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Most Important Questions Of Political Science Class 12 cbse Pdf Download, Most Important Questions Of Political Science Class 12 2023 PPDF Class 12th Political Science Important Questions 

Most Important Questions Of Political Science Class 12

Class12th 
ChapterImportant Model Question Paper
BoardCBSE and all Other boards
Book NCERT
Subjectpolitical science
Medium english
Study MaterialsCBSE & All Other boards
Most Important Questions Of Political Science Class 12 cbse Pdf Download

Class 12 Political Science Important Mcq 

Q. 1. NATO is led by which of the following countries?

(a) United States of America

(b) Soviet Russia (U.S.S.R.)

(c) Germany

(d) France 

Ans.(a)

Q. 2. When did the unification of Germany take place?

(a) 1995

(b) 1945

(c) 1989

(d) 1990 

Ans.(d)

Q. 3. Which of the following countries is naa member of SAARC?

(a) Bhutan

(c) Myanmar

(d) India

Ans.(c) 

Q. 4. Where is the International Court of Justice located?

(a) Hague

(b) London

(c) Paris

(d) New York 

Ans.(a)

Q. 5. When do we celebrate World Environment Day?

(a) 10 मई (10th May)

(b) 5th Januthe ary

(c) 5th June

(d) 5th August 

Ans.(c)

Q. 6. Who is known as ‘Iron Man of India’?

(a) Subhash Chandra Bose

(b) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

(c) Bhagat Singh 

(d) Lala Lajpat Rai

Ans.(b) 

Q.7. The Chipko movement started from which state?

(a) Uttarakhand (Uttarakhand) 

(b) Jharkhand

(c) Gujarat

(d) Bihar 

Ans.(a)

Q. 8. Which Prime Minister started the policy of ‘Look East’ in 1991?

(a) Atal Bihari Vajpayee 

(b) Narasimha Rao

(c) Manmohan Singh

(d) Rajcev Gandhi

Ans.(b)

Q.9. Who gave the idea of ​​’total revolution’?

(a) Subhash Chandra Bose

(b) Vinoba Bhave 

(c) Jai Prakash Narayan

(d) Bhagat Singh

Ans.(c) 

Q10. In which state is Bodoland Autonomous Council located?

(a) Mizoram 

(b) Nagaland 

(C) Meghalaya

(d) Assam

Ans.(b)

Class 12th Political Science Important Questions 

Q. 11. Which two cities in Japan were destroyed by dropping atomic bombs in August 1945?

Ans. Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 

Q. 12. What do you understand by 9/11?

Ans. The 9/11 terrorist attack took place on the World Trade Center in New York, America. About 3000 people were killed in this attack. In America, there is a custom of saying the month first and the date later, hence September 11, 2001 AD is called 9/11.

Q. 13. When was ASEAN formed? What is its primary membership?

Ans. ASEAN was formed on 8 August, member number was 5.

Q. 14. Which country has the status of supremacy? Is the situation of dominance permanent?

 Ans. America enjoys the position of supremacy. The situation of dominance is not permanent.

Q. 15. What were the objectives of ‘Marshall Plan’? (What were the objects of the ‘Marshall Plan’?)

Ans. The objective of the Marshall Plan was to economically strengthen European countries so that their economies could return to their pre-war condition.

Q. 16. What is liberalization?

Ans. The concept of liberalization is basically based on the fact that “if there is less state interference, the economy and society will be better off.” Therefore, efforts were made to popularize it with slogans like “less state, good state”. Thus, the process of liberalization is related to relaxation of government control over the economy.

Under this, the economy is liberalized by removing controls. The main result of liberalization is to encourage the entry of private companies by ending the state monopoly in various sectors.

Liberalization in India refers to decisions that were taken in India in 1991 with the aim of opening the Indian economy to the world market or liberalization of the economy meant the removal of rules and financial regulations that regulated Indian trade. Give. In the first phase of liberalization in India, taxes and customs duties were reduced which

As a result, many foreign producers entered the Indian market. In the second phase, privatization was encouraged. 

Q. 17. What is ‘Amnesty International’?

Ans. Amnesty International is a voluntary non-governmental organization. It campaigns to protect human rights all over the world. This organization prepares and publishes reports related to human rights. 

The government often finds this report distasteful because Amnesty f focuses more on the abuses committed by the government. Actually this report is related to human rightsPlay an important role in research and advocacy. 

Q. 18. Explain the meaning of environment.

Ans. Environment is the organized unit of all those physical, chemical and biological factors that influence any living and ecological population and determine their form, life and survival.

