Ncert Class 12 History Important Questions With Answers

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class 12 history important questions with answers

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class 12 history important questions with answers


Ncert Class 12 History Important Questions With Answers

1. Harappa is situated on the banks of which river?

(1) Sutlej

(2) Ravi

(3) Sindhu

(4) Vyas 

Ans . (2)

2. Mohenjodaro was excavated by

(1) Dayaram Sahni

(2) Rakhal Das Banerjee

(3) John Marshall

(4) R. S. R.S. Bisht

Ans . (3)

3. Where have we found evidence of plough in Harappan civilization?

(1) Mohan (Mohenjodaro)

(2) Haya (Harappa)

(3) Lothal

(4) Kalibanga 

Ans . (4)

4. Which was the largest city of the Indus Valley Civilization?

(1) Harappa

(2) Mohenjodaro

(3) Lothal

(4) Kalibanga 

Ans . (2)

5. Where is Lobal located?

(1) Rajasthan

(2) Gujarat 

(3) Punjab

(4) Uttar Pradesh

Ans . (2) 

6. Which metal did the residents of Indus Valley not know of?

(1) Gold

(2) Silver

(3) Iron

(4) Copper

Ans . (3)

7. Who discovered Dholavira?

(1) R. D. Banerjee

(2) J. P. Joshi 

(3) R. S. Bisht (R.S Bisht)

(4) M.S. Bats (M.S. Vatsa)

Ans . (3)

8. How many Mahajanapadas were there?

(1) 12

(2) 14

(3) 16

(4) 18 

Ans . (3) 

9. Pataliputra was founded by

(1) Bimbisara

(2) Udayin 

(3) Ashoka

(4) Chandragupta

Ans . (2)

10. Who was the founder of the Maurya Empire?

(1) Ashoka 

(2) Bindusara

(3) Mahendra

(4) Chandragupta Maurya

Ans . (4)

11. The War of Kalinga took place in

(1) 260 BC in(BC)

(2) 261 BC in(BC)

(3) 305 BC in(BC))

(4) 350 BC in(BC) 

Ans . (2) 

12. Who composed Indica?

(1) Megasthenes 

(2) Kautilya 

(3) Homer

(4) Ashvaghosha

Ans . (1)

13. Which dynasty started writing inscriptions in ancient India?

(1) Gupta dynasty

(2) Maurya dynasty

(3) Sunga dynasty,

(4) Nanda dynasty

Ans . (2) 

14. Who started the Shaka era?

(1) Ashoka

(2) Chandragupta

(3) Kanishka

(4) Harshavardhana

Ans . (3)

15. Who established Nalanda University?

(1) Kumargupta

(2) Samudragupta

(3) Ramagupta

(4) Shrigupta 

Ans . (1)

16. Who is called the Shakespeare of India?

(1) Ashwaghosha

(2) Kalidasa

(3) Banabhatta

(4) Kalhana 

Ans . (2)

17. Who among the following first issued gold coins in India?

(1) Among Guptas

(2) Kushanas

(3) Indo-Greeks

(4) Mauryans

Ans . (3)

18. Where was Mahatma Buddha born?

(1) Lumbini

(2) Vaishali

(3) Gaya

(4) Sarnath 

Ans . (1)

19. Stupa is related to

(1) From Jains

(2) From Buddhists

(3) From Hindus

(4) From Sikhs Ans. (2)

20. The first Tirthankar of Jain Dharma was

(1) Parshwanatha 

(2) Ajitnath

(3) Mahavira 

(4) देव (Rishabhdev) 

Ans . (4)

21. What was Mahavir’s childhood name?

(1) Siddhartha

(2) Vardhamana

(3) Country (Devabrata)

(4) Devdas 

Ans . (2)

22. Under which tree did Mahavir attain enlightenment?

(1) Neem

(2) Seven (Saal)

(3) Peepal

(4) Teak 

Ans . (2) 

23. In which city of Madhya Pradesh is Sanchi located?

(1) Bhopal 

(2) Sagar

(3) Raisen

(4) Vidisha 

Ans . (1)

24. Vijayanagara kingdom was founded in the year

(1) 1206 AD

(2) 1236 AD

(3) 1565 AD

(4) 1336 AD 

Ans . (4)

25. What is Gopuram?

(1) A type of land revenue

(2) A type of cow

(3) The main gate of the temple

(4) None of these

Ans . (3)

26. Where is the famous Virupaksha temple located?

(1) Puri

(2) Hampi

(3) Chidambaram

(4) Thanjavur 

Ans . (2)

