NCERT Class 12 Sociology-II Chapter 4 Notes Change and Development in Rural Society Easy PDF Download

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NCERT Class 12 Sociology-II Chapter 4 Notes Change and Development in Rural Society Easy PDF Download


Change and Development in Rural Society


Indian society is primarily a rural society. However, urbanization is increasing here. The majority of the people of India live in villages only. At present, about 65% of people are engaged in agriculture. Their life is run by agriculture or related businesses. This means that for many Indians land is an important means of production.

Land is also an important form of wealth, but land is neither the only means of production nor the only form of wealth nor is agriculture the only form of their livelihood. It is also a way of life. Many of our cultural rituals and practices have an agricultural background.

There is a close relationship between agriculture and culture. The nature and practice of agriculture in our country will be found different in each region. Those differences are reflected in regional cultures.

You can say that the cultural and social structure of rural India is closely linked to both agriculture and the agrarian way of life. Agriculture is the only important source of livelihood for the majority of the rural population or Sawan. But there is not only grace in the villages.

There are many such activities which are in support of agriculture and village life and they are the source of livelihood of the people in rural India. For example, many such artisans or craftsmen like potters, tantis, weavers and goldsmiths also live in rural areas. They are a part and parcel of the rural economy.

The main objective of a society is to properly manage the production and distribution of food to its members. Economic production is the fundamental duty of the society which plays an important role in determining the social structure. India’s economic development is dependent on agricultural development.

All issues like economic backwardness and rural discontent are related to land. Change in land relations is an important indicator of social and economic change. In India, the term land reform is used in two senses. Meaning of land reform. There is a redistribution of land rights for the benefit of small farmers and the landless.

This concept of land reform reveals its simplest essence. In a broad sense, any type of reform in the land system and related institutions and agricultural organizations is called land reform. Land reform includes redistribution of land, improvement in the condition of agriculture, etc.

The spirit of social justice and economic equality has always been behind land reforms in India. The ideology of equality and social justice has been manifested in programs like land reform and poverty alleviation. The Zamindari system was implemented during the British rule. This practice was a symbol of colonial exploitation.

In the first phase of the land reform programme, the zamindari system was abolished by enacting a law. Land reform program is considered as a means of increasing the productivity of the land. Therefore, it has been accepted as a main issue for economic development in agricultural countries. It has become a major program of agricultural development.

FreedomDuring the movement, the poverty of the people and the excessive exploitation of the farmers by the landlords and usurers attracted the attention of the political leaders. In the year 1936, Pandit Nehru had raised the issue of expulsion of middlemen and then co-operative Jaiwa collective ‘farming’ in the Congress session.

In 1936, the All India Kisan Sabha in Lucknow raised the demands of abolition of Zamindars, encumbrance rights of ryots, redistribution of fallow land among landless laborers etc.

Between 1920-1946 many farmer organizations were formed. Peasant movements yielded positive results. After independence, land reform programs were started with a view to modernize agriculture and reduce the inequalities prevalent in the agricultural economy, whose objective was to eliminate all kinds of intermediaries between the state and the tiller of the land.

Providing ownership rights to farmers on the land cultivated by them, determining the extent of holding of fields, making modern technology accessible in agriculture and consolidation of fields, and rationalizing land-related records. Many works were done under the land reform programme.

In India, in the late sixties, the fundamental difference in the production of food grains and the increase in them at an astonishing rate was called the Green Revolution. The word ‘green’ was used for the green fields of the rural areas and the word ‘revolution’ expressed the widespread change. In the first five-year plan, top priority was given to the production of food grains.

In the early 1960s, a new strategy was formulated to speed up the process of agricultural development. Widespread use of science and technology in agriculture can be fruitful in the form of massive increases in the production of food grains. Initially, a package program was launched in seven districts in the country. Later it was started in some other districts also.

