Ncert Solutions Home Science Class 12 Chapter 6 Notes PDF

WhatsApp Group (Join Now) Join Now
Telegram Group (Join Now) Join Now

Home Science Class 12 Chapter 6 Notes PDF, Ncert Solutions Home Science Class 12 Chapter 6 Notes PDF, Home Science Class 12 Chapter 6 Notes

Home Science Class 12 Chapter 6 Notes PDF

Class12th 
Chapter NamePlanning Meals for family and its modification for special condition
Chapter number06
Book NCERT
SubjectHome Science
Medium English
Study MaterialsImportant questions answers
Download PDFHome Science Class 12 Chapter 6 Notes PDF

Planning Meals for family and its modification for special condition

In the present chapter, ideas about arranging food for a family have been presented. Besides, the social changes taking place in organizing meals have also been discussed. Changes in dietary planning have been made evident for certain special occasions. 

In an urban family, it is common to have four meals a day, such as breakfast, lunch, evening tea and dinner. If there is even a slight difference in the physical condition, it is necessary to bring changes in the diet. 

Home Science Class 12 Chapter 6 Notes PDF

Fine food is prepared on special occasions. Which takes a lot of time, material and resources. Change in quantity means reducing or increasing the amount of nutrients and calories in the diet. Liquid, some solid, soft and light food – these are the three types of food according to quality and variation.

The family’s diet also has to be changed in many situations, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, diarrhea and fever. Pregnant and lactating women require more protein, calories, iron, vitamins and mineral salts. 

The need for food during infancy, childhood and adulthood increases in proportion to the rate of growth. By bringing diversity in the family, all the nutritional elements are obtained. The human body remains healthy due to the availability of nutritious elements.


VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. What is fever?

Ans. When there is no balance between the heat produced and expelled by the body in a person and the temperature becomes higher than normal, then such a condition is called fever.

Q. 2. How to organize diet in case of fever?

Ans. In case of fever, the diet should be such that it can be easily digested and easily absorbed. Considering the duration and type of fever, the patient’s diet should be liquid or soft. 

Q. 3. Explain the importance of any two things while preparing the diet table of a pregnant woman.

Ans. (i) Diet should be nutritious and balanced. (ii) To fulfill the requirement of variety in diet and additional quantity of each nutritional element.

Q. 4. What is the meaning of supplementary food?

Ans. According to the process of weaning, whatever food is fed to the baby in addition to mother’s milk or formula is called supplementary food.

Q.5. On what factors does a child’s development depend? 

Ans. The development of the child depends on the genetic characteristics, the quality of the food given to him and the satisfactory and desirable relationship between mother and child. 

Q.6. What two things should a mother keep in mind while planning her diet? 

Years

1. For the baby to grow and develop normally, the mother’s diet should be organized and nutritious.

2. There should be sufficient quantity of fluids so that there is no difficulty in milk production. 

Q.7. How to organize diet for a patient suffering from diarrhea?

Ans. Diarrhea patients should be given liquid diet to supply water to the patient’s body. Food should be light to digest so that it does not put too much stress on the intestines.

Q.8 & What is meant by mastectomy?

Ans. Giving the baby a gradual change from mother’s milk or upper milk to liquids and then to solid food is called weaning.

Q. 9. Write four benefits of breastfeeding.

Ans. 1. Butter milk contains a protein called lactoalbumin which is more digestible than casein.

2. There is no opportunity for external germs to enter mother’s milk.

3. Clostrum (milk secreted from the breasts in the early stages) contains antibodies which generate immunity.

4. Mother’s milk is at normal temperature, neither hot nor cold. 

Q. 10. What do you understand by dietary system?

Ans. Organizing, purchasing, preparing food and serving it to family members is called dietary arrangement. In this, the nutritional needs of the family members and the income of the family are taken into account.

Q. 11. What four measures can a pregnant woman take to deal with her nausea? 

Ans. To overcome the problem of sweets, a pregnant woman can take the following measures – (i) After waking up in the morning, she should take high carbohydrate foods like sweets, biscuits, toast etc. (i) He should consume less high fat fried foods. (iii) Strong tea or coffee should not be taken. (iv) One should not take heavy and spicy food.

Q. 12. Explain the meaning of bringing changes in diet.

Ans. To meet the changing nutritional demands of special conditions (illness, pregnancy) by bringing changes in the diet, so that all the nutritional needs of the family can be easily met.

Q. 13 Define weaning. 

Ans. Weaning or weaning means changing the baby’s liquid diet and bringing him to solid food.

Q. 14. Define soft diet.

Ans. A food which is liquid to chew and digest is called soft food. There is hardly any fiber in it and even if it is there, it is cooked and made soft.