27. Who brought the Bhakti movement from South India to North India?

(1) Shankar Dev

(2) Kabir

(3) Ramanand

(4) Ramanujacharya

 Ans . (3)

28. Whose poetic line is ‘Pahan Puje Hari Mile’?

(1) Rahim

(2) Surdas

(3) Raidas

(4) Kabirdas 

Ans . (4)

29. Whose birth place was Talwandi?

(1) Kabirdas 

(2) Guru Nanak

(3) Ramanand 

(4) none of these

Ans . (2)

30. Who was the famous saint of Bengal?

(1) Raidas

(2) Baba Ramdas

(3) Chaitanya Mahaprabhu

(4) Tukaram (Tukaram)

Ans . (3)

31. What is the meaning of Khanqah?

(1) Ashram

(2) Guru

(3) Currency

(4) Disciple 

Ans . (1)

32. Which of the following is not a Sufi saint?

(1) Baba Farid 

(2) Meerabai

(3) Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki

(4) Muinuddin Chisti

Ans . (2)

33. The Dargah of Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya is located in

(1) In Agra

(2) In Delhi

(3) Fatehpur Sikri

(4) In Ajmer

Ans . (2)

34. When was the first battle of Panipat fought?

(1) In 1526 AD

(2) In 1565 AD

(3) In 1556 AD

(4) In 1760 AD 

Ans . (1)

35. Who was the founder of the Mughal Empire?

(1) Akbar

(2) On (Babar)

(3) Humayun

(4) Jahangir 

Ans . (2)

36. In which language has ‘Baburnama’ been written?

(1) Persian

(2) Urdu

(3) Turkey

(4) Arabic 

Ans . (3)

37. Akbar abolished Jizya tax

(1) Abul Fazl

(2) Akbar

(3) Faizi

(4) Al-Biruni 

Ans . (3)

38. Who has written ‘Akbarnama’?

(1) Abul Fazl

(2) Akbar

(3) Faizi

(4) Al-Biruni 

Ans . (1).

39. Which Mughal ruler first consumed tobacco?

(1) Babar

(2) Humayun

(3) Akbar

(4) Jahangir 

Ans . (3)

40. By what name was ‘District’ known in the Mughal administration?

(1) Suba

(2) Culture (Sarkar)

(3) Ahar

(4) None of these

Ans . (2)

Group – A Section- ‘A’

(Very short answer type questions) 

1. When and where did the “Quit India Movement” start?

Ans. Quit India Movement started from Bombay (Mumbai) in 1942. 

2. When and between whom was the second battle of Panipat fought?

Ans. The second battle of Panipat was fought between Hemu and Akbar on 5 November 1556 AD.

3. Who was the permanent president of the Constituent Assembly?

Ans. The permanent president of the Constitution-making Assembly was Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

4. Who were the main leaders of the Santhal rebellion?

Ans. Siddh Kanhu, the main leader of the Santhal rebellion 

5. When and where did the Jallianwala Bagh massacre take place?

Ans. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place in 1919 AD in Amritsar, Punjab. 

6. Who was the Governor General of India at the time of the Revolution of 1857?

Ans. Lord Dull

7. Where did the British East India Company establish the first centre of trading activity in India?

Ans. The British East India Company was established in India in 1600 AD. The first centre of business activity of this company in India was Surat (Gujarat).

Group B Section- ‘D’ (Short answer type questions) 

8. What do you understand by the Mansabdari system?

Ans. At the top of the Mughal administrative system was a military bureaucracy (Mansabdari) which was responsible for the military and civil affairs of the state. Some mansabdars were paid in cash, while most of them were paid revenue in separate portions of the common, and most of them were transferred to the empire.

9. When and why was Direct Action Day celebrated? (When and why was Direct Action Day celebrated?)

Ans. The Muslim League celebrated Direct Action Day on 16 August 1946. Direct Action Day was celebrated so that India could be partitioned and a separate country of Pakistan could be formed. With this, the interest of Muslims can also be protected.

10. Discuss the immediate causes of the Revolution of 1857.

Ans. Immediate reason – At the beginning of 1857, the new Royal Enfield rifle was introduced in the army. Before using the cartridge used in it, it was cut with teeth. The cartridge had a cap made of cow or pig fat. This was a cruel disregard of the religious sentiments of the Indian Army. The incident of the cartridge served as a spark to the powder keg and the rebellion broke out.

The immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857 was the pig and cow fat in the cartridges. In the new Enfield guns, the cartridges had to be peeled with teeth before they could be loaded with bullets. Both Hindus and Muslims respectively considered cow and pig fat to be against their respective religions. Therefore, it was natural for him to get angry. Hence the cartridge incident served as a spark in the gunpowder pile and the rebellion broke out.