Q. 19. Write the names of two national political parties of India.

Ans. Names of two national political parties of India- 

(i) BJP, (ii) Congress. 

Q. 20. In which year and where was the first conference of the Non-Aligned Movement held?

Ans. The first conference of the Non-Aligned Movement was held in 1961 in Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia.

Most Important Questions Of Political Science Class 12 2023 PDF

Q. 21. What does bipolarity of bipolarity mean? (What is meant by the end of bi-polarity?)

Ans. The end of bipolarity means the end of the polarity of the world’s two great powers, America and Russia. When Russia disintegrated and the Cold War ended, Russia’s power diminished and America

When supremacy was established in the world, bipolarity came to an end. As a result, unipolarity started in the world. Under this, America became the most powerful country in the world and its supremacy is still established.

Or, write four major objectives of ASEAN.

Ans. Following are the main objectives of ASEAN: 

(i) Avoiding military conflict and solving the problem through dialogue,

(ii) To promote peace, impartiality, cooperation and non-intefoforerence. 

(iii) To create a common market and production base of the member countries.

(iv) To strengthen the member countries economically and socially. 

Q. 22. Describe the achievements of the European Union.

Ans. The following are the achievements of the European Union-

(i) The founding member countries of the European Union facilitated free trade by abolishing border taxes.

(ii) By 1961, the European Union was successfully formed.

(iii) In 2005, it was the world’s largest economy and its gross domestic product was more than 12 thousand billion dollars, which was slightly more than the US. 

(iv) The share of Euro in world trade is three times more than that of the US dollar.

Or, explain the traditional concepts of security.

Ans. Under the traditional concept of security, the four elements of external threat are as follows:

(1) Deterrence or stopping war, for example, during the Cold War, both the superpowers had nuclear weapons, as a result of which the other side remained hesitant in waging war.

(ii), War is limited or eliminated for the sake of defence. For this the national army is given training.

(iii) Balance of power – Under this, an attempt is made to create a balance in the military power of other countries, especially neighbouring countries, so that other countries or neighbouring countries do not become more powerful in military power. For example, India and Pakistan keep purchasing military material from abroad so that the military power continues to be modernized.

(iv) Forming military alliances – The fourth element of traditional security policy is to form military alliances whose objective is to prevent and protect against military attack by the countries included in the alliance. NATO established by America and the Warsaw Pact of the Soviet Union are examples of this. Alliances are formed to increase the influence of one’s power. Alliances are based on national interests and alliances are also changed when national interests change.

Q. 23. Describe the first Gulf War.

Ans. The first Gulf War made it clear that other countries were far behind America in terms of military capability and in this matter America had gone far ahead in terms of technology. In a very advertising style, America used so-called ‘smart bombs’ in this war.

 This led to extensive coverage on some television and turned into a ‘video game’ war. Audiences in their living rooms in different places around the world

We were leisurely watching how the Iraqi army was being defeated. This may seem unbelievable but America made profits in this war. It was said in many reports that America had received more money from countries like Germany, Japan n and Saudi Arabia than what they had spent on this war.

Or, What is Kargil War? Discuss.

Ans. The Kargil conflict, also known as the Fourth India-Pakistan War, began in the early months of 1999. In the early days 1people calling themselves Mujahideen secretly infiltrated into the areas around Kargil like Dras, Mashkoa, Kaksar, Batasik etc. and established themselves as Yankar. This was done at the behest of Pakistani Army. When the Indian Army came to know about this, action was taken by the army. from both sides

The fight has started. This battle lasted for several months. By July 26, 1999, India evacuated its areas. This fight was limited only to the Kargil area. Soon after this, General Pervez Musharraf took control of the government of Pakistan.

Q. 24. What are the duties of the Secretary General of the United Nations? (What are the functions of the General Secretary of U.N.O.?)

Ans. The Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a term of 5 years. He heads the Secretariat and is the Secretary-General of all organs of the United Nations. In this capacity he has to perform many tasks, some of the major ones are as follows:

(1) He appoints the employees of the United Nations and makes rules regarding their salary, allowances, leave etc.

(ii) He exercises control over his subordinate employees.

(iii) He prepares the income and expenditure budget of the United Nations. 

(iv) He presents his annual report to the General Assembly.

Or, what do you understand by human security? (What do you mean by human security?)

Human Human Ans. Meaning of human security – protection of mankind from violence and other incidents. To protect the entire world. If seen in an epidemic sense, protection from natural disasters like hunger, epidemic, violence, war and other acts so that human existence can continue is called human security. 