The production of food grains increased. Later it was started in the name of the Intensive Agriculture Program. The production of wheat doubled in 1977-78 with the use of new seeds, supply of fertilizers, pesticides, drugs, institutional credit and extensive irrigation facilities. Rice production also increased. In the year 2007-2008, the total production of food grains was 70 crore 34 lakh tonnes.


Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 Notes Change and Development in Rural Society

Change and Development in Rural Society

Class12th 
Chapter NameThe Story of Indian Democracy
Chapter numberChapter 4
Part B
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPsychology
Medium English
Study MaterialsNotes & important questions
Download PDFPart B Sociology Chapter 4 Notes PDF

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. “India’s economic development is dependent on agricultural development.” Explain.

Ans. India is a country of villages. It has more than 6 lakh villages. The main economic activity of the people is agriculture. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people in the villages. More than 100 crore people get their livelihood from agriculture. So we can say that India’s economic development basically depends on agricultural development.

2. What is meant by land reform?

Ans. Any improvement in the related institutions and agricultural organization in the land system is called land reform. It is clear from the concept of land reform that land reform should not be limited to redistribution of land, but should also include measures to improve agriculture.

3. State the objectives of land reforms in India.

Years, (i) Establishment of egalitarian agrarian relations.

(ii) To end exploitation in land relations.

(iii) To make land available to the tenants.

(iv) Promotion of land-holding rights of the poor people of the village.

(v) To increase agricultural production.

(vi) To diversify the agricultural economy.

(vii) Elimination of middlemen from the agriculture sector.

4. What is meant by Zamindari system?

Ans. Lord Cornwallis started the Zamindari system in India. The officers who collected land revenue were elevated to the status of landowners or zamindars. This landlord government used to collect fixed land revenue and exploited the farmers. They used to collect more rent, but did not do any work for land reform.

5. What do you understand by Mahalwadi system?

Ans. In this the village community had joint ownership of the land and all the members of the villageThe members were jointly liable to pay the rent.

6. What is meant by Ryotwari system?

Ans. Lord William Bentinck introduced the Ryotwari system. In this the ryots were landholders or cultivators. He had a direct relation with the British Government. The first Ryotwari settlement was implemented in Madras in 1792. In this, the ryots had to pay fixed rent or rent in proportion to the land directly to the government.

7. Mention the land reform programs after independence । 

Years.

(i) Abolition of Vidhilis by ending Zamindari system.

(ii) Tenancy reforms which included regular wages, tenancy security, right of tenants to buy land etc.

(iii) To determine the ceiling of agricultural land. (iv) Consolidation of holdings.

(v) Updation and modernization of land records.

8. What is meant by Green Revolution?

Ans. In general, Green Revolution refers to all-around development by revolutionary policies in the agriculture business and its ultimate goal is the maximum production of agricultural crops. The Green Revolution is an impact movement in agriculture to produce more and better produce.



9. Mention the elements of Green Revolution.

Years, (i) Use of high yielding seeds. Use of CDE manure.

(iii) Use of modern equipment and plants in agriculture.

(iv) Use of pesticides.

(v) Irrigation system.

(vi) Determination of agricultural price and agricultural credit system.

10. What are the results of Green Revolution?

Ans. Today the Green Revolution is not just a food movement but a revolution of rural, economic and social upliftment. from green revolution

(i) The economic condition of the farmers has improved.

(ii) Many farmers have risen above the poverty line.

(iii) Employment has increased.

(iv) There has been a difference in the economic condition of Pani and Nirvana farmers.

(v) A new class of capitalist farmers has emerged.

(vi) There has been an increase in the production of wheat and rice.


short answer type questions


1. What are the objectives of land reforms in India?

Ans. Following are the general objectives of land reforms-

1. Social and Economic Equality- There has always been a sense of social justice and economic equality behind the land reform. It is also necessary to end discrimination and poverty.Therefore, the aim of land reform is to bring equality and social justice and to remove poverty.

2. End of intermediaries- Most of the countries of the world gained independence after the Second World War. During the colonial period the ownership of landed property was in the hands of a select few who were owned by foreigners. The Zamindari system in India was a product of the British rule. 