Q. 15. Which additional element does the mother require during the breastfeeding period?

Ans. During breastfeeding period, mother needs a lot of calcium so that she can produce milk properly.

Q. 16. What is the prescribed amount of iron for a teenage girl?

Ans. The prescribed amount of iron for a teenage girl is 30 mg because the blood volume increases during adolescence, hence the amount of iron is increased.

Q. 17. Why does a person need more thiamine? Give two reasons. 

Ans. (i) A woman who breastfeeds a child is called a lactator. Thiamine is necessary to overcome thiamine deficiency in infants and the resulting Beri-Beri disease.

(ii) Thiamine also affects lactation (milk production).

Q. 18. What do you understand by overnutrition?

Ans. The state of nutritional intake of excessive food which leads to obesity, high blood pressure, stones and other heart related diseases is called overnutrition. Even taking iodine and iron in excess amounts causes axophthalmia and hypercythemia.

Following are the reasons for overnutrition-

(i) consuming more food

(ii) Economic level and

(iii) Having faulty eating habits.

Q. 19. Which elements should be included in the diet of a pregnant woman to prevent nutritional anemia?

Ans. To prevent anemia caused by malnutrition, iron and folic acid should be included in the diet of a pregnant woman. B2 Cyanocobalamin may also be included.

Q. 20. Night blindness is caused by the deficiency of which element?

Ans. Night blindness is caused by deficiency of Vitamin A in the diet.

Q. 21. Where is the most digestible protein obtained from?

Ans. The most digestible protein (lactalbumin) comes from milk.

Q. 22 What is the amount of protein required in the third and last trimester of a pregnant woman?

To be Ans. In the last trimester, the diet of a pregnant woman should contain at least 75 gm of protein (50gm + 25gm).


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Suggest three changes for a person suffering from diarrhea in the following menu along with the reasons.

Ans. A person suffering from diarrhea has poor digestion and absorption. It is suffering from dehydration. To compensate for the deficiency of minerals and water, the following changes should be made in the diet:

(1) Instead of fried lentils, give him water containing fat-free lentils.

(2) Boiled rice or khichdi should be given instead of fried rice.

(3) Salad should be completely removed from the menu and vegetable soup should be given in its place.

Q. 2. A teenage girl is having milk and potato cutlets (tikkis) for breakfast. Present three suggestions with reasons for changing his diet to meet his nutritional needs. 

Ans. The breakfast consumed by the adolescent girl does not meet her nutritional needs.

Three suggestions for changes in breakfast

(i) Eat potato cutlets as a sandwich by applying butter on bread. 

(ii) Some seasonal fruit should be taken.

(iii) In the summer season, mint buttermilk should be consumed instead of milk.

Q. 4. What four main things will be kept in mind while planning the diet of a patient suffering from fever?

Ans. Things to keep in mind while serving food in case of fever-

(1) Food should be digestible.

(2) Fried and spicy foods should be avoided.

(3) Serve small amounts of food at equal intervals.

(4) Food should be served in such a way that the patient can eat it comfortably while sitting in bed.

(5) Attractively served food increases appetite.

(6) Only freshly cooked food should be served to the patient.

(7) When the patient has finished eating, the utensils should be taken away from there.

(8) Drinking water should be easily available to the patient suffering from fever.

Q.5. What four things should be kept in mind while planning the diet for a patient suffering from diarrhea?

Ans. Things to keep in mind while planning the diet for a patient suffering from diarrhea-

(i) Do not allow dehydration to occur so that there is no shortage of water and salts in the body.

(ii) Do not give solid food to the patient, do not use chillies and spices.

(iii) O. to the patient. R. S. Give oral rehydration solution.

(iv) Give only liquid food or semi-solid and soft food to the patient, like tea, lassi, rice water or pulse water etc.

Q. 6. The following food items have been organized for lunch today, Parantha, spicy potatoes, spinach, dal fry, dahi bhalla, tomato-onion salad.

Or, what, why, and how would you serve a three year old child? 

Ans. A three year old child cannot enjoy spicy vegetables. Apart from this, he is not able to digest heavy and hard food. Food from the above menu can be served to the child in a special form –

(i) Paratha in the form of small pieces.

(ii) Out of the pickled spinach and potatoes, only the potatoes will be churned.

(iii) Dal in fried state. 

(iv) Dahi Bhalla without spices and in the form of small pieces.

To provide all the nutritional elements to the child in a balanced state, the above food items will be served in the above mentioned state. Hard and fibrous foods like salad should not be given because the child cannot digest and absorb them.