Q.25. Describe the organization of NITI Aayog. organization of NITI Aayog.)

Ans. NITI Aayog NITI Aayog is a dynamic institution taking the place of ‘The Planning Commission’ to provide organisational technical advice to the Center and the States.

Organization-The Chairman of Geeti Aayog is the Prime Minister of India. The CEO is the vice president. The ex-officio members are important Cabinet Ministers, Railways and Agriculture Ministers, full-time members with special charge on Finance, etc.

Are there. The Governing Council consists of the Chief Ministers of all the States and the Legislatures along with the Lieutenant Governors of the Union Territories. Functions and Objectives of the State Commission 

(1) This institution is linked to the government and other governed

Works as intended. It works as a director and policy maker. 

(a) The Finance Commission provides relevant, strategic and technical advice to the governments at the central and state levels on various elements of policy. Instead of focusing on life, the Commission will focus on creating catalysts for development and providing a platform for economic growth and development on the issue of policies and development plans. 

NITI Aayog’s objective is to develop credible schemes at the village level. 2) It will ensure that special attention is paid to those forests of the society.

However, there may be a danger of not getting adequate benefits from economic progress. 

(vii) The Commission is working to develop a common vision of national development priorities.

Or, what do you understand by preen house gas? (What do you mean by Green House Gas?)

Ans. The Earth absorbs energy from the Sun due to which the Earth’s surface gets heated. When energy passes through the atmosphere, about 40% of the energy remains in the atmosphere. Some part of this energy is reflected on the earth’s surface and in the ocean and returned to the atmosphere. 

Through the carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide present in the atmosphere, a layer is formed over the entire earth which absorbs some part of the energy. The way green glass protects the earth from excess heat by forming a layer over it, hence these are called greenhouse gases. 

Q. 26. What do you understand by the dominance of Congress? (What do you mean by Congress dominance?)

Ans. The world’s largest democracy is found in India. It is natural to have political parties democracy. Therefore, the first double cannon in India

And the general elections to the Third Lok Sabha remained competitive and more than one political party continued to participate, 

Nevertheless, the supremacy of Congress continued in the first three general elections, that is, the one-party dominance of Congress remained in the first three general elections.

The reasons for Congress’s dominance over Indian politics for three decades after independence were as follows: 

(1) Role in the freedom struggle – The history of the freedom movement and the history of Congress are considered to be the same because the mainstream movements were non-cooperation, civil disobedience and the Quit India Movement. It was run by Congress only. That is why Congress was seen as the successor of the national movement.

(ii) Leading leaders of the movement as Congress candidates – The leading leaders who participated in the freedom movement were contesting the elections in the group of Congress candidates. Their victory was to happen at any cost. 

(iii) Congress was a well-organized party. Congress was a well-organized party. When other parties were thinking of their strategy, Congress would start its election campaign. Many parties were formed at the time or after independence. Hence, Congress got the advantage of being ‘first and only’. 

(iv) Congress as a social and ideological alliance – From the very beginning, people of every class, region, ideology, language and interests were included in the Congress. Its members included revolutionaries, moderates, extremists, leftists and rightists. 

This gave it extraordinary power. This form continued even after independence due to which it remained popular throughout India.

Or, What is the meaning of social and economic justice? (What is the meaning of social and economic justice?) 

Ans. India, allowed society in early times, which has not allowed society to develop. Differences between humans were established at every level of caste, gender, lineage, community and religion. The result was that a large section of the society remained exploited, neglected and separated from the mainstream of the society. The process of bringing this exploited and neglected class out of the mainstream of society is seen as social justice. 

Q. 27. Why did India adopt the policy of non-alignment? (Why did India adopt the Non-aligned policy?)

Ans. There is a clear influence of Jawaharlal Nehru’s ideas on Indian foreign policy. The Indian National Congress established the Department on Foreign Policy in 1927 AD, whose chief spokesperson was Jawaharlal Nehru. In independent India, along with being the Prime Minister, Jawahar Lal Nehru was also the Foreign Minister.

Or, explain the politics of ‘Doribi Hatao’. (Explain the politics of ‘Garibi Hatao’.) 

Ans. do it yourself  

Q. 28. What were the objectives of ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’? (What were the objectives of ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan?)

Ans. The two largest and most multi-purpose projects were identified as Sardar Sarovar in Gujarat and Narmada Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh. Narmada Bachao Andolan was launched to protect the Narmada River. 