3. The spirit of democracy has also been working behind the land reform program for the establishment of democracy. The goal of freedom and justice can be achieved only in a democratic society. Poor and deprived citizens can express their grievances through democracy. In such a situation, an environment is created for improvement.

4. Increase in the productivity of land- By adopting effective measures of land reform, the development of agricultural sector can be done by increasing the productivity of the land.

2. What was the objective behind land consolidation?

Ans. The problem of land becoming small and scattered is called the problem of land subdivision and fragmentation. When small pieces of land are divided among the heirs in the battle of population growth, then the caste of land becomes economic.

A large part of the land goes waste in making bunds and drains etc. Individual farms could not be taken care of. Crops are spoiled by animals. It is not easy to supply water to every field * There are litigations among the farmers on small matters. It is difficult to adopt modern methods of agriculture on small farms. Modern technology of small farmer agriculture should also be used

Division of land into small pieces has been an important obstacle in agricultural development. Most of the farms are not only small but also spread far and wide. Therefore, consolidation laws have been made in all the states so that a farmer can collect different pieces of land at one or two places and use them properly.

In areas where better irrigation facilities are available, production has increased due to consolidation. The facility of crops has increased and there has been success in making the farm economic.

3. How did politics affect the land reform programs in India?

Ans. Political environment and nationalists behind land reform programs in IndiaIdeology has played a big role. Due to the development of the feeling of nationalism, such situationsConstruction took place in which it became imperative for the government to undertake land reform measures.

During the freedom struggle, the poverty of the people and the excessive exploitation of the farmers by the landlords and usurers attracted the attention of the political leaders. In the Congress session in 1936, Pandit Nehru raised the issue of removal of middlemen between the farmer and the state and then cooperative or collective farming.

In 1936, the All India Kisan Sabha raised demands for abolition of zamindari, encroachment rights of ryots, redistribution of fallow land among landless labourers, etc. Kisan Sabha movement under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Bardoli Satyagraha of 1981 and Bengal

The Partition movement gave rise to conflicts between the peasants and the land owners all over the country.The government was forced to plan for redressal of farmers’ grievances and freedomAfter that land reform programs were started.

4. What were the initial objectives of land reforms in India after independence?

Ans. Immediately after independence, the government made a strategy to start the land reform program through land law. In this regard, laws were made by the Legislative Assemblies in different states of the country. The initial objectives of land reforms in India were based on the following

1. Removal of all the elements of exploitation and social injustice prevalent in the agricultural system so that all sections of the society can get opportunities for progress.

2. Removal of existing constraints in agricultural structure so as to increase production. Therefore, modernization of agriculture and reduction of disparities prevailing in the agricultural economyLand reform programs were started with this in view. To achieve these objectives the followingWork done

1. Eradication of all forms of intermediary conflicts between the state and the land grabbers.

2. To provide ownership rights to the farmers on the land cultivated by them.

3. To determine the maximum holding of the fields.Doing.

4. Consolidation of holdings with a view to facilitate the use of modern techniques in agriculture

5. Rationalization of land records.

5. What is meant by Zamindari System? How was it responsible for the exploitation of the farmers?

Ans. The British rulers introduced three types of land revenue to get the maximumStarted land settlement

1. Zamindari 2. Rewari 3. Mahalwari

Under the zamindari system, property rights over land were given to local revenue collectors, called zamindars, who were usually members of the upper castes. This new settlement made the real farmers ryots. Structural changes in the land system created intermediaries between the state and the tillers of the land.

These intermediaries had no interest in land management and reforms. The zamindars had to pay a certain amount of revenue to the government, but there was no limit to the collection from the farmers. Various taxes were collected from them from time to time. This system was unjust and it involved economic exploitation.

and social oppression were both present. The abolition of Vichilis became the first goal of land reform in the early years of independence. The zamindari system was abolished by making laws in all parts of the country. Now the cultivators were linked directly with the state. Grant permanent rights to the land to the cultivators

Done.

