NCERT CH-5 Indigo class 12 summary, Question Answers, Important Solutions & Explanation

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NCERT CH-5 Indigo class 12 summary, Question Answers, Important Solutions & Explanation

Class12th 
Chapter05
Chapter NameIndigo class 12 summary
BoardCBSE & All Others boards
Book NCERT
SubjectEnglish Elective  (Flamingo)
Medium English
Study MaterialsVery important question to answer

Indigo class 12 summary

Louis Fisher was an admirer of Gandhiji. He met Gandhiji several times ed wrote his biography, The Life of Mahatma Gandhi.’ This lesson ‘Indigo’ is taken from that book. Gandhiji considered Champaran a turning point in his life. Probably it was a turning point in the history of the nation too. Gandhiji visited Champaran in 1917. The British government was well-entrenched in India at that time. Indian masses had a deep-rooted fear of the British.

An illiterate man Rajkumar was greatly perturbed by the injustice meted out to Indian peasants by British landlords. The cause of the problem was Indigo and the greed of the landlords. The British landlords owned large estates in Champaran. In those days harvesting indigo was very profitable. The British landlords, through a  long agreement, forced Indian tenants to plant 15% of their holdings with indigo and surrender the entire production to the landlord as rent. Harvesting Indigo was an unpleasant job.

But things changed. Germany developed synthetic indigo. Naturally, the prices of Indio were sure to plummet. Harvesting indigo was no longer profitable. So the landlords offered to release the peasants from the irksome job of harvesting indigo. 

They demanded compensation for it. Illiterate peasants who did not know of the real motive of the British landlords gladly agreed to this.

Some others resisted. But soon the peasants learned about the synthetic indigo. Then those who had paid compensation demanded their money back. 

The landlords hired thugs to cow them down. The peasants engaged lawyers. At this point, Gandhiji visited Champaran. He felt it was no use going to courts. He wanted to free the peasants from the fear of the British. Gandhiji championed their cause and finally succeeded. He remained firm, fearless, and dedicated.

Gandhiji tells the author Louis Fisher when the idea of the departure of the British came in his mind. It was in 1917. Gandhiji had gone to the December 1916 annual convention of the Indian National Congress in Lucknow. 

A poor peasant came up to him. He was Rajkumar Shukla. He was from Champaran. He wanted him to come to his district. Gandhi had never. heard of the place. It was near the Kingdom of Nepal in Bihar. Shukla was a sharecropper.

Rajkumar Shukla was illiterate but solute. He had come to the Congress session to complain about the injustice of the landlord system in Bihar. Gand had an appointment in Kanpur and had to go to other parts of India as well Shukla accompanied him everywhere. 

He even followed him to the ashram in Ahmedabad. He begged Gandhi to fix a date. Gandhi was impressed by Shukla’s determination. He asked Shukla to meet him in Calcutta and him from there. In Calcutta, he waited till Gandhi was free. Then the two boarded a train for Patna. 

There Shukla led him to the house of a named Rajendra Prasad. Dr. Prasad later became the President of the Congress and then of India. with take lawyer

Gandhi decided to go first to Muzaffarpur. He wanted to obtain complete information about conditions in Champaran. Professor J.B. Kriplan waited at the station with a large body of students. 

Gandhi stayed for two days in the home of Professor Malkani. The news of Gandhi’s arrival spread quickly through Muzaffarpur and then to Champaran. Sharecroppers from Champan arrived on foot to meet their champion. 

Muzaffarpur lawyers called on Gand to brief him. Gandhi chided them for collecting big fees from poor sharecroppers. more

Most of the arable land in Champaran was owned by Englishmen. India tenants worked on the land. Germany had developed synthetic indigo. Now indigo plantation was not very profitable. Therefore, they obtained agreements from the sharecroppers. 

They were to pay the landlord’s compensation for being released from the 15% arrangement. According to the previous agreement, English landlords compelled all tenants to plant 15% of their land with indigo. They had to surrender the whole indigo crop to the landlords as rent. Those who opposed were tortured by their hired thugs. 

Meanwhile, the illiterate peasants saw through the trick of the landlords. They were not ready to pay the compensation. Those who had signed wanted their money back

Gandhi met the Secretary of the British Landlord’s Association. But didn’t give him any information. Gandhi met the Commissioner who only bullied him and advised him to leave the place. Gandhi didn’t leave. H proceeded to Motihari, the capital of Champaran. 

