NCERT Class 12 Sociology-II Chapter 8 Notes Social Movements Easy Pdf

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NCERT Class 12 Sociology-II Chapter 8 Notes Social Movements Easy Pdf


Social Movements


Social movement requires sustained collective activities over a long period of time. Such activities are usually against the state and demand changes in the policy and behavior of the state. The spontaneous and unorganized protest also cannot be called a social movement. Group activities require some degree of organization.

In this organization, there is leadership and structure in which mutual relation of members, decision making process and their compliance are defined. There is also a similarity in the objectives and ideologies of the people participating in the social movement.

A social movement has a general orientation or a way to bring about (or prevent) a change. These specific symptoms are not permanent. These can turn social movements into life spans.

Many movements took place in the country before and after independence, in which the farmer’s movement and the labor movement also had a special role. These movements were mainly against the exploiters. Gandhiji’s influence on them was very less.

Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh were the main centers of these movements. Some of these movements were peaceful and violence took place in some. Presently in Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra, peasant movements have been taking place from time to time, also in Rajasthan.

Recently a farmer’s movement has ended. There are many types of social movements. They can be classified as followsIs-

(i) compensatory or transformative

(ii) reformist and

(iii) Revolutionary. Social movements perhaps best illustrate this relationship. They arise because individuals and social groups seek to change their status quo. They get organized and try to change the society which has changed in their condition.


NCERT Class 12 Sociology-II Chapter 8 Notes In Hindi Social Movements Easy Pdf

NCERT Class 12 Sociology II Chapter 8 Notes Social Movements Easy Pdf 1
Class12th 
Chapter NameSocial Movements
Chapter numberChapter 8
Part B
BoardCBSE
Book NCERT
SubjectPsychology
Medium English
Study MaterialsNotes & important questions
Download PDFPart B Sociology Chapter 8 Notes PDF

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. What was the purpose of peasant movements and amic movements?

Ans. The main objective of peasant movements and labour movements was to raise voices against illegal extortion and exploitation.

2. What do you know about the farmer’s movement in Bihar?

Ans. In 1919-20, Swami Vidyanand led the peasant movement in the vast area of ​​Darbhanga Raj in North Bihar. The movement spread to Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur, Purnea and Munger districts.

Darbhanga Raj was making a deal of old pastures and new footing on trees. Inflation was also increasing. The ‘amlas’ or agents of the Raj were usually small landowners. These became more oppressive due to economic pressures. At this time, the peasant movement was mainly demanding ‘amla’ recovery and a ban on ownership rights.

3. Write short note on the trade union movement.

Ans. The roots of trade union are slowly getting established in India. In the year 1919-20, there were many strikes in many industrial centers like Kanpur, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Jamshedpur.

The Communists increased their influence in the trade union movement and played a decisive role in organizing the strike of railway workshop workers in Kharagpur in February and September 1927. year 1928Till then the Communist led Girni Kamgar Union became very strong.

4. Write short note on Tebhaga movement.

Ans. In the winter of 1946-47, an ashram movement rose in Bengal. The Provincial Kisan Sabha gave a call for a mass movement to implement ‘Tebhaga’ as per the recommendations of the Plaud Commission. By ‘tebhaga’ is meant – for the sharecropper, two-thirds of the produce, not half or even less.

Communist activists, many of whom were urban students, reached the villages and organized the sharecroppers.

From November 1946, the movement became stronger and its center became North Bengal, but the repression of the movement also increased.

At the same time, due to the internal tensions of tribal Rakhi and medium, poor peasants under the movement, some social boundaries of the struggle were also formed. Due to all these reasons the movement declined.

5. How did the working class emerge?

Ans. The British rule from the last decade of the nineteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century had brought a lot of change in the Indian society and economy. Railways, industries, tea gardens, mines, etc. were developed in India as a means of fulfillment of industrial selfishness of the British imperial rule and means of their capital investment, which essentially gave rise to the proletariat.