6. What is meant by tenancy reforms in agriculture?

Ans. The basic objective of fixing the ceiling of agricultural holding is to achieve a certain limit.More land was to be distributed from existing land owners to the landless. ThisRedistribution is based on the principle of socio-economic justice. The inequality of land ownership is found to be very high in India.

At the time of independence, one-fourth of the rural households did not own any land while the landowners owned thousands of acres of land. In order to remove this imbalance, the agricultural land was fixed as holdings. All states passed laws governing the size of individual or family-owned farms.

It was forbidden to keep more land than the prescribed limit. The state government acquired the extra land obtained from demarcation and distributed it to the weaker sections of the society.

There is variation in different states in determining the maximum limit of land. The prescribed limit is very high in most of the states. The ceiling of land was fixed on the basis of quality of land and on the basis of irrigated land and rain fed land.

The extra land obtained from the demarcation was distributed among the landless. So far 64.84 lakh acres of land has been acquired, out of which 52.99 lakh acres have been distributed to 55.10 lakh people, in which 36 percent are scheduled caste people and 15 percent are scheduled tribe people.

7. What do you understand by consolidation of holdings? How is consolidation beneficial in increasing the productivity of land?

Ans. The division of land into small pieces is called subdivision of land and when the pieces are scattered at different places it is called fragmentation of land. Small pieces of land play a role in agricultural development. A lot of land gets wasted in making farm fences.

The farmer remains unable to use his resources. He is unable to use them properly. They do not even get the benefit of irrigation projects.

Therefore, by combining small and scattered farms at one place, the farmer is able to use the land properly and production also increases.

Productivity can be increased by using modern methods of agriculture by using new agricultural machines.

8. What is meant by demarcation of the holding land? What has been the benefit of this?

Ans. The basic objective of fixing the limit of holding land was to distribute the land beyond a certain limit from the existing land owners to the landless. This redistribution of land is based on the principle of socio-economic justice.

At the time of independence, rural families owned land with a chedhai, while big farmers and landlords owned thousands of acres of land. To remove this imbalance, the agricultural holdings were fixed. Land ceiling means that “a person or family can

How worthy can be the owner of the land. Land in excess of the ceiling limit will be taken from the landowners and they will be compensated in return.” The land thus taken can be distributed among small farmers, tenant farmers or landless agricultural laborers or it will be given to panchayats or co-operative societies.

The objective of land ceiling is to encourage equitable and fair use of land. In India, these steps were taken to improve the condition of the cultivators. The rent has been fixed. Security of landholding has prevented them from being evicted by landowners.

Tenants were secured their rights over 156.30 lakh acres of land. The government has given 52.99 lakh acres of land, out of which 36 percent are scheduled and 15 percent are members of scheduled tribes.

9. Why is the latest land record required?

Ans. The system of land rights in India is highly flawed and unsatisfactory.Is. Availability of accurate and latest records is maintained. Hence renewal of certified land records was made a part of the land reform programme.

The article on the Five Year Plan states that ‘the records of many states do not give any information regarding ryot-by-ryot and sharecroppers’. Most of the states in the country still do not have the latest land records. Big landowners oppose it.

In many states, efforts are being made to modernize land records through survey and settlement. Land records have been computerized.

10. What were the objectives of land reform after independence?

Ans. Immediately after independence, a lot of emphasis was laid on land reforms. A strategy was adopted to start land reform through land law. The initial objectives of land reform were the following-

1. Removal of all bottlenecks in agricultural structure.

2. Removal of all elements of exploitation and social injustice in the agricultural system so that all sections of the society can get equality of opportunity.