A huge crowd greeted Ga at the station. A peasant had been maltreated in a nearby village. Gandhi we there on the back of an elephant. Gandhi was asked to return to the town. was served with an official notice to quit Champaran immediately. Gand made it clear that he would disobey the order. So Gandhi received a summons to appear in court the next day. 

All night Gandhi remained awake. He wires a full report to the Viceroy. The next morning thousands of peace demonstrated to support Gandhi. It was the beginning of their liberation from fear of the British. The officials felt helpless. Gandhi helped them to regulate the crowd.

The government was baffled. The authorities wanted to postpone the trial. Gandhi protested against the delay. Gandhi told the court that he w involved in a ‘conflict of duties’. It was his duty not to set a bad example breaker. 

On the other hand, he was to do justice to thousands of poor croppers. He disregarded the order to leave. Gandhi had full respect for lawful authority. But in the end, he heard the voice of conscience. The court ‘t deliver the judgment for several days. Meanwhile, Gandhi was allowed o remain at liberty.

Rajendra Prasad and many other prominent lawyers had arrived from r. They conferred with Gandhi. What would they do if Gandhi was sent to jail? 

The lawyers decided to follow him into jail, and Gandhi exclaimed: “The s le of Champaran is won.” Several days after the Lieutenant-Governor of the province had ordered the case to be dropped. Thus, Civil Disobedience Movement won, for the first time in modern India.

Gandhi had four interviews with the Lieutenant-Governor. He appointed an official commission of inquiry into the indigo sharecroppers’ situation. Gandhi was the sole representative of the peasants. He remained in Champaran for more than seven months. 

There was much evidence against the landlords. hey had illegally extorted money from the sharecroppers. Gandhi asked for a. The planters offered to refund only 25% Gandhi agreed. The deadlock is broken.

Gandhi saw the cultural and social backwardness in the Champaran villages. He wanted to do something about it immediately. Mahadev Desai Narhari Parikh, two young men joined Gandhi as disciples. 

Even their ives volunteered for the work. Many more came from Bombay, Poona, and water distant parts. Gandhi’s son Devdas also joined them. Primary schools were opened in six villages. Kasturba taught cleanliness and sanitation.

The Champaran episode was a turning point in Gandhi’s life. It didn’t gin as an act of defiance. It was an attempt to alleviate the distress of the peasants. Gandhi tried to mold a new free Indian. 

He wanted him to and on his own feet and thus make India free. Some people wanted C.F. drews to stay in Champaran and help them. But Gandhi opposed it. He didn’t want that Indians should take the help of an Englishman in their own Anuggle for freedom. In this way, Gandhi taught them self-reliance.

indigo class 12 summary in hindi 

दिमाग में आया। यह 1917 का साल था। गाधी लखनऊ में होने वाले दिसम्बर 1916 के भारतीय लेखक लुईस फिसर को बताते हैं कि अंग्रेजों की विदाई का विचार कब उसके राष्ट्रीय काँग्रेस के वार्षिक अधिवेशन में लखनऊ गए हुए थे। एक गरीब किसान उनके पास गया। वह राजकुमार शुक्ला था। वह चम्पारन से था। वह चाहता था कि वे उसके जिले में आए। कभी उस जगह के बारे में नहीं सुना था। यह बिहार में नेपाल राज्य के समीप था। तुम एक बटाईदार था।

दे दूसरे हिस्सों में भी जाना था। शुक्ला हर जगह उसके साथ गया। वह उसके पीछे अहमदाबाद राजकुमार शुक्ला अनपढ़ परन्तु दृढ़ था। वह कॉंग्रेस अधिवेशन में बिहार में जमींदारी पद्धति अन्याय की शिकायत करने आया था गांधी की कानपुर में नियुक्ति थी और उन्हें भारत श्रम में भी गया। उसने गाँधी जी से तिथि निश्चित करने की याचना की। गाँधी शुक्ला के से प्रभावित हुए। उन्होंने शुक्ला को कलकता मिलने के लिए और वहाँ से उन्हें ले  जाने के लिए कहा। कलकत्ता में जब तक गाँधी मुक्त नहीं हुए तब तक उसने उनकी की। 

फिर दोनों पटना के लिए गाड़ी में रवाना हुए। वहा शुक्ला उन्हें राजेन्द्र प्रसाद नामक के यहाँ ले गया। डॉ. प्रसाद बाद में कॉंग्रेस के प्रधान और फिर भारत के राष्ट्रपति बने।”

