children. Raising a child is a very difficult task when both the parents go out to work. Due to urbanization, self-reliance and breakdown of joint families, parents are forced to keep their children in someone else’s care.

Elder children in the family also make an important contribution to their parents in taking care of their younger siblings. They can take care of the small child in the four ways given below-

(a) To feed milk to the child at the right temperature and at the right time.

(b) Playing with the child.

(c) To entertain the child by telling him a story.

(d) To fulfill other needs of the child, to protect him completely, to inculcate discipline in him. 

Q. 3. List four facilities available in a good fresh.

Ans. A fresher is a place where children of working parents and infants or children of sick mothers are kept. They are nurtured in a home environment. They are given parental care and love. A good crèche should have the following essential features-

(i) An able-bodied mature woman who can take care of infants and children.

(ii) Adequate toys and material for playing (swings etc.).

(iii) Presence of milk, food and other liquids (drinks). 

(iv) Comfortable beds and safe environment for sleeping.

Q. 4. While going out of the house for work, Kamla leaves her one year old daughter in the care of her ten year old daughter. Write the advantages and disadvantages of this system.

Ans. Benefits of taking care of the elder sister: (i) There is no hassle of dressing up the younger girl and taking her out somewhere and the child can also avoid the ill effects of the weather while going out.

(ii) She can play with him, feed him milk, tell him stories and take him for a ride.

Disadvantages – (i) It has an adverse effect on the personality of both.

(ii) The child can drop the younger sister. Injury may occur as a result. 

(iii) He does not know the basic needs of the baby, like feeding water and milk, due to which the baby will suffer from hunger and thirst. 

(iv) She may put solid food in the younger sister’s mouth which may choke the child and block breathing. 

Q.5. List four things to keep in mind while choosing a crèche for a six-month-old baby. 

Ans. (a) The crèche should be in a good residential area (colony).

(b) The administrator and other employees of the crèche should be civilized and educated. 

(c) The women in the crèche should be adults (not old). she is kind and tender hearted

and they have complete knowledge of child rearing.

(d) It should have all the facilities for the child like milk, drinking water, fresh food and toys.

 Q. 6. What does alternative child rearing mean?

Ans. – To take care of the child to fulfill his basic needs in the absence of parents or mother. Parenting facilities can be provided both at home (by siblings and relatives) and outside the home at crèches and day care centres.

Q. 7. Mrs. Mehra takes care of her neighbor’s two-year-old child. Mention two advantages and disadvantages of leaving a two year old child in the care of a neighbour.

Ans. Advantages – (i) Being a mature woman of middle age, she can take care of the child more effectively. (ii) She can handle emergency situations in which the child becomes ill or gets injured.

Disadvantages— (i) She will not be able to spare enough time to take care of the child as she has to manage her household also. (ii) Problem of food, clothing etc. of the child due to lack of money.

And it cannot completely solve the problem caused by the child urinating. 

Q. 8. Point out four shortcomings of the six-year-old child’s choice to take care of his siblings.

Ans. If a six-year-old child is made to take care of his younger brother or sister, the following four harms or dangers can occur:

(1) The child may drop the younger sibling, resulting in injury. (2) He does not have the knowledge of the basic needs of the baby like feeding water and milk, due to which the baby will suffer from hunger and thirst.

(3) Six-year-old children can put solid food in the mouth of younger siblings, which can cause choking and respiratory obstruction.

(4) They are not capable of handling the situation of urination or defecation by a small child.


LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. List four functions of Anganwadi which help in promoting the health of children.

Ans. Anganwadi is an Anganwadi located in every village or urban river settlements to provide services related to the Integrated Child Development Services Scheme. There is one Anganwadi for every 700 (tribal)-100 (rural and urban) population. An Anganwadi is managed by an Anganwadi worker, who is a female volunteer from the local community. 

There is a maid to assist her. As on 30.09.1993, 1.95 crore children and mothers were receiving supplementary nutrition under this scheme. Apart from this, 9336 lakh children in the age group of 3-6 years are receiving pre-school education.

Inter-regional services and other services are concentrated in Anganwadi centres. Some of the main services are as follows-

(1) Availability of supplementary nutrition to children and mothers,

(ii) Health education and various health related services, such as vaccination, proper prenatal till post-natal care, regular health check-ups. 

(iii) Pre-school education

(iv) Education and training and formal education related to aging of women.

Q. 2. What are the different types of alternative child care? 

Ans: Kinds of Substitute Child Care – Alternative child care can be obtained from the following-

(i) From elder sister and brother

(ii) From relatives/neighbors

(iii) With hired help

(iv) From Day Care Centers

(v) Prof. From Nursery / Nursery School / Balwadi (Pre-nursery / Nursery/Balwadi) you will now study the capabilities of all the above mentioned facilities.

Sibling Care — Common in families of low economic status. Young children are left in the care of children older in age. You will often see a six year old child taking care of two or three year old children. 

How safe can this care be? Not much because a six year old child does not have the ability to be a babysitter. Even some older children are not mature enough for this care. so

Some other solution should be found for child rearing. Relatives and neighbors can and do help in taking good care of the child by staying at home. Having elders in the family and children

It is a great boon for. Children get love and security from grandparents. Neighbors are also our own family apart from the family. 

Neighbors can help in alternative care of the child in the absence of the mother. Such care is usually short-term only.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Commerce Stream


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