Considering the working class movement before the First World Front, it becomes clear that the nascent working class started raising voice and fighting against exploitation and oppression in the nineteenth century itself. In the 20th century, this voice turned into a struggle, examples of which are found in major battles like the 1907 railway strike and the 1908 Mumbai strike.

In the year 1907, there was a railway strike in the whole country, through which the workers were able to increase their wages and reduce the atrocities of the owners.



6. Write a very short note on the nature of mass movement.

Ans. People’s movements are those movements which are often run in a democratic way, often inspired by the regional or local interests, demands and problems of the context or category of the society.

For example, the Chipko movement launched in 1973, the movement launched by the Bharatiya Kisan Union, the Dalit Panthers movement, the anti-toddy movement in Andhra Pradesh, the student movement launched from time to time, the movement supporting women’s liberation and empowerment, the Narmada Bachao Andolan etc. Examples of movements.

7. How did some villages in Uttarakhand take the form of a popular movement against deforestation?

Ans. In 1973, an extraordinary incident of collective action to save trees demonstrated the solidarity of men and women of the present day state of Uttarakhand to strongly oppose commercial deforestation. The root cause of this protest was that the government had given permission for deforestation.

The people of the village (especially women) to express their protest. Adopted a new trick. These people wrapped their arms around the trees to prevent them from being cut down.

can be saved from This protest turned into India’s environmental movement in the coming days and became world famous by the name of ‘Chipko Movement’.

8, Who was Namdev Usal? His Dalit Panthers Supporters (Pakshadhar)to thoughtsWrite in brief on the basis of one of his Marathi poems.

Ans. Namdev Dhasal was a famous Marathi poet. He wrote many works of whichSome of his famous works were Darkness Mein Padayatra and Surajmukhi, Ashish Wala Fakir. Idea-

(i) Namdev had genuine sympathy for the downtrodden. they believed thatFor centuries they have been suffering due to corrupt social or caste system.

(ii) They believed that the darkness of the social system in the form of injustice would now end andThe time has come for the sun to rise in the form of social equality and justice.

(iii) Namdev believed that the Dalit Panthers would stand up for their rights and justice and change the society. They will make progress and touch the holiday. He will turn towards progress, justice and equality like a sunflower.

9. Mention any four prominent leaders who made efforts for the welfare of the downtrodden of the society.

Ans. (i) Jyotirao Govind Rao Phule raised his voice, formed organizations and wrote articles for the replacement of the so-called backward classes of Indian society. He was a staunch opponent of Brahminism.

(ii) Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi started Harijan Sangh, magazine named Harijan, Kumadoot eradicationand the imagination of the so-called Harijans (who are often considered more correct to be called Dalits)Took a lot of effort.

(iii) Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar worked for the upliftment of Dalits throughout his life.Organized organizations and made arrangements for the abolition of untouchability during the creation of the Indian Constitution.Got it done The people practicing untouchability in any form were considered guilty and arrangements were made to punish them harshly under the law.

(iv) Kanshi Ram created the Bahujan Samaj Party considering a great social reformer like Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar as his ideal and source of inspiration. This group remained active throughout his life. Even today this party works for the welfare of the so-called Dalits in some modified form.is employed.


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Briefly throw light on the peasant movement of 1920-21 in the United Provinces.

Ans. Vigorous peasant movements took place in 1920-21 in Pratapgarh, Rae Bareli, Sultanpur and Faizabad districts in the Aday region of the United Provinces.In the year 1918, the movement of Uttar Pradesh Kisan Sabha started as a peaceful movement.

A large number of farmers of Pratapgarh district participated in this movement. The farmers got a capable leader like Baba Ramchandra. He organized the farmers for their just demands. Baba Ramchandra made extensive use of religious myths and caste idioms related to the Ramayana to rally the peasants.

But this was not the only reason for the success of Baba Ramchandra. Socio-economic conditions also had an important contribution. A large number of ryots who were not entitled to landownership were subject to arbitrary extortion, displacement and increased revenue. 