गाँधी ने पहले मुजफ्फरपुर जाने का निश्चय किया। वे चम्पारन के हालात के बारे में औ पूरी सूचना प्राप्त करना चाहते थे। प्रोफेसर जे. बी. कृपलानी ने एक बड़े विद्यार्थी टोले के गाँधी की प्रतीक्षा की। गाँधी जी दो दिन प्रोफेसर मलकानी के घर रुके। गाँधी के आने की मुजफ्फरपुर से चम्पारन शीघ्र पहुँच गई। चम्पारन से बटाईदार पैदल चलकर अपने चैम्पियन मिलने आए। मुजफ्फरपुर के वकील गाँधी को संक्षिप्त वर्णन देने के लिए मिले। गाँधी ने उ गरीब बटाईदारों से मोटी फीस वसूलने के लिए लताड़ा।

चम्पारन में ज्यादातर खेती करने योग्य जमीन पर स्वामित्व अंग्रेजों का था। जमीन पर भारतीय किसान करते थे। जर्मनी ने सिंथेटिक नील का आविष्कार कर लिया था। अब की खेती अधिक लाभदायक नहीं थी। इसीलिए, उन्होंने बटाईदारों द्वारा करारनामे प्राप्त कर लिए थे। उन्हें 15% करारनामे से मुक्त होने के लिए जमींदारों को मुआवजा देना था। 

पुराने करार के अनुसार अंग्रेज जमींदार किसानों को 15% उनकी जमीन पर नील की खेती करने के लिए बाध्य करते थे। उन्हें नील की समूची खेती को जमींदार को किराये के रूप में देना पड़ता था। जो इसका विरोध करते उन्हें उनके किराये के गुण्डों द्वारा सताया जाता था। इस बीच अन बटाईदारों ने जमींदारों की चालाकी को भांप लिया। वे मुआवजा देने के लिए तैयार नहीं दे जिन्होंने दस्तखत कर दिए थे उन्हें अपना पैसा वापस चाहिए था।

गाँधी ब्रिटिश जमींदार ऐसोसियेशन के सचिव से मिले। लेकिन उसने उसे कोई सूचना नही दी। गाँधी कमिश्नर से मिले जिसने केवल उन पर धौंस जमायी और उन्हें स्थान छोड़ देने की • नसीहत दी। गाँधी जी वहाँ से गये नहीं। वे मोतिहारी की ओर आगे बढ़े जो चम्पारन की राजधानी थी। एक विशाल भीड़ ने गाँधी का स्टेशन पर स्वागत किया। नजदीक के एक गाँव में एक किसान के साथ दुर्व्यवहार किया गया था। 

गाँधी एक हाथी की पीठ पर बैठ कर वहाँ पहुँचे। गाँधी के कस्बे में वापस आ जाने के लिए कहा गया। उन्हें चम्पारन तुरन्त छोड़ देने का एक सरकारी नोटिस थमा दिया गया। गाँधी ने स्पष्ट कर दिया कि वे हुक्म की अवहेलना करेंगे। इसीलिए गाँधी को अगले दिन कचहरी में हाजिर होने का आदेश मिला। सारी रात गाँधी को अगले दिन कचहरी में हाजिर होने का आदेश मिला।

सारी रात गाँधी जागे रहे। उन्होंने वायसराय को पूरा ब्यौरा तार से भेज दिया। अगली सुबह गाँधी के समर्थन में हजारों किसानों ने प्रदर्शन किय यह अंग्रेजों के डर से मुक्ति की शुरुआत थी। अधिकारी असहाय थे। गाँधी ने भीड़ को नियंति करने में उनकी सहायता की।

सरकार बीखता गयी थी। अधिकारी मुकदमे को स्थगित करवाना चाहते थे। गाँधी ने दी का विरोध किया। गाँधी ने न्यायालय को सूचित किया वह ‘कर्तव्य द्वंद्व’ में फंस गये थे। उसका कर्त्तव्य था कि वह एक कानून तोड़ने वाले के रूप में एक खराब उदाहरण पेश न को दूसरी ओर उसे हजारों गरीब बटाईदारों के प्रति न्याय करना था। उसने चले जाने के आदेश की अवहेलना की। गाँधीजी का कानूनी सत्ता के प्रति पूरा सम्मान था। 

लेकिन अन्त में उन्न ‘“अपने अन्तःकरण की आवाज” को सुना। न्यायालय ने कई दिन तक फैसला नहीं सुनाया इस बीच गाँधी को आजाद रहने के लिए छोड़ दिया गया। बिहार से राजेन्द्र प्रसाद और बहुत से प्रमुख वकील आ गए थे। उन्होंने गाँधी से वार्ता