Q.7. The following food arrangements are made for the family – Moong Dal, Dahi-Vada, Potato-Spinach, Chapati. What changes would you make in the above diet for a person suffering from diarrhea so that this diet is suitable for that patient? Also explain the reasons for bringing about the change. 

Ans. (a) Moong dal without tempering with ghee or oil is a suitable food for diarrheal diseases.

(b) Curd without adding badas, because fried badas are difficult to digest. It can get relief only if there is no pressure on the digestive system. 

Q. 8. A student brings plain paratha and pickle in tiffin. Give three suggestions for changes in this diet to meet his nutritional needs along with reasons.

Ans. If a student brings plain paratha and pickle in tiffin, then the following changes can be made in the food to meet her nutritional requirements:

(i) While kneading the dough, gram flour or soybean flour can be mixed in it. 

(ii) Paratha can be made by filling it with cheese.

(iii) Mint, coriander and gooseberry or guava chutney can be given along with it. 

Reasons –

(i) Soybean and gram flour contain high amounts of protein.

(ii) Protein, calcium and vitamin A are found in cheese. 

(iii) Mint and coriander contain iron, vitamin A and calcium.

(iv) Amla and guava contain Vitamin C.

Q. 10. Suggest three changes in this food to make it suitable for an elderly person or a teenager who has fever. Write the reason for your answer.

Years. 

(a) Instead of rice and porridge, porridge or khichdi will be used. 

(b) Instead of spicy potatoes, any easily digestible and boiled vegetable will be selected.

(c) Bundi Raita will be completely removed from the event. In case of fever, raw vegetables and fruits with their peels harm the digestive system. Fried and spicy foods should not be given. Consuming hard and solid food items should not cause diseases. Foods with strong smell should not be included in the patient’s diet. 

Q. 11. Suggest three changes in the following menu for an elderly person. Also write reasons for your suggestion. Chapati, pulao (fried rice with vegetables), fried dal, boondi raita, salad, onion and tomato.

Ans. The above mentioned diet in Monu is full of high calories and is rich in fat and water. Being fried, it is not easily digested in the weak digestive system of an elderly person. The following changes can be made in the diet of an elderly person: 

(1) If the person is a rice eater, then instead of fried rice and vegetables, he should be given boiled rice and vegetables with less ghee.

(2) Well-cooked pulses with less ghee should be given in place of fried pulses.

(3) Chapati should be freshly cooked and soft. (4) Cucumber, cabbage and chopped tomatoes should be given instead of onion and tomato because the teeth of an elderly person are weak or absent.

Q. 12. Tell four nutritional needs of a teenage girl.

Ans. Adolescence is the period of growth spurt. In this, the body grows at a very rapid pace. Bones are long and solid. The quantity of blood also changes. Therefore, excess of four elements is required. Therefore these should be increased. These four elements are as follows-

(i) Calories – The amount of calories is increased due to increased metabolic rate.

(ii) Protein: The need for protein increases for physical growth. 

(iii) Calcium- The amount of calcium should be increased to strengthen bones.

(iv) Iron: Due to increase in blood volume the amount of iron should be increased.

Q. 13. Explain lactation in brief.

Ans. Weaning means weaning from mother’s milk. In this, by changing the liquid milk diet of the child in a very gradual manner, the child is brought on semi-solid diet so that the child does not suffer from malnutrition, the dietary requirements of the child do not increase with age, the dietary requirements of the child do not increase with age. Keeps increasing. They can be completed so that the child becomes self-reliant and does not remain dependent on the mother. 

Q. 14. What is cholestrom? What is the significance of this ?

Ans. The initial milk produced by the mother after delivery, which is thick yellow in colour, is called colostrum. Its importance is that antibodies are found in the colostrum which protect the baby from infectious diseases for three months after birth. Vitamin A is also found in excess quantity in it which can be stored in the liver of the baby. In addition, some

Elements are found which stimulate the digestive juices of the baby. 

Q. 15. Why does a pregnant woman need more thiamine?

Ans. A lactating mother has to do one more work in her body, that is to produce milk for the child. This additional work requires additional energy.

This energy is provided by increasing carbohydrates in the diet and not by increasing fatty substances. For the metabolism of more carbohydrates, the requirement of thiamine is increased in the lactating state so that complete metabolism of carbohydrates can be done. 

Q.16. Why does a pregnant woman need more protein than a normal woman? Give two reasons. 

Ans. Pregnancy is a woman-creating condition. In this the development of her fetus takes place. He needs extra protein for the following reasons-

(a) For the complete development of the infant

(b) The requirement of protein increases during pregnancy for the development of the mother’s own body, for the development of the breasts, for the growth of the pregnancy and for the growth of the umbilical cord. 

