NCERT Class 12 Sociology-II Chapter 5 Notes Change and Development in Industrial Society Easy pdf

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NCERT Class 12 Sociology-II Chapter 5 Notes Change and Development in Industrial Society


Change and Development in Industrial Society


Many important works of sociology were done when industrialization was a new concept and machines had assumed an important place. Thinkers such as Karl Marx, Weber and Émile Durkheim associated themselves with many new concepts of industry.

It was urbanization that replaced the face-to-face relationships that were found in rural societies. When people worked in the camps of their own or known landowners, those relations were replaced by the anonymous commercial relations of modern factories and workplaces. Industrialization leads to a wide division of labour.

Industrialization brings tremendous uniformity in some places. For example, lack of importance of caste discrimination in trains, buses and cyber cafes.

On the other hand, older forms of discrimination can still be seen in newer factories and workplaces. Although social inequalities are decreasing in this world, economic or income-related inequalities are arising. Social and income inequality often overlap.

Industrialization is an integral part of our society. Some sociologists have viewed industrialization in both positive and negative aspects. A positive form of industrialization was visible in the middle of the 20th century.

Now its negative forms are also visible. Industrialization in India started only after independence. Today industrialization is at its peak here. People have got employment.

It appears in an organized sector. Cotton, jute, coal mines and railways were the first modern industries in India in the early years of independence. When security, transport, communication and what not are involved. In the era of globalization and liberalization industries have also changed.

Despite India being an agricultural country, the pace of industrialization has increased here, laborers work in factories, due to which industrial production takes place. Due to the proper development of industrialization in the country, it has a favorable effect on the country’s economy.


NCERT Class 12 Sociology-II Chapter 5 Notes Change and Development in Industrial Society Easy pdf

NCERT Class 12 Sociology II Chapter 5 Notes Change and Development in Industrial Society Easy pdf 1

Class12th 
Chapter NameThe Story of Indian Democracy
Chapter numberChapter 5
Part B
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPsychology
Medium English
Study MaterialsNotes & important questions
Download PDFPart B Sociology Chapter 5 Notes PDF

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. What is small-scale industry?

Ans. Small-scale industries are defined on the basis of the quantum of investment. The quantum of investment is subject to change from time to time. In 1950 that industry was called small-scale industry in which the maximum investment is Rs.5,00,000. At present, this limit has been increased to one crore.

2. Several steps have been taken by the Government of India to develop small scale industries. Write any four solutions.

Ans. (i) The government has exempted some items of small scale industries from tax.

(ii) They are given loans from banks at low interest.

(iii) Establishment of a large number of industrial estates in the country for the development of small-scale industries.Has been done.

(iv) Reservation of production of certain items has been given to small-scale industries.

3. On what concept is the policy of conservation based?

Ans. The policy of protection is based on the concept that industries in developing countries cannot compete with goods manufactured in more developed countries. It is believed that if protection is given to domestic industries, they will be able to compete with the goods manufactured in developed countries after some time.


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. What functions did sociology perform in the early stages of industrialization?

Ans. Many important works in sociology were done at a time when industrialization was a new concept and machines assumed an important place. Thinkers like Karl Marx, Dewar and Émile Durkheim associated themselves with many new concepts of industry.

It was urbanization that replaced the face-to-face relationships that are found in rural societies. Where people worked on the farms of their own or acquaintances’ landowners, those relations were replaced by the unknown commercial relations of modern factories and workplaces. Industrialization leads to a wide division of labor.

People are often unable to finalize their tasks because they have to make only a small part of the output. Often the work is repetitive and repetitive, but it is still better than being unemployed. Marx called this situation ‘alienation’, in which people are not happy with their work, their survival also depends on how much space the machines leave for human labor.

2. Give examples of equality and inequality brought about by industrialization.

Ans- Industrialization brings unprecedented equality at some places. For example, lack of importance of caste discrimination in trains, buses and cyber cafes. On the other hand, older forms of discrimination can still be seen in newer factories and workplaces. Although, social inequalities are decreasing in this world but inequalities related to economic or income are arising.