की करेंगे यदि गाँधी के पीछे-पीछे जेल जाएंगे। गाँधी ने कहा, “चम्पारन की लड़ाई जा चुकी है।” कई दिन बाद राज्य के उपराज्यपाल ने मुकदमे को वापस लेने का हुक्म दे दिय इस प्रकार सविनय अवज्ञा आन्दोलन की पहली बार आधुनिक भारत में विजय हुई। गाँधी के उपराज्यपाल से चार साक्षात्कार हुए। उसने नील किसानों के हालात पर जाँच-कमीशन की नियुक्ति कर दी। गाँधी किसानों के मात्र एक प्रतिनिधि थे। वह चम्पारन मे 7 महीने से भी अधिक रहे। जमींदारों के विरुद्ध बहुत से प्रमाण थे। उन्होंने किसानों से

कानूनी ढंग से जबर्दस्ती पैसा वसूला था। गाँधी ने 50% की माँग की। जमींदारों के केवल -25% पैसा वापस देने की पेशकर की गांधी मान गए। गतिरोध टूट गया। गाँधी ने चम्पारन के गाँवों में सांस्कृतिक और सामाजिक पिछड़ेपन को देखा। वे इसके बारे शीघ्र ही कुछ करना चाहते थे। महादेव देसाई और नरहरि पारीख नामक दो युवा गाँधी के शिष्यों के रूप में शामिल हो गए। 

उनकी पत्नियों ने भी स्वयंसेवक बन कर काम किया। मुम्बई, पूना और दूसरी दूर की जगहों से भी बहुत लोग आए। गाँधी का पुत्र देवदास भी उनमें शामिल है गया। छः गाँवों में प्राथमिक पाठशालाएँ खोली गईं। कस्तूरबा ने स्वच्छता और सफाई के बारे शिक्षा दी।

चम्पारन घटना गाँधी के जीवन में एक मोड़ बिन्दु था। यह एक अवहेलना कार्य के रूप ३ आरम्भ नहीं हुआ। यह गरीब किसानों को दुखों से मुक्ति दिलाने का एक प्रयत्न था। गाँधीजी एक नए स्वतंत्र भारतीय को नया स्वरूप देना चाहते थे। वे चाहते थे कि वह (भारतीय) अपने देहे पर खड़ा हो और इस प्रकार भारत को स्वतन्त्र कराए। कई लोग सी. एफ. एंड्रयूज को धम्पारन में उनकी सहायता के लिए ठहरवाना चाहते थे। लेकिन गाँधी ने इसका विरोध किया। नहीं चाहते थे कि अपने निजी स्वतन्त्रता संघर्ष में भारतीय एक अंग्रेज की सहायता लें। इस कार गाँधी ने उन्हें आत्म-निर्भरता सिखायी।

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HistoryPolitical Science
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WORD-MEANINGS

Urge-entreat (आग्रह करना); Departure leaving (प्रधान) Convention-as- sembly (सम्मेलन); Proceedings-transactions (कार्यवाही); Recounted-narrated (सुनाया); Emaciated-thin and lean (क्षीण, दुबला-पतला ) Foothills-minor hills near a mountain (पहाड़ के समीप छोटी पहाड़ियाँ); 

Towering-rising high (ऊँचा खड़ा); Arrangement-settlement (इकरार, व्यवस्था); Sharecropper tenant farmer (बटाईदार किसान); Resolute-with firm determination (दृढ़ प्रतिज्ञा); Committed-promised | (दवनबन्छ); Tenacity-firmness (दृढ़ता); Haunches buttocks (नितम्ब); 

Appointed- fixed (निश्चित की हुई); Yeoman-cultivator (कृषक); Pestered-troubled (परेशान किया था); Entire-whole (समस्त); Untouchable-outcaste (अछूत); Enroute-on the way (रास्ते में); Imparting-disclose information (सूचना प्रदान करना); Extra | ordinary uncommon (असामान्य); Commented-remarked (टिप्पणी की); Har- bour-give shelter (आश्रय देना); Localities-neighbourhood (बस्तियाँ); 

Home- | rule-self government (स्वराज्य); Advent-arrival (आगमन); Mission-purpose Conveyance-vehicles, transport (); Champion-defender (94), | Brief-summary of the case (सारांश से अवगत कराना); Represented-pleaded on behalf of (की ओर से पेश होते थे); Chided rebuked (डॉटा), Came to the conclu ion-decided (निष्कर्ष निकालना); Crushed oppressed (दमन किया जाना); 

Fear | stricken-terrified (आतंकित); Relief-end distress (कष्ट से मुक्ति); Arable-fit for | cultivation (जोतने योग्य); Estates-large land property (सम्पदा); Tenants-peas- fool (जबूर कर दिया) Holding-picce of land] (लो): Surrender give up (काश्तकार); 

Very short answer type questions

Class 12 English Indigo class 12 summary
Class 12 English

1. Why is Rajkumar Shukla described as being ‘resolute’?

Ans. He had come all the way from Champaran district in the foothills of the Himalayas to Lucknow to speak to Gandhi. Shukla accompanied Gandhi everywhere. Shukla followed him to the ashram near Ahmedabad. For weeks he never left Gandhi’s side till Gandhi asked him to meet at Calcutta.