This movement mainly opposed the construction of dams. Narmada Bachao Andolan has been raising questions on the sustainability of the construction of these dams as well as the ongoing development projects in the country. 

Critics point out that the stubborn attitude of the movement is hampering the development process, water availability and economic growth. Critics also said that building the dam would destroy a large part of Gujarat.

It will facilitate the production of drineighbouring, irrigation and sewage in large parts of the three neighboring states. This will lead to a qualitative increase in agricultural production. 

Or, discuss the Shimla Agreement. (Discuss the Shimla Agreement.)

Ans. do it yourself   

Q. 29. Describe the recommendations of the Mandal Commission. (Describe recommendations of Mandal Commission.)

theAns. Mandal Commission was constituted by the Janata Party government in 1979 to identify the backward class people and ensure reservation for them in government jobs in Shigan institutions, in which educational and social backwardness was considered as the basis. 

The Mandal Commission gave its report in 1980. But it was called V.P. Singh’s government implemented it in 1989. After the implementation of this report in which 27% reservation was made, violent fights started across the country. 

After the implementation of this report, reservation politics started in India which polarized the society and politics. The backward classes became involved in the struggle for political power. This affected both provincial and central politics. 

Or, what does ‘globaAndecurity’ mean? (What is the meaning of ‘Global Security’?) 

Ans, do it yourself  

Q. 30. Describe the separatist movement that took place in Mizoram. (Describe the separatist movement that occurred in Mizoram.) 

Ans. After independence, the Bhijo hill region was constituted as an autonomous district under the state of Assam. Some Mizo tribal leaders believed that they had never been a part of British India. Jhat: They cannot be included in the Indian Union. In 1959, a severe drought situation occurred in the Mizo Hill region, which could not be resolved by the Government of Assam. 

As a result, the separatist movement gained more momentum in Mizoram. The Mizo tribe established the Mizo National Front to systematically carry on their separatist movement. Mizo rebels adopted the method of guerrilla warfare and posed a new challenge to the Indian security forces. 

After the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, Bangladesh’s support to these rebels was reduced by the Bangladesh government at India’s request. Now peace has been established in Mizoram and after this agreement, the process of education and development there has progressed rapidly.

Or, what is the impact of party politics on democracy? (What is the impact of policy of defection on democracy?)

Ans, do it yourself  

Class 12th Political Science Important Questions 

Q.31. Describe the obstacles to American supremacy. (Describe the constraints in the way of American Hegemony.)

Ans. do it yourself  

Or, describe the role of India in the development of Afghanistan. (Describe the role of India in the development of Afghanistan.)

Ans. In ancient times, the name of Afghanistan was Gandhara and it was a part of India till the 10th century. After partition, Afghanistan maintained good relations with India. Foreign tours were being organized by ministers in each other country. India-Afghanistan relations remained friendly till April 1992 when Dr. Najibullah was the President of Afghanistan. 

Meanwhile, there were three military rebellions in Afghanistan and Pan became the President. Afghanistan was captured by the Taliban and the terrorists of the Al Qaeda terrorist organization carried out an air attack on America’s World Trade Center and the Pentagon by running Operation Enduring Freedom, Taliban rule was ended in Afghanistan in November 2001. 

India came forward to help strengthen democracy in Afghanistan. India announced to building of a Parliament building in Kabul and provided vehicles to the Afghan army. Afghanistan was made a member country of SAARC at the SAARC conference held in New Delhi in 2007.

Went. On December 25, 2015, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited Afghanistan and assured all cooperation in building a democratic, sovereign, secure and strong Afghanistan. 

Q. 32. What is the ozone layer? Describe the reasons responsible for the hole in the ozone layer. (What is the Ozone layer? Describe the factors responsible for the hole in the ozone layer.) 

Ans. Ozone is an isotope of oxygen. There are three atoms of oxygen in one of its molecules. Ozone is formed in the atmosphere due to the effect of ultraviolet rays of the Sun.

It is found around the Earth like a protective umbrella and blocks ultraviolet radiations coming towards the Earth. The ozone layer reflects the ultraviolet rays present in sunlight and prevents them from entering the atmosphere.

Or, discuss the reasons responsible for the establishment of the Janata Party in 1977. (Discuss the causes responsible for the establishment of the Janata Party in 1977.) 

Ans: On June 12, 1975, Justice Jagmohan Lal Singh of Allahabad High Court gave a decision declaring the election of Mrs. Indira Gandhi illegal. Mrs Indira Gandhi was accused of using government employees and government machinery in the elections. 