11. Throw light on Gandhiji’s Champaran Satyagraha.

Ans. To liberate India from the slavery of the British, Mahatma Gandhi conducted various movements and Satyagraha, in which Champaran Satyagraha also had a prominent place. The peasant movement of Champaran took place in April 1917. Champaran Satyagraha proved to be a milestone in the country’s freedom movement. 

The background of Gandhiji’s Champaran Satyagraha was that at that time, in the Champaran region of Bihar, the Europeans and the British used to force the farmers to cultivate indigo and used to torture the farmers. Farmers did not get fair value for their labour 

Therefore, Mahatma Gandhi did Satyagraha on the call of farmers in Champaran. So that the British could not force Indians to cultivate indigo and the condition of the farmers could improve, Mahatma Gandhi started the Champaran Satyagraha. This Satyagraha was a resistance against the British.

12. What was the usurpation policy?

Ans. The usurpation policy or state usurpation policy was adopted by Lord Dalhousie. Lord Dalhousie wanted to merge that Indian state with the English state. Who had no real heir? This was the policy of Lord Dalhousie. 

The main example of this was in the Jhansi state because Rani Laxmibai had no children, hence the British ruled the Jhansi state as their own. Due to this, there was a war between Rani Laxmibai and the British. 

This war is considered a major example of the Indian independence movement. 

13. What were the two major depressions of the Indian Constitution?

Ans. The two major depressions of the Indian Constitution were the following 

(i) Language-related depression – Depression due to making Hindi the national language as Hindustani language. Besides, there was also a desire to make India a democratic country.

(ii) Minority-related depression – Depression about minority Muslims being divided into two nations, India and Pakistan, to create one separate nation, Pakistan. Also, depression was prominent with the communalism problem. Also there is merger of native princely states. There was a depression in the relationship also.

14. Describe the importance of “Dandi March” in the Indian Independence Movement.

Ans. Importance of Dandi March in the National Freedom Movement-

(i) As a result of this incident, Mahatma Gandhi gained world fame. This visit was widely covered by the press of Europe and America.

(ii) The British realized from the Dandi March that their rule over India could not last long and the Indians would have to share in the power. (iii) Salt was an important part of human life, hence the Salt Movement attracted the attention of all Indians towards it and this movement became nationwide. (iv) It was a completely national-level movement in which women also participated enthusiastically. Kamala Devi herself was among the countless women who were arrested for violating the Salt Law.

(v) The poor people of the country were troubled by the Salt Law. This movement turned all sections of the society, urban and rural, poor and rich, women, men and students against the British.

Group C Volume- ‘C’ | (Long Answer Question) (Long Answer Question)

15. Discuss the main reasons for the failure of the Revolt of 1857. (Discuss the main reasons for the failure of the Revolt of 1857.)

Ans. Some important reasons for the failure of the rebellion of 1857 are as follows-

(i) This rebellion was not inspired by any positive ideology. There was no ideology behind this to establish any higher political system. no rebellion

So there was no planned program and no permanent arrangement of money. The only objective of the rebels was to end foreign rule.

(ii) The rebel leaders lacked political leadership, military experience and strategic vision. None of their leaders realized the consequences of the fall of Delhi and no measures were taken by them for its joint defence.

(iii) The rebels lacked discipline and their loyalties were more towards the local powers. Intellectually he was nothing compared to his enemy. The British military technique was based on modern science and technology, whereas the rebels used traditional weapons like bows and arrows, spears, etc.

(iv) In terms of strategy and battle skills, the British forces were far ahead of the Indian rebels. Of the best and well-organized British government of the then world.

Worked under orders. The British government had abundant resources available along with adequate sources of manpower.

(v) There was no single great leader among the Indians who could organize the scattered people into a strong force with a definite policy and well-planned programme. The activities of the rebel leaders also remained limited due to their shadow.

(vi) The big landowners and the intellectual middle class did not take any interest in this matter nor did they support them. His remaining neutral proved fatal.

16. Write about the main characteristics of the permanent settlement system.

Ans. Permanent Settlement System was such a system that land was given to the landlords permanently and they had to deposit a certain amount of money in the government treasury. The Permanent Settlement 1 system was first implemented in Bengal in 1793 AD.

The main features of permanent settlement system are-

(i) Due to this, as the amount of rent was fixed, farmers were freed from paying arbitrary rent.

(ii) After the permanent arrangement, new zamindars were formed and they got the hereditary right of zamindari due to which they became devotees of the British government. The British government got political benefit from this. Convenience is done.