2. Why do you think the servants thought Gandhi to be another peasant? 

Ans. Shukla led Gandhi to Rajendra Prasad’s house. The servants knew Shukla as a poor yeoman. Gandhi was also clad in a simple dhoti. He was the companion of a peasant. Hence the servants thought Gandhi to be another peasant.

3 List the places that Gandhi visited between his first meeting with Shukla and his arrival at Champaran. 

Ans. Gandhi’s first meeting with Shukla was in Lucknow. Then he went to Cawnpore and other parts of India. He returned to his ashram near Ahmedabad. Later he went to Calcutta, Patna, and Muzaffarpur before arriving at Champaran.

4. What did the peasants pay the British landlords as rent? What did the British now want instead and why? What would be the impact of synthetic indigo on the prices of natural indigo? 

Ans. The peasants paid the British landlords indigo as rent. Now Germany had developed synthetic indigo. So the British landlords wanted money as compensation for being released from the 15 percent arrangement. The prices of natural Indigo would go down due to synthetic Indigo.

6. The events in this part of the text illustrate Gandhi’s method of working. Can you identify some instances of this method and link them to his ideas of satyagraha and non-violence?

Ans. Gandhiji continued to pursue the work for which he had come to Champaran. He met the commissioner of Tirhut. He bullied Gandhiji and ordered him to leave Tirhut. Gandhiji was not cowed. But he remained calm He was served with a notice to leave. Gandhiji received the notice but he declared that he would not leave. Thousands of peasants came in support of Gandhiji and surrounded the court building. Gandhiji did not incite

violence. Instead, he remained calm and assisted the authorities to regulate the crowd. In the court, Gandhiji pleaded guilty and asked for the penalty due. He declared that he had respect for the lawful authority. But he could not disregard the voice of his conscience to serve humanity and his nation. All these events show that he was firm on truth (satyagraha) and calm and peaceful (non-violent). 

7. Why did Gandhi agree to a settlement of a 25 percent refund? 

Ans. The landlords feared that Gandhi would demand repayment of all farmers. the money. He asked only 50%. There he seemed firm. Then the planters offered to refund 25% of the money to the sharecroppers. Gandhi agreed. Gandhi explained that the amount of the refund was less important than the fact that the landlords were compelled to surrender part of the money and with it part of indigo, their prestige.

8. How did the episode change the plight of the peasants? 

Ans. The settlement changed the condition of the peasants of Champaran. Previously the landlords behaved as lords above the law. Now the 15% clause was over. The peasants realized they had their legal rights. There were people to defend them. They learned courage. Within a few years, the British planters abandoned their estates. They were given back to the peasants.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:

Class 12 English  The Rattrap Summary
Class 12 English Question Answer

1. When and where did Gandhi decide “to urge the departure of the British” and why? 

Ans. For the first time, the idea that the British must quit India came to Gandhi’s mind in 1917. He had gone to the December 1916 annual convention of the plight Indian National Congress in Lucknow.

 There he came to know of the poor sharecroppers at the hands of the British landlords in Champaran, Gandhi, later on, went to Champaran at the insistence of a poor sharecropper. The Champaran episode was made. Gandhi clear that the British must quit India sooner or later. 

2. What made Gandhi surrender to the wish of Rajkumar Shukla and board a train to Patna in Bihar?

Ans. Rajkumar Shukla met Gandhi in Lucknow. He briefed Gandhi regarding the injustice done to the poor peasants in Champaran by English indigo planters. Gandhi had many engagements including one in Kanpur. 

Shukla accompanied Gandhi everywhere, even to his ashram in Ahmedabad. Gandhi asked him to meet him in Calcutta. Shukla waited there till Gandhi was not free. Shukla’s determination impressed Gandhi. Both of them boarded a train to Patna in Bihar.