Their demands were very general – abolition of ‘cess’ and ‘begar’, ‘prohibition of cultivation on dispossessed land’, boycott of oppressive landlords by ‘barber-washer bandh’. By the end of 1920, the peaceful peasant movement spread to three other districts of Awadh. The strength of the peasant movement came to the fore in September, 1920 when a peaceful and massive demonstration of the peasants at Pratapgarh made possible the release of Baba Ramchandra.

But in fact in January 1921 this movement came to its peak. Between January and March 1921, large-scale peasant uprisings took place in Rae Bareli, Pratapgarh, Faizabad and Sultanpur. Market breakdown in many areas, attacks on talukedar usurers, farmers clashing with police and aggressive programs took place and all this happened in the name of Gandhi.

In March 1921, Butler, the then Governor of Uttar Pradesh, gave his opinion in this regard, “In the three districts of southern Awadh, we saw the beginning of revolution-like conditions.” But in April 1921, this movement was destroyed due to government repression and obstructionist role of Congress.

At the end of this year, the peasant movement in Awadh once again emerged as if it had ‘become a spark from its own ashes’. Now the northern districts of Hardoi, Barabanki, Bahraich, Sitapur and Lucknow etc. became the centers of the movement. In its new form it was called ‘One’ movement.

Its inspiration was a revolutionary peasant leader named Madari Pasi. The main demand of the movement was self-conversion of produce, revenue (harvesting) into cash due to rising inflation. But due to government repression, this movement also came to an end by the summer of 1922.

 2. What do you know about the peasant movement in Andhra Pradesh?

Ans. The best example of continuous militant struggle of tribals is found in the North Godavari region in Andhra Pradesh which was predominantly tribal dominated area. Here, between August 1922 and May 1924, a guerrilla war was going on under the leadership of Alluri Sitarama Raju. Raju, the hero of the movement, became a figure of folk tales in Andhra.

This movement grew out of a combination of different elements and the primitive rebellion got connected with the modern nationalism. Claiming himself to be ‘bullet proof’, Raju also announced the inevitable arrival of ‘Kalki Avatar’. Raju praised Gandhiji, but he also called violence inevitable.

Under his leadership, there was a remarkable tendency among the tribals to differentiate between the British and the Indians. The problems and grievances of the tribals were the same which had become the cause of many movements in this area earlier also. Usury, control over forest rights, forcing tribals to do forced labor by government employees were the main reasons for dissatisfaction.

The strategy of guerrilla warfare was efficiently used in the movement. The mass base of this movement was also wide. The Malawar Police and the Assam Rifles suppressed the movement in two years by spending another 15 lakh rupees.

During the 1930s, the Congress was forced to launch an anti-rent campaign in the Krishna district under the leadership of local leaders such as Duggilal Balramakrishnaiah. In 1931, there was a Van Satyagraha against the grazing fee in Nellore. Through this fee the zamindar was curtailing the traditional rights of the peasants to fodder and timber.

The movement was led by N.V. and N. Yes. Ranga did it. In September 1931, there was an upsurge of anti-moneylenders in Krishna and Guntur districts. A large number of public participated in it. Ramanaidu

3. Comment on Telangana Movement.

Ans. The peasant struggle of Telangana was in many respects different from the previous struggles.K remained big. Between July 1946 and October 1951, Telangana was the scene of the most extensive peasant guerrilla war in modern Indian history. The movement spread over an area of ​​16,000 square miles, 3000 villages and a population of three million.

In this region, feudalism was at its peak and political democratic rights were severely suppressed. Same and upper-class Hindu grandmothers like ‘Deshmukh’, or ‘Paiga’, ‘Jagirdar’, ‘Banjardar’, and ‘Maqtedar’ extorted ‘Vetti’ from the lower class, tribal farmers or debt-ridden ‘Betty’ system forced labor or It is customary to take money.

A spark in July 1946 ignited the peasant uprising in Telangana. Jangaon 4 Deshmukh Ramachandra Reddy wanted to take away the fields of a Ghobin named Ailamma. Deshmukh’s goons killed Doddi Kumarayya, a rural activist who was opposing it. This incident ignited the anger of the farmers of Telangana. Farmers started agitating in an organized manner.