 Social and income inequality often overlap. For example, high-caste occupations such as medicine, law or journalism continue to be dominated by upper-caste people. Women (mostly) get paid less for the same work.

For some time sociologists have viewed industrialization in both positive and negative ways. Due to the influence of the theory of modernization, industrialization has been seen in an inevitable and positive form since the middle of the 20th century.

Modernization theory argues that the process of modernization has different stages in different societies but they all have the same direction. According to these theorists, modern society is a representation of the West.

3. What was the state of industrialization in India in the early years of independence?

Ans. Cotton, jute, coal mines and railways were the first modern industries of India. After independence, the government kept the economy on ‘impressive heights’. In this, security, transport and communication, energy, mining and other projects were included. To do this only the government was capable and it was also necessary for the development of private industries.

In India’s mixed economic policy, some sectors were reserved for the government while some were open to the private sector. But even in that, the government through its licensing policy tries to ensure that those industries are spread over different parts.



Before independence, industries were mainly limited to port cities like Madras, Bombay and Calcutta (Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata). were limited. But after that other places like Baroda (Vadodara), Coimbatore, Bangalore (Bangalore), Pune, Faridabad and Rajkot also became important industrial centres.

The government is also trying to encourage other small scale industries by giving special incentives and assistance. Many items, such as paper and wood products, stationery, glass and porcelain industries, were reserved for small-scale sectors. As of 1991, only 28% of the total working population was employed in large scale industries, while 72% were employed in small scale and traditional industries.

4, Industrial Policy 1956 divided the industries of India into how many categories? Which industries were kept in these classes?

Ans. Classification of Industries According to the industrial policy Indian industries were divided into three categories-

(i) First class

(ii) Class II and

(iii) Class III

(1) First class- Manufacturing of war material in the first class, production of nuclear power andControl, manufacturing of weapons, railway traffic and post office were kept. its ownership andThe responsibility of management and establishment and development was completely handed over to the Central Government.

(II) Second category- Those industries were kept in this category, in whose development the government has a greater share.Will take Industries were kept in this category like tools, machines, medicines, chemical fertilizers, rubber,Water transport, road transport etc. In future, industries of this category will be established in the government sector only.

(iii) Third Category – All those industries were kept in this category which would be safe for the private sector. These will be developed with the inspiration of the private sector, but in this category also the state can establish new industries.

5. What have been the main objectives of the Industrial Licensing Policy in India?

Ans. Following are the main objectives of the industrial licensing policy in India- (i) To develop and control industrial investment and production according to the goals of various plans.

(ii) To encourage and provide protection to small and small-scale industries.

(iii) To prevent the concentration of economic power in the form of industrial ownership.

(iv) Removing regional disparities in the field of economic development and motivating for proper balanced industrial development.


long answer type questions


1. Read the given passage about the strike of 1982 and answer the questions given at the end.

Ans. Prakash Bhilare (General Secretary of Maharashtra Girni Kamgar Sangh, former mill workers) – The textile mill workers only take their salary and dearness allowance. Apart from this, they do not get any other allowance. They get only five days of casual leave. Workers of other industries started getting other allowances like transport, health facilities etc. as well as casual leave of 10-12 days.

This enraged the textile mill workers. On 22nd October 1981, the Standard Mill workers went to Dr Datta Samant’s house and asked him to lead them. At first, Samant refused, he said to get cloth, B.I. R.A. comes under, and I don’t even know much about it. But these workers did not want to listen under any circumstances. They kept vigil outside his house all night and finally agreed in the morning.

Lakshmi Bhatkar-(participant of the strike) – I supported the strike. We used to sit outside the gate every day and consult what to do next. From time to time, we used to organize morchas…..the morchas used to be very big….we did not loot or hurt anyone. I have been asked to speak sometimes, but I cannot give a speech. My legs start trembling badly. Besides, I am scared of my children too – what will they do?