3. Why did Gandhi chide the lawyers of Muzaffarpur? 

Ans. Muzaffarpur lawyers called on Gandhi to brief him. They had frequently represented peasants in court. Gandhi chided them for collecting big fees from poor sharecroppers. When peasants were so poor and crushed, it was inhuman to charge heavy fees to them.

4. How did even illiterate sharecroppers see through the trick and fraud of the English landlords? Why did they want their money back? 

Ans. Germany had invented synthetic indigo. Now indigo plantation was no more profitable. Even the illiterate peasants could see through the trick and game of the landlords. They demanded compensation for freeing the peasants from the 15% agreement. The peasants knew that the landlords were serving themselves by freeing the peasants from growing indigo. Therefore, they were not ready to pay the compensation and demanded their money back.

5. Why was the government baffled and what could Gandhi prove to them by the episode of Motihari?

Ans. There was such a spontaneous demonstration of thousands of peasants in Motihari that the government was baffled. The officials felt helpless Gandhi was polite and friendly. He helped them regulate the crowd. Gandhi gave concrete proof that the might of the British though dreaded could be challenged by Indians.

6. Gandhi was involved in a ‘conflict of duties’. What did he decide in the end and why?

Ans. Gandhi was involved in a ‘conflict of duties’. On the one hand, he didn’t want to set a bad example. He didn’t want to be a lawbreaker. On the other hand, he couldn’t give up the use of the poor peasants of Champaran for whom he had come there. Therefore, he heard the ice of conscience’ in the end. He decided to disobey the order.

7. “Civil disobedience had triumphed, the first time in modern India.” Justify this statement.

Ans. Gandhi was asked to leave Champaran by an official order. He respected the lawful authority. He didn’t want to be a law-breaker. But the Voice of conscience’ made him disobey the order. Thousands of people, particularly the peasants, held a huge demonstration. The government was baffled. The officials felt helpless. Gandhi was released without bail. So civil disobedience triumphed for the first time in modern India.

8. What was the outcome of four protracted interviews that Gandhi had with the Lieutenant-Governor?

Ans. In June, Gandhi was summoned to Sir Edward Gait, the Lieutenant- Governor. He had four protracted interviews with him. He took up the cause of the sharecroppers of Champaran with him. As a result, a commission of inquiry was set up to look into the plight of the indigo sharecroppers. Gandhi was the sole representative of the peasants.

9. How was the settlement for compensation reached between the English planters and the sharecroppers? Describe Gandhi’s role in it.

Ans. The official inquiry assembled a mountain of evidence against the English landlords. When they saw this, they agreed, in principle, to make refunds to the peasants. They thought Gandhi would press for full repayment But he asked for only 50%. The landlords offered to refund 25% of the money To their surprise, Gandhi agreed. So the settlement was adopted unanimously by the commission.

10. The settlement of 25% refund to the farmers appeared Why did Gandhi agree to it and how did events justify his position?

Ans. According to the settlement, the planters were to refund 25% of the compensation money to the peasants. The achievement appeared to be rather small. But for Gandhi, the amount of the refund was less important. More important was the fact that the landlords were forced to surrender part of their money. 

He agreed to the settlement. Within a few years, the British planters abandoned their estates.

11. problems of the millions. Justify this statement with reference to the Champaran episode.

Ans. The success of Champaran justified Gandhi’s style of politics. Civil disobedience was a typical pattern of Gandhian politics. His ways and means were non-violent. His politics were intertwined with the day-to-day problems of the millions. In Champaran, he identified himself with a lot of poor and exploited peasants.

12. How did Gandhi teach us a lesson in self-reliance? Why did he oppose taking help from C. F. Andrews?

Ans. Gandhi wanted to mold ‘a new free Indian’. He wanted Indians to stand on their own feet and thus make India free. Some of his followers wanted C.F. Andrews to stay in Champaran and help them. Gandhi opposed it. He didn’t want Indians to take the help of an Englishman in their struggle for freedom. So he taught a lesson in self-reliance to his followers. 

13. Where is the Champaran district situated? What did the peasants grow there? How did they use their harvest?

Ans. Champaran district of Bihar is situated in the foothills of the Himalayas, near the kingdom of Nepal. Under an ancient arrangement, the Champaran peasants were sharecroppers. They had to grow indigo on 15 percent of the land and give it to the English estate owners as rent.

14. How did the development of synthetic indigo affect the English estate Owners and the Indian tenants?

Ans. The English estate owners saw that indigo cultivation was no longer profitable. They wanted money from the sharecroppers as compensation for being released from the 15 percent arrangement. They obtained agreements from their tenants to this effect and extorted money illegally and deceitfully. 