On June 24, 1975, the Supreme Court, while giving a partial stay on the decision of the High Court, said that until the hearing of this appeal was completed, Indira Gandhi would remain an MP but she could not participate in the proceedings of the Lok Sabha. 

Thus, after allegations of rigging in the elections were partially proved, the opposition parties staged a massive demonstration at Ramlila Maidan in Delhi on June 25, 1975. Jayaprakash Narayan demanded the resignation of Indira Gandhi, announced a nationwide Satyagraha and in his speeches instigated the police, military and government employees against the government. The then government of Indira Gandhi declared a state of internal emergency in the country under Article 352 of the Constitution on June 25, 1975 and all the opposition parties were detained and put in jail. 

During the period of emergency, many organizations like Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Jamaat-e-Islami were banned. The press was also banned. The government’s preventive detention law was used extensively. Many innocent people were arrested without any reason and put in jail. 

Many types of atrocities were committed against the citizens. Muslims were tortured to implement the family planning program, which led to public anger against the government. The Shah Commission formed later says that about 1 lakh 11 thousand people were arrested under preventive detention laws. Newspapers like Indian Express and Statesman protested against the ban on the press. The government affected every part of the Constitution by making 42 constitutional amendments. The powers of the judiciary were reduced. The tenure of Parliament was changed from 5 years to 6 years.

Ultimately the Emergency ended and elections were announced which were held in March 1977. Before the elections, all the opposition parties united and decided that they would fight the elections unitedly to remove Indira Gandhi from power. For this, the Janata Party was formed under the leader of Jaiprakash Narayan.

The main parties in this alliance were- 

(i) Congress, (ii) Samajwadi Socialist Party, 

(iii) Janasamp, (iv) Bharatiya Lok Dal. Later Jagjivan Ram’s party Congress for Democracy also joined the Janata Party. The Janata Party achieved an unexpected victory in the 1977 elections. For the first time, Congress lost badly and got only 154 seats and less than 35% of the votes. Janata Party got 330 seats. Janata Party alone

Only got 295 seats. The Janata Party wiped out the Congress in North and Central India. Congress remained in control of only some areas of South India.

Q. 33. What is called the Green Revolution? Highlight its achievements and negative consequences. (What is the Green Revolution? Discuss its achievements and negative consequences.)

Ans. Meaning of Green Revolution – The amazing increase in agricultural production due to development in biotechnology, modern plants, irrigation facilities etc. has been termed as Green Revolution. In 1966-67 AD, the government adopted a new strategy of agriculture to ensure food security.

 Under this policy, the government started providing high-quality seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation facilities at highly subsidized prices. Along with this, the government also guaranteed that the produce would be purchased at a fixed price. This was called the ‘Green Revolution’.

Positive results of the green revolution 

(1) Due to the Green Revolution, farmers were able to produce more wheat and rice. Farmers now have plenty of grain available to sell in the market. Also, the standard of living of farmers improved. 

(ii) Due to the Hatir Revolution, middle-class farmers in agriculture i.e. middle-class land-owning farmers were liberated. They benefited from the changes in agricultural methods. They emerged as influential in many parts of the country. 

(iii) Huge increase in the production and productivity of food grains. 

(iv) Import of food grains ended.

(v) Maximum benefit to wheat crop, six times increase in wheat production. 

(vi) Strengthen the concept of food security.

(vii) Increase in national income. 

(viii) The maximum impact of green light has been felt in the states of Punjab and Haryana. Wheat is a prestigious crop for agricultural development in these states. There has been unprecedented growth in rice cultivation in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Negatlandownersences of the Green Revolution 

(1) Rich farmers and big land owners benefited the most from the Green Revolution. The worst solution was that the gap between poor farmers and landowners became apparent. 

(ii) This intensified polarization between different sections of the society and different areas of the country. Areas like Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh became prosperous in terms of agriculture, while Chaki areas remained backwards in terms of farming. 

(iii) Its effect has been only on crops like wheat. Other crops have remained neglected. 

(iv) Due to excessive groundwater fertilizers and pesticides, soil salinization, groundwater pollution, nutrient imbalance, and outbreak of new pests and diseases.

Environmental problems have also arisen.

Or, discuss the main points of dispute between India and China. (Explain the main points of disputes between India and China.)

Ans. Following are the major matters of dispute between India and China- 

(i) Border dispute- China made a treaty with Pakistan and took some parts of Kashmir under its control in 1963 AD, which is building roads and other projects in the so-called Pakistan.