 We became armed guerrilla squads to counter them. These squads spread to many villages. In these villages the ‘Vetti’ stopped automatically, farm wages increased, and the overseers and officials fled. P. Sundarayya, a leader of the Telangana movement has given an authentic description of this in detail. But after September 1948, the Indian Army successfully suppressed the movement and communist influence began to wane. but the communists despite their defeat Became dominant in this field for many years.

4. Write in brief the shortcomings and errors of mass movements.

Ans. (i) The people mobilized by mass movements belong to socially and economically marginalized and marginalized sections. The hostile methods adopted by the mass movements show that these marginalized groups did not get enough opportunity to have their say in the everyday democratic process.

(ii) But overall the overall impact of these movements on public policies has been very limited. One reason for this is that contemporary social movements tend to mobilize people around a single issue. In this way they can represent only one section of the society. Due to this limitation, the government is able to dare to reject the legitimate demands of these movements. Democratic politics runs only with a broad coalition of the deprived class, whereas this thing is not possible under the leadership of mass movements.

(iii) Political parties have to reconcile different sections of the people, the leadership of the mass movement can also take up such issues in a limited way.

(iv) In previous years, the relationship between political parties and people’s movements would have been weak.Has gone. This has created an atmosphere of desolation in politics. In recent years, it has emerged as a major problem in the politics of India.

5. Evaluate the Narmada Bachao Andolan.

Ans. (i) The National Rehabilitation Policy accepted by the people in 2003 can be seen as an achievement of social movements like Narmada Bachao. But along with the success, the Narmada Bachao Andolan has also had to face fierce opposition for raising the demand to stop the construction of the dam.

(ii) Critics say that The obstinate attitude of the movement is hindering the process of development, availability of water and economic development. In this matter, the Supreme Court has directed the government to go ahead with the dam work but at the same time it has also been ordered to rehabilitate the affected people properly.

(iii) Narmada Bachao Andolan lasted for more than two decades. The movement used every possible democratic strategy to press for its demands. The movement raised its point from judiciary to international forums. The leadership also used methods like public rallies and Satyagraha to put the understanding of the movement in front of the public. But the movement could not find any significant place among the mainstream political parties including the opposition parties.

(iv) In fact, the line of development of the Narmada movement explains the ever-increasing distance between social movements and political parties in Indian politics. It is notable that by the end of the nineties, many other local groups and movements also joined the Narmada Bachao Andolan. All these movements used to oppose big projects of development in their respective areas. Around this time the Narmada Bachao Andolan started in different parts of the country. Became a part of the coalition of ongoing movements.

6. Bhartiya Kisan Union is the leading organization to draw attention towards the farmers’ accident. What issues did it raise in the nineties and how far was it successful?

Ans. Issues raised by the Bharatiya Kisan Union-

(i) Opposed the increase in electricity rates.

(ii) There were attempts to liberalize the Indian economy since the 1990s and in this sequence, the market for cash crops faced a crisis. Bharatiya Kisan Union decided to increase the government and purchase price of sugarcane and wheat.

(iii) Removal of restrictions on inter-state movement of agricultural produce.

(iv) To supply guaranteed electricity at a reasonable rate. (v) Demanded for provision of pension for the farmers.

Successes

(i) In Meerut, the farmers’ union leaders camped outside the District Collector’s office for three weeks. After this their demand was accepted. It was a well-disciplined household of farmers and during the days when they were sitting on dharna, they were getting regular ration and water from the nearby villages. This dharna of Meerut was considered as a big demonstration of rural power or should we say that the power of the farmers.

(ii) Till the early 1990s, the BKU kept itself away from all political parties. It was active in politics as a pressure group on the strength of the strength of its members. This organization was successful in getting some of its demands accepted by taking along other farmer organizations present in the states. In this sense it was the most successful social movement in the decade of the peasant movement.