15. How did the Indian peasants react to the new agreement releasing them from the sharecropping arrangement?

Ans. The sharecropping arrangement was troublesome to the peasants. Many of them signed the new agreement willingly. Some resisted and engaged lawyers. Then they came to know about synthetic indigo. The peasants wanted their money back.

16. Why did Gandhi decide to go first to Muzaffarpur before going to Champaran? 

Ans. Gandhi wanted to obtain more complete information about conditions than Shukla was capable of imparting. Muzaffarpur lawyers, who frequently represented peasant groups in courts, briefed Gandhi about their cases.

17. How did Gandhi begin his mission in Champaran? How far did his efforts prove successful? 

Ans. He began by trying to get the facts. First, he visited the secretary of the British landlord’s association. He told Gandhi that they could give no information to an outsider: Then Gandhi called on the British official commissioner of the Tirhut Division. The commissioner tried to bully Gandhi and advised him to leave Tirhut. 

18. How did Gandhi react to the commissioner’s advice? Where did he go and how did people react to his arrival?

Ans. Gandhiji did not leave the Tirhut division. Instead, he went to Motihari the Capital of Champaran. Several lawyers accompanied him. At the railway station, a very large crowd of people greeted Gandhi. 19. How did Gandhi behave with the officials and the crowd? What did he want to convey to the Britishers? Ans. Gandhi cooperated with the officials. He helped them regulate the crowd. He was polite and friendly. He gave the Britisher’s concrete proof that their dread and unquestioned power could be challenged by Indians.

20. What was the “conflict of duties” in which Gandhi was involved? 

Ans. First, he did not want to set a bad example as a lawbreaker. Second, he wanted to render the “humanitarian and national service” for which he had come. He respected the lawful authority but disregarded the order to leave to obey the voice of his conscience.

21. What according to Rajendra Prasad, was the upshot of the consultations of the lawyers regarding the injustice to sharecroppers?

Ans. They thought that Gandhi was a total stranger. Yet he was ready to go to prison for the sake of the peasants. On the other hand, the lawyers were residents of nearby districts. They also claimed to have served these peasants. It would be shameful desertion if they should go home then.

22. What do you think, led Gandhi to exclaim “The battle of Champaran is won”?

Ans. Gandhi was ready to go to jail fighting against the injustice to the sharecroppers. Many prominent lawyers had come from all over Bihar to advise and help him. At first, they said they would go back if Gandhi went to prison. Later they had consultations. They told Gandhi they were ready to follow him into jail. This support made Gandhi extremely happy and confident. 

23. What was the reaction of Gandhi and his associates when he was summoned to the lieutenant governor? 

Ans. In June, Gandhiji was summoned to Sir Edward Gait, the Lieutenant Governor. Anything could happen. Gandhi met his leading associates before going. Detailed plans for civil disobedience were chalked out in case he should not return.

24. What was the outcome of the four protracted interviews Gandhiji had with the Lieutenant Governor? 

Ans. An official commission of inquiry into the sharecroppers’ situation was appointed. This commission consisted of landlords, government officials, and Gandhi as the sole representative of the peasants. 

25. Why did the big planters agree in principle to make a refund to the peasants

Ans. The official inquiry assembled a huge quantity of evidence against the big planters. The crushing evidence forced the big planters to agree in principle to make a refund to the peasants.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Class 12 English The Rattrap Summary
Class 12 English Question Answer

1. What solution to the problems of the poor did Gandhi suggest? How far did the Champaran movement help in this direction? Or, “The real relief for them is to be free from fear”, remarked Gandhi. What do you think, was “the beginning of their liberation from the fear of the British”?

Ans. The sharecropper peasants had to grow indigo on 15 percent of their holdings and surrender the indigo harvest as rent to the landlord. When Germany developed synthetic indigo, the British planters started extracting money illegally and deceitfully as compensation from the peasants for being released from the 15 percent arrangement.

The peasants were made to sign new agreements and pay money. The planters behaved as lords above the law. Many peasants engaged lawyers at hefty fees and went to court. The Muzaffarpur lawyers briefed Gandhi about the peasants whom they frequently represented in courts. Gandhi realized that these peasants were badly crushed and fear-stricken. Freedom from fear was more important than legal justice for them.

Gandhiji was ready to court arrest them. Thousands of peasants demonstrated spontaneously around the court. The government had to release Gandhi without bail. This voluntary uprising of the peasants marked the beginning of their liberation from the fear of the British.