After independence in India, land reform programs were started with a view to reduce the inequalities prevailing in the agricultural economy. To achieve these objectives the following works were done-

1. To abolish all kinds of intermediary classes between the state and the tillers of the land.

2. The ownership rights were given to the farmers on the land cultivated by them.

3. Demarcation of land holdings.

4. Consolidation of holdings with a view to facilitate the use of modern techniques in agricultureDoing.

5. To make land related records relevant. long answer type questions


LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. What is meant by Green Revolution? Mention the effects of Green Revolution. Or, State the socio-economic effects of the Green Revolution in India.

Ans. As a result of the agricultural reforms adopted during the period of plans in India, 1967-

In 1968, there was an increase of about 25 per cent in the production of food grains as compared to 1966-67. Such a huge increase in the production of food grains in any one year was like a revolution. That’s why economists named this increase in today’s production as Green Revolution. Green Revolution refers to the huge increase in agricultural production, which has happened due to the adoption of a new policy of agriculture.

Therefore, the term Green Revolution is used for the amazing change that happened in the year 1968 in the production of food grains in India and is still going on. Green Revolution refers to the huge increase in agricultural production, which has happened due to the adoption of a new policy of agriculture.

Therefore, the term Green Revolution is used for the amazing change that happened in the year 1968 in the production of food grains in India and is still going on. The Green Revolution resulted in a substantial increase in agricultural production and its impact can be seen in maintaining high levels of agricultural production in the long run.

Effect of Green Revolution Very surprising results of Green Revolution have been seen on the Indian economy. As a result, the Indian economy has got a new base. Following are the main effects of Green Revolution-

1. Increase in production (Effect of Green Revolution): As a result of Green Revolution, there was a rapid increase in the production of crops. The year 1967-68 which is known as the year of Green RevolutionIt is said that the production of food grains increased to 950 lakh tonnes.

2. Prosperity of Farmers: As a result of the Green Revolution, the condition of the farmers improved a lot. Their standard of living became higher than before. Agriculture came to be considered a profitable business. With the prosperity of farmers, the demand for industrial products has also increased rapidly.

3. Promotion of Capitalistic Farming: Those farmers who have

4. Reduction in Imports of Foodgrains: As a result of the revolution, self-reliance in the matter of food grains increased in India and the import of food grains from abroad decreased. 5. Developments of Industries: Due to the Green Revolution, there has been a fair impact on the development of industries. Agricultural machinery? Industries developed rapidly. Factories for making cyanic fertilizers and tractors etc. were opened, diesel engines, pumpsets etc.O new factories were established.

6. Base for economic growth and stability In a country like India where 29% of national income is derived from agriculture, agriculture has a huge impact on government budget and traffic. The increase in agricultural production helps in fulfilling the objective of economic development, stability and self-reliance in the country.

7. Change in Thinking: In an underdeveloped country like India where most of the farmers are illiterate, orthodox and superstitious, Green Revolution has made a huge impact. People have now started understanding the importance of science. Indian farmers have quickly adopted new techniques of agriculture. They are embracing new ideas and techniques.

2. Give arguments against Green Revolution.

Ans. Many types of problems arose due to the following effects of the Green Revolution.Is. Inequality has increased in rural areas and the impact of the Green Revolution is similar in all parts of the country.Not properly laid.

1. Limited Crops The increase in agricultural production is limited to only a few limited to crops. It has mainly affected wheat, jowar, maize and bajra.It did not affect 60 per cent of the country’s land. Its greater impact on rice production not lying

2. Limited Area: The effect of Green Revolution has not been uniform in all the states of India. It had a good impact on some states like Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In these states, there was a huge increase in agricultural production but in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and the dry regions, the Green Revolution could not leave its impact.

3. Benefit to big farmers: Those farmers who had more than 10 hectares of land and who had the ability to buy seeds, fertilisers, tubewells, tractors etc. got more benefits. Small farmers did not adopt this technique.