They will think that we are starving here and they are getting their photo printed here in Adhbar. Once we even marched towards the showroom of Century Mill. We were arrested and taken to Borili. I was thinking about my children. I could not eat food. I started thinking about myself that we are not criminals, we are mill workers. We are fighting for our hard-earned money.

Kisan Salunke-(Ex-Worker of Spin Mills)- It must have been hardly one and half months since the strike started in Century Mills that R.M. M / s. The people got the mill opened. They can do this because they have the support of both the state and the government.

 They brought outsiders into the mill without getting to know them fully… Monsale (then chief minister of Maharashtra) offered to increase Rs.30. Datta Samant called a meeting to discuss the matter.

All further activities used to happen here. We said, “We don’t want this.” If the strike leaders have no decorum, no negotiation, we are not ready to go back to work without any harassment.

Datta Iswalkar-(President of Mill Charles Tenants Association) Congress got all the goons like Babu Reshim, Rama Nayak and Arun Gawli out of jail to end the strike. We had no option but to kill the strikebreakers. For us, it was a question of life and death.

Bhai Bhonsle (General Secretary of RMMS during the strike of 1982) After the strike started calling people back to work….we used to think that if people want to go to work then they should be allowed to go, actually it was their help. .. About getting into the middle of the mafia gang, I was responsible for that… Those people like Datta Samant are waiting for a convenient time, and waiting for those who go easy.

We had prepared the antagonists at Parel and other places. Naturally, there could have been some brawl, some bloodshed…. When Rama Nayak died, the then-Mayor Bhujbal came in his office car to pay his respects. The powers of these people were used in politics at one time or another by many people.

2. Leading the public sector in industrial development during the plan period was the role assigned?

Ans. Public undertaking means such commercial or industrial organization which is owned, managed and operated by the government or any of its institutions. After independence, the public sector in India has been given importance due to the following reasons-

(i) Huge investment is required for many such basic and country there are essential industries that require so much investment that private sector industries do not take interest in them. Therefore, those industries have to be established in the public sector only.

(ii) When India became independent, to remove regional disparities, There were many regional disparities. To remove these regional disparities, the establishment of undertakings in the public sector was necessary. Industries in the public sector are established in those areas which are economically backward.

(iii) When India became independent, there was an unequal distribution of income and wealth to prevent the concentration of economic power. Most of the country’s energy was concentrated with a few people of the country. Rich people were very rich and poor people were very poor. The public sector was given importance after independence to reduce disparities of income.

(iv) To develop the infrastructure in India at the time of independence was underdeveloped and unsatisfactory. The country cannot develop without improving its infrastructure. The private sector was not ready to come forward to develop infrastructure, because infrastructure involves a lot of investment and yields income over a period of time. So the government had to come forward to develop these structures.

(v) Important from the point of view of security – When the country became independent, the security of India was in danger at that time. There was a need for the manufacture of war materials (bombs, shells, arms, weapons) for the security of the country. We cannot rely on the private sector to manufacture war material. So all these were constructed in the public sector.

CLASS 12 NCERT SOLUTION IN ENGLISHCLASS12 NCERT SOLUTION IN HINDI
Historyइतिहास
Geography भूगोल
Political science राजनीति विज्ञान
English SubjectResult
Hindi SubjectHistory answer keys
Sociology समाज शास्त्र

FAQs


q. On what basis is protection against foreign competition criticized?

Ans. It is believed that by giving protection for a long time, the industry will be able to protect its goods. will not raise the quality of the sell in your country.

q5. In which two forms the domestic industries were protected from foreign competition? Wool briefly describes the forms.

Ans. Domestic industries were protected from foreign competition in two forms – Tariffs and Quotas. Tariff means a tax on imported goods. Tariffs make imported goods costlier. As a result, the use of import-decreasing goods is reduced.

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