2. Justify the appropriateness of the title ‘Indigo’ to this extract. 

Ans. The title ‘Indigo’ is quite appropriate, to the point, and suggestive. It at once focuses our attention on the central issue of the exploitation of the indigo sharecropper peasants at the hands of cruel British planters. They compelled them through a long-term agreement to raise indigo on 15 percent of their landholding and surrender the entire indigo harvest as rent. 

After the development of synthetic indigo by Germany, the British planters extracted money from the peasants as compensation for being released from the 15-cent agreement. The peasants who wanted their money back had filed civil suits. The planters who behaved as lords above the law and were dreaded by the poor were obliged to surrender part of their money and with it part of their prestige. per

The extract also points out the work done by Gandhi and his associates to improve the economic, political, cultural, and social life of the indigo sharecroppers. Their education, health, and hygiene also received due attention The plight of indigo sharecroppers, their struggle under Gandhi’s leadership, and ultimate victory when Indigo sharecropping disappeared from important landmarks. Thus the title ‘Indigo’ is highly suggestive and apt. 

3. What impression do you form about Gandhi on reading the chapter ‘Indigo’? 

Ans. The chapter ‘Indigo’ pays a tribute to the leadership shown by Mahatma Gandhi to secure justice for oppressed people through convincing argumentation and negotiation. Gandhi had a magnetic attraction and great persuasive power. He could draw people of all classes to himself and make them partners in the freedom movement. Even ordinary people were inspired to make contributions to the freedom movement.

Gandhi emerges as a champion of the downtrodden and the oppressed Rural uplift was his favorite program. His knowledge of legal procedure and respect for the law is also highlighted. He does not want to be a lawbreaker. At the same time he wants to render humanitarian and national service in obedience to the higher law of our being, the voice of conscience. He also appears as a polite and friendly person. Gandhi’s ability to read the minds of others made them speechless. He believed in self-reliance, just cause, and purity of means to achieve India’s Independence. 

4. Who was Rajkumar Shukla and why did he meet Gandhi? What made Gandhi hoard a train with him to Patna?

Ans. Rajkumar Shukla was a poor peasant. Actually, he was a sharecropper from Champaran. It is a place in the foothills of the Himalayas, near the kingdom of Nepal. He met Gandhi in Lucknow at the December 1916 annual convention of the Indian National Congress. He was like any other peasant in India, pot weak and thin. He had come to the Congress session to complain about the injustice of the landlord system in Bihar. In Champaran, most of the arable

land was owned by English landlords. They forced the Indian sharecropper to grow indigo on the land. Somebody had advised him to meet Gandhi. Gandhi told Shukla that he had appointments in Kanpur. He was also committed to going to other parts of India. But Shukla was determined. He accompanied Gandhi everywhere. He also followed Gandhi to his ashram in Ahmedabad. For weeks, he never left Gandhi’s side. 

He begged Gandhi to fix a date. Gandhi was impressed by the sharecropper’s tenacity and story. He asked Shukla if he would be in Calcutta on such-and-such a date. He asked him to come to Calcutta and meet him and take him from there.

Months passed. Gandhi arrived in Calcutta. He was sitting on his haunches at the appointed spot when Gandhi arrived there. He waited till Gandhi was free. Now it was impossible for Gandhi to avoid him. Then the two of them boarded a train for Patna in Bihar. There Shukla led Gandhi to the house of a lawyer named Rajendra Prasad. Dr. Prasad later became President of the Congress party and then of India.



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FAQs

1. Which other spheres besides political or economic Gandhi’s attention during his long stay in Champaran?

Ans. The cultural and social backwardness of the Champaran areas pained Gandhi. He appealed to teachers. Several persons responded to his call. Primary schools were opened in six villages. Kasturba taught the ashram rules personal cleanliness and community sanitation. With the help of a doctor and three medicines, they tried to fight their miserable health conditions. 

2. “This was typical Gandhi pattern” observes Louis Fischer. What do you learn about Gandhian politics from the extract Ind?

Ans Gandhi’s politics was intermixed with the practical, everyday life of the millions of Indians. This was not a loyalty to abstractions. It was a loyalty of living human beings. In everything Gandhi did, he tried to mold a new free Indian who could stand on his own feet and thus make India free. zig? 

3. How did Gandhi teach his followers a lesson in self-reliance?

Ans. During the Champaran action, Gandhi’s lawyer friends thought it would be good of C.F. Andrews to stay on in Champaran and helped them. Gandhi opposed this idea as it showed the weakness of their heart. Their cause is just and they must rely upon themselves to win this unequal fight. They should not seek the support of Mr. Andrews because he happened to be an Englishman.

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