4. Increase in Economic Inequality: HarilThe revolution widened the gap between the rich and the poor.

3. Explain the socio-economic consequences of the Green Revolution in India.

Ans. The term Green Revolution is used to refer to the dramatic changes that took place in India’s food production in 1968 and are still continuing. Green revolution is meant to increase agricultural production significantly and maintain a high level of agricultural production in the long run. The Green Revolution has affected the Indian economy in many ways.Effects of Green Revolution:

(i) Increase in production: As a result of the Green Revolution, there was a rapid increase in agricultural production in 1967-68 and the subsequent years.

(ii) Prosperity of the farmers: As a result of the Green Revolution, the economic condition of the farmers has improved a lot. Their standard of living has also increased. Agriculture is a profitable businessBusiness is being considered.

(iii) Decrease in the import of food grains: As a result of the Green Revolution, there was a decrease in the import of food grains. India became an exporting country of food grains.

(iv) Development of Industry Due to the Green Revolution, industries also developed. Agriculture 8 In manufacturing machinery and equipment, production of chemical fertilizers and production of consumer goodsincreased steadily.

(v) Economic Development Agricultural development increased the income of the government. this in the countrySucceeded in fulfilling the objective of economic stability and self-reliance. Social Effects of Green Revolution: The impact of Green Revolution was not uniform in all the states. It had more impact on Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Agricultural production increased rapidly in these states, but in other states where there was a lack of irrigation system, it had no effect on the Green Revolution.

4. What is meant by package program in agriculture?

Ans. The new agricultural strategy was based on the idea that advertising and technology in agricultureThe widespread use of fertilizers can be fruitful in the form of a substantial increase in the production of food grains. In the year 1961, Intensive Agriculture District Program was started. Its aim was to increase the productivity of agriculture by combining improved tools, credit, high yielding seeds, assured irrigation etc.

The program yielded good results. The production of food grains increased rapidly. Then it was expanded to larger areas. It was named the Intensive Agriculture Program. In the second half of the sixties, heavy harvests and marginal farmers and agricultural laborers were the main drivers of growth. These works were linked with fertilizers, pesticides, credit facilities and irrigation facilities.

With the use of high-yielding seeds, the production of food grains increased considerably from there. Wheat production doubled in 1977-78. The production of rice also started increasing, gradually the production of pulses, jowar, maize and bajra also increased rapidly. In the year 2007-08, the total production of food grains was 70 crore 34 lakh tonnes.

5. Why was the aim of land reform in India to remove middlemen?

Ans. The British rulers introduced three types of land systems – Zamindari, Ryotwari and Mahalwari to get maximum revenue from the land. Under the Zamindari system, the property rights of the land were given to the local tax collectors. They were called zamindars. They were generally members of the upper castes. This new settlement made the real farmers ryots.

This structural change in the land system made the state and the GermanMiddlemen were made to stand between the tillers. Middlemen were not recognized under the Ryotwari system. The tillers of the land were given the right to transfer their land. Even under this system, influential ryots emerged as powerful landowners.

A class of middlemen also emerged under the Mahalwadi system. These intermediaries had no interest in land management and reforms. The zamindars had to pay a certain amount of revenue to the government, but there was no limit on the collection from the farmers. This system worked to increase economic exploitation and social oppression.

The elimination of middlemen was the first goal of land reform after independence. Through this programme, an attempt was made to eliminate landlords like Vitholis in all areas of the country.

Peasants were directly linked with the state. Peasants were given permanent rights to the land. Till 1954-55, all the states removed the middlemen under the land reform programme. Taking land from landlords and handing it over to tillers was given.

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FAQs


1. Whose contribution is in bringing the green revolution in India?

Ans. Dr. M.S. Discovery of new seeds in the 1960s through Swaminath’s efforts as a result of which there was self-sufficiency in food grains. Wheat production increased 2.5 times and paddy production increased 3 times.

2. What is meant by land consolidation?

Ans. It is difficult to arrange irrigation on small and scattered farms of land. Therefore, giving small pieces of land to farmers in one place is called consolidation of land. Due to this, machines can be used on the farm. Along with this, arrangements for irrigation and maintenance of the land can be taken care of.

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