The success of this movement was due to the political bargaining power of its members. This movement was mainly active in the prosperous states of the country. Unlike most Indian farmers who made farming their livelihood, members of organizations like the BKU produced cash crops for the market. Other farmer organizations of states like BKU

Made its members from among those communities which had influence in the electoral politics of the region. Rashtraksha Shetkari Sanghatana and Ryot Sangh of Karnataka are other examples of such farmer organisations.

7. The anti-liquor movement in Andhra Pradesh drew the nation’s attention to some serious issues.drawn. what were those issues? 

Ans. The slogan of the anti-toddy movement in Andhra Pradesh was very simple – “Sale of toddyDo this but this simple slogan deeply affected the lives of women in the region through wider social, economic and political issues.

(i) There was a deep chasm between crime and politics over the toddy business.The state government was getting a lot of revenue from the sale of toddy, so it was not banning it.

(ii) Local women’s groups started raising this complex issue in their movement.Did. She also started openly discussing the issue of domestic violence. movement for the first timeGave women a chance to speak on personal issues like domestic violence.

(iii) Over time, the anti-tadi movement became a part of the women’s movement. Earlier, women’s groups fighting against domestic violence, dowry-practice, sexual harassment at workplace and public places were generally active only among urban middle-class women. And that thing was applicable to the whole country. It is very difficult to develop this understanding through this continuous work of women’s groups. that the issue of atrocities on women and gender discrimination

(iv) The women’s movement within and outside the family during the eightiesMan- remained focused on the issues of violence. These groups campaigned against the dowry system andDemanded personal and property laws based on the principle of equality.

(v) Such campaigns created mass awareness in the society towards women’s issues. Gradually, the women’s movement moved away from legal reforms and started talking about issues of social conflict.

 (vi) By the time of the 1990s, women’s convention talked about equal political representation.Started doing You must be aware that women have been given reservation in local political bodies under the 73rd and 74th amendment of the constitution.

8. Does the democracy of the country get strengthened by the actions of agitation and protest?Give examples to justify your answer. 

Ans. By agitating in a non-violent and peaceful manner within the ambit of the law, the democracy of the country gets strengthened. We can give the following examples in support of our answer:

(i) The Chipko movement was non-violent, peaceful and was a massive mass movement.Due to this cutting of trees, destruction of forests stopped. Animals, birds, water, forest, landAnd got healthier environment. The government bowed down to the democratic demands.

(ii) Peasant and labor movement peacefully run by the leftists succeeded in awakening the masses, participating in national works and raising the government to the just demands of the proletariat.

(iii) Movements run by Dalit Panthers leaders, anti-government articles and compositions written by tribals, scheduled castes, scheduled castes,Created consciousness among tribes and backward castes. Dalit Panthers became a political party and organization. Caste discrimination and untouchability were shocked. Equality, freedom, social justice, economic justice, political justice were strengthened in the society.

(iv) The anti-toddy movement created an atmosphere against prohibition and prohibition. Many problems or issues related to women (puberty harassment, domestic problems, dowry system and giving reservation to women in legislatures) arose. some amendments to the constitutionMore laws were made.

9. What were the issues raised by the Dalit-Panthers?

Ans. In the early years of the seventies of the twentieth century, the first generation of educated Dalits raised their voice from many forums. Most of them were Dalits who grew up in the slums of the city. Dalit Panthers, an organization of Dalit youths in Maharashtra, was formed in 1972 in order to claim Dalit interests.

(i) In the years after independence, Dalit groups were mainly fighting against caste-based inequality and injustice meted out to them in terms of material means. He was conscious of the fact that the Constitution guarantees against any kind of caste-based discrimination.

(ii) Effective implementation of the law of reservation and similar policies of social justice was their main demand.

(ii) The practice of untouchability has been abolished in the Indian Constitution. The government made laws under this in the sixties and seventies. In spite of this, the castes which were considered untouchable in the olden times, the treatment of social discrimination and violence continued in many forms in this new era as well.