Q. 17. What is semi-liquid diet and under what circumstances is it given?

Ans. The diet which is half liquid and half solid in appearance is called semi-liquid diet. It is more nutritious than a completely liquid diet. It is fiber-free and chilli-free like khichdi, porridge and custard etc. This food is given when a patient is suffering from high fever or toothache, or when there is difficulty in chewing and swallowing food. Apart from this, it is given as complementary food to a child of 4-5 months. .

Q. 18. Suggest three changes in the following menu with reasons for a person suffering from diarrhea – Chapati, fried rice, raita, fried lentils, kheer, tomato and salad.

Ans. Diarrhea patients should be given plain boiled rice and plain curd without any seasoning. Fried rice, raita and salad should not be given because they contain fat and fiber which cause problems and make the condition of diarrhea even more serious.

Q. 19. Write the names of three food items for a pregnant woman to take as per her requirement. List two main foods from each food group.

(a) Food groups that provide energy

(b) Manufacture and repair food items category

(c) The category of foods that protect against diseases and keep the body running smoothly. 

Ans. (a) The substances that provide energy are carbohydrates and fats, hence they can be obtained from grains and ghee etc.

(b) Apart from iron and Vitamin C, protein, mineral salts, C.P, Vitamin A etc. can be obtained from milk and milk products.

(c) Deep leaves are an excellent source of green leafy vegetables and fruits to obtain iron and other vitamins.

Q. 20. Mention three problems arising during pregnancy due to supply of nutrition. 

Ans. The mother’s diet during pregnancy should be completely nutritious. If the mother’s diet is not nutritious during pregnancy, she will suffer from all the problems that arise from malnutrition.

(a) If there is a deficiency of iron in the mother’s diet, she will suffer from anemia, the amount of hemoglobin in her blood will decrease because the mother’s blood increases by 25% during pregnancy.

(b) It is necessary to have calcium in abundance, otherwise calcium will dissolve in the bones for the development of the fetus and the pregnant woman will suffer from a disease called ‘osteomalacia’ or ‘osteomalacia’. 

(c) Due to iodine deficiency, the pregnant mother will suffer from goiter disease. Iodine intake should be increased during pregnancy. Metabolic rate increases during pregnancy. If one is suffering from Guier’s disease then it will affect the fetus also and after birth the child may become dwarf.

And mental disorder will arise from ‘cretinism’.

It is important for the mother’s diet to be completely nutritious and balanced during pregnancy so that the pregnant woman remains healthy and her fetus also develops fully.

Q. 21. Describe the need for supplementary nutrition?

Ans. The semi-solid and solid substances which are included in the baby’s diet after weaning from mother’s milk or formula feeding, are started after three months so that

(a) The nutritional requirements of the child cannot be met by mother’s milk.

(b) Complementary food is very important for the child to avoid malnutrition, because milk alone is not able to fully develop a child older than three months. Mother’s milk is not enough to satisfy the child.

(c) Complementary food is very important for a six month old child, because after this

(d) It is necessary to give supplementary food to the child to bring self-reliance, because with this the child does not remain dependent only on the mother.

Q. 22 A pregnant woman requires 300 K more calories in the second and third trimester. Give two reasons?

Ans. More than 300 K Cal is required in the second and third stages of pregnancy. Because the development of the fetus starts at a very rapid pace. The functions of the mother’s body parts increase and many changes take place in her body, such as the uterus grows, the umbilical cord grows, the breasts increase, etc. Therefore, the mother’s need for calories increases for her own body building and for the proper development of the fetus. To do any additional work additional amount of energy is required.


LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. What do you understand by dietary change? Prepare a dinner table for a family of five and suggest two changes in this meal for the elderly grandmother.

Ans. Dietary changes: Necessary changes have to be made in the diet as per the requirement of the physical condition. The composition of diet changes during the stages of physical change and development. Such as, diet changes in adolescent girls, pregnant women, lactating mothers and those in sick condition. 

Dietary changes – chapatti, pulao (fried rice with vegetables), fried lentils, boondi raita, salad, onion and tomato. The above mentioned foods in the menu are full of high calories and contain starch.

There is excess. Being fried, it is not easily digested in the weak digestive system of an elderly person. The following changes can be made in the diet of an elderly person-

(1) If the person is a rice eater, then instead of fried rice and vegetables, boiled rice and vegetables with less ghee should be given.

(2) Well-cooked pulses with less ghee should be given in place of fried pulses.

(3) Chapati should be freshly cooked and soft.

(4) Instead of onion and tomato, kheer, cabbage and chopped tomatoes should be given because the teeth of an elderly person are weak.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Commerce Stream


Leave a Comment