(iii) The amount of company’s rent was fixed so that it could prepare the budget.

(iv) Modern system of land revenue started in India. 

(v) The company did not have to appoint employees to collect revenue due to which it used its employees for other work.

17. Give details of Mughal administration. (Describe Mughal Administration.)

Ans. Mughal Administration: In Mughal administration, the provinces were divided into districts or governments. The main officials here were Faujdar and Amalgujar. Amalgujar was also called Crore who worked through Batikvi (clerk) and treasurer. Governance of Pargana The unit below the government was Pargana. There was also a central administration system in the Mughal administration. 

In this, there was a Prime Minister who along with advising the Emperor, supervised all the departments of the administration. In the central administration, there was also Vakil Mutlaq who had monopoly on revenue and financial matters. Besides, there was also a system of Diwane clan which was the supreme authority of finance and revenue. Diwan Khalsa and Diwan Mustafi were there to help him.

During the Mughal period, the head of the military department was called Mirbakshi. Mir-e-Samania was the head of the emperor’s domestic and personal affairs. Sadar was the regulatory inspector of Sudur Daan property and the religious advisor of the emperor. Donating land to educational institutions and arranging charity were its important responsibilities. The Bajat head of Kajeul was the Qazi and was the head of the justice department. Bhir-e-Atira was the superintendent of artillery.

There was also a Mohtasib in the Mughal administrative system. Its main function was to stop those working against Shariat and to raise the moral values ​​of the people. During the Mughal period, the head of the intelligence and postal department was Daroga-e-Dhok post. Apart from this, there were some other officers in the Mughal administration like Vayak Navis, Batikchi Musharraf, Mushtaufi, Daroga-e-Taksal and Mir-e-Bahar etc.

The highest official of the province was Suvedar. There was also a provincial Diwan who was the director of the finance department and kept accounts of income and expenditure. Apart from this, there were also provincial Kotwals, provincial Bakshis etc. There were many prominent officers in the district administration system. Like there were amalgujars, treasurers etc. 

The unit below the government was the Pargana in which Shiqdars and Amirs were the chief officers. In the village administration system, there were more Chaudharies in the Muqad system. There was also Mansabdari system during the Mughal period. The military system of the Mughals was strong which included infantry, cavalry, elephant army, artillery and cavalry etc.

18. Describe the beginning, program and progress of the non-cooperation movement. (Describe the starting program and progress of the Non-cooperation movement.)

Ans. The non-cooperation movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi in August 1920. Following are the boycott programs of non-cooperation movement – 

(1) Boycott of government schools and courts.

(ii) Boycott of foreign goods 

(d) Boycott of council elections as per the suggestions of Male-Minto reforms of 1914 

(iv) Resignation of members of Indians from nominated seats in local bodies. 

(v) Surrender of titles and honorary offices 

(vi) Refusal to participate in functions organized by the Government.

indigenous program 

(1) To increase the popularity of Swadeshi and Khadi by promoting hand spinning and hand weaving. 

(ii) To remove untouchability from Indian society and take complete measures for the welfare of Harijans. 

(iii) To liberate and uplift women.

19. What do you understand by the problem of political integration of India? Are ? How did India solve this problem? (What do you mean by the political integration of India? How did India solve this problem?)

Ans. The problem of political integration of India means how to integrate the princely states into India. Therefore, the problem of merger of the princely states of India arose soon after India’s independence and the problem of political integration arose here.

Under Indian independence, British sovereignty over the native princely states ended on August 15, 1947. In principle, this meant that the states would have their own sovereignty once the British left India. However, Congress did not recognize any state that seceded from India by declaring independence in India. In less than a month after independence, the problem of princely states gave rise to another serious concern.

India took necessary steps to solve the problem of political integration. Various leaders of India at that time had planned to merge the princely states in India to solve the problem of political integration. Sardar Vallabhbai Patel and V.P. Menon had successfully unified the princely states.

Politicians like Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel inspired the kings of the princely states that it was in their interest to join the Indian Union. After long negotiations, all the rulers of the princely states geographically associated with India, except Hyderabad, Junagadh and Kashmir, signed the merger agreement with India before August 15, 1947.

The Nawab of Junagadh wanted to merge with Pakistan but due to the public rebellion against him, he had to flee to Pakistan. When Pakistani troops invaded Kashmir, the Maharaja of Kashmir merged Kashmir with India in October 1947. Military action was taken against the Nizam of Hyderabad and under the pressure of internal anarchy, he was forced to join the Indian Union.

In this way the problem of political integration of India was solved. Which was a difficult task. Nevertheless, the merger of the princely states in India was done between 1947-48 AD.

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