It is 1962. By coming to India to establish their rule over the Saha and Apanate country, the spirit of Chinese brotherhood and the centuries-old ancestral bonds of the two great neighbours of Asia was deeply hurt.

(i) China claims Arunachal Pradesh, a state in India. China also refused to accept that Sikkim was an integral part of India (iv) When Pakistan invaded India in 1965, China helped it. This aroused the emotions of the Indians. Naturally, relations between the two countries worsened. Even today, it creates obstacles in taking action against the terrorist leaders who supported them. 

Q. 34. Write about the indigenous people and their rights. (Write about the indigenous people and their rights.)

And, Indigenous people and their rights 

(1) The question on indigenous people connects environment, resources and politics. The United Nations gave a working definition of these in 1982. They were said to be the descendants of people who do not exist in any country today. We had been living together for a long time. Then greed from another culture or ethnic origin came to that country from another part of the world and turned these people into kin. Even today the ‘natives’ of a country prefer to live according to their traditions, cultural customs and their own social and economic practices rather than conforming to the institutions of that country. 

(ii) What is the common interest of about 30 crore indigenous people present in different parts of the world including India in the context of world politics? There are 20 lakh indigenous people living in the Srihilera region of the Philippines. The number of Mapuros in Chile is 10 lakh. The number of American natives in Bangladesh is 50 thousand. East of the Panama Canal, there are 50,000 indigenous people called Kuna and the population of such people is 20 lakh in Northern Soviet. Like other social movements, indigenous people also raise the voices of their struggle, agenda and rights.

(iii) In world politics, the voice of the indigenous people has been raised to get equal status in the world community. The places where the indigenous people live are in Central and South America, Africa, East Asia and India, where they are called tribals or tribes.

(iv) Many island countries of the ASEAN region, including Australia and New Zealand, have been inhabited by indigenous people of Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia for thousands of years. Governments have demanded that they should be considered as an indigenous community with their own independent identity. In claiming their rights over their original habitat, indigenous people all over the world use the phrase ‘we have been living here since time immemorial’. 

Even though the indigenous people are located in different places their worldview regarding the land and the various life-systems based on it are surprisingly similar. Loss of land means loss of a base of economic resources and is a great threat to the lives of the indigenous people. What is the meaning of political freedom which does not provide for survival itself?

(v) In India, the word ‘Scheduled Tribe’ is used for ‘indigenous people’. The word ‘Adivasi’ constitutes eight per cent of the population. Barring a few new nomadic tribes, most of the tribal people of India depend on agriculture for their livelihood. For centuries, these people had been fearlessly cultivating as much land as they could, but after the establishment of British colonial rule, the tribal communities faced outsiders.

(vi) Although they have constitutional protection in terms of political representation, they have not been able to get much benefit from the development of the country. Since independence, many development projects have failed and more people have been displaced. This community is the largest among those displaced by such projects. These people have paid a huge price for development.

(vii) Rights of the indigenous communities were neglected in politics for a long time. Al K has started being given. 

(viii) In the 1970s, contacts between indigenous leaders in different parts of the world increased. This gave strength to their shared experiences and concerns. The World Council of Indigenous Peoples was formed in 1975. The United Nations first gave this council the status of an advisory council. Apart from this, 10 other voluntary organizations related to the concerns of tribals have also been given this status.

Or, what is globalization? On what grounds has it been criticized? (What is globalisation? On which grounds has it been criticized?)

Ans. The basis of criticisms of globalization are as follows-

(i) The changing role of the state in developing countries in the context of globalization has had a wide-ranging impact. The simplest idea is that globalization reduces state capacity, that is, the power of governments to do what they want to do. Throughout the world, the concept of the welfare state has now become obsolete and has been replaced by a minimally interventionist state.

(ii) The state now limits itself to a few core functions, such as maintaining law and order and protecting its citizens. In this way, the state has withdrawn itself from many earlier public welfare works whose aim was economic and social welfare. Instead of the welfare state, the market is now the primary 5 determinant of economic and social priorities.

(iii) In developing countries, multinational corporations have spread their foothold and their remake has increased, which reduces the ability of governments to make decisions on their own.

Q. 35. What are the new social movements? Describe their main objectives in India. (What are the new social movements? Describe their main aims in India.)

Ans. Mass movements or social movements work as a link between the public and the government and keep the government tied to the public. If this does not happen, the government moves away from the people and democracy becomes weak. – These movements throw light on the new problems, new issues and new aspirations of the people that have emerged due to the change of times and help in accelerating the pace of social change.



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