(iv) Dalit settlements were still far away from the main village. with dalit womenThere were sexual atrocities. Collective attack on Dalits over trivial matter of caste prestigeAtrocities were perpetrated. The role of the law in preventing the social and economic oppression of Dalits

The system was proving insufficient.

10. Briefly mention the role of NGOs in their aspects related to labor welfare, health-education, civil rights, women-oppression and environment.

Ans. In India, along with the government, non-governmental organizations have also been taking up matters related to various social problems. These issues have been related to welfare, environment, women’s welfare etc.

The role of non-governmental organizations in India has been widely in the field of welfare of laborers, development of health, spread of education and protection of rights of citizens, end of women oppression, development of agriculture, tree plantation etc. In non-governmental organizations-

(a) International Chamber of Commerce,

(b) Red Cross Society,

(c) Amnesty International,

(d) Organizations like Human Rights Commission are spread all over the world.

These NGOs, through their role in various fields, have brought about the following developments:

(i) These NGOs protected the rights of mankind. different worldTheir established branches in countries get human rights protected by various governments.

(ii) These non-governmental organizations cooperated in tree plantation in different countries.

(iii) These non-governmental organizations trained laborers for various works by running employment-oriented schemes.

(iv) Those non-governmental organizations are playing an important role in the field of health by drug spraying, vaccination, distribution of different types of drugs and prevention of diseases.

(v) These non-governmental organizations requested the governments for progress in the field of agriculture.Got developmental work done. Contributed in the arrangement of fertilizers, seeds etc.

(vi) Various non-governmental organizations did teaching work and distributed materials for the education of children. In this way, non-governmental organizations did teaching work and distributed materials for the education of children. In this way, the role of non-governmental organizations has been widely in the development of mankind and solving problems.


LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS


1. Why and when the anti-liquor movement started in Andhra Pradesh? How did it take the form of a women’s movement?

Ans. (i) The anti-toddy movement in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh was a spontaneous movement of women. These women were demanding a ban on the sale of liquor in their neighbourhood. In the months of September and October of the year 1992, the rural women started a fight against alcohol. The fight was against both the mafia and the government. this movement

It took such a form that it came to be known as the anti-toddy movement in the state.

(ii) In the early 1990s in Dubarganta, a remote village in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, an adult-literacy program was launched among women, in which women registered in large numbers. In the classes, women used to complain about drinking country liquor, toddy etc. by the men of the house. The villagers were deeply addicted to alcohol.

(iii) Later this movement became active in the form of women’s movement. Through the anti-toddy movement, women created widespread awareness against social problems related to their lives such as dowry system, domestic harassment outside the house, atrocities on women in the society, gender discrimination in the family etc.

(iv) Women talked about reservation of one-third seats for themselves in Panchayats, Legislative Assemblies, Parliament and equal opportunities and promotion in all departments of the government like air, police services etc. She not only staged dharnas, demonstrations, took out processions but also raised her voice on various issues through Women’s Commission, National Commission and democratic forums.

(v) 73rd and 74th amendment took place in the constitution. Women’s seats were reserved in local bodies. Bills for reservation in Assemblies and Parliament are yet to be passed. Liquor prohibition has been implemented in many states and arrangements have been made to give strict punishment for atrocities against women.

2. Describe the steps taken for the upliftment of women in India.

Ans. After independence, many steps have been taken to improve the condition of women in India, some of which are as follows-

(i) Women’s Crime Cell and Family Judiciary – It conducts hearings to prevent atrocities on women. Marriage, Divorce, Dowry, Family Laws alsoLet’s listen

(ii) Recruitment of women in government offices Women employees are appointed in almost all government offices. Now the ban on recruitment of women to officer posts in all three of the Air Force, Navy and Army and Armed Forces has been lifted.Women are working in all fields.

(iii) Women’s education: After attaining independence, there was a great expansion of women’s education in India.Has happened.

(iv) A National Commission for Women has been established under the National Commission for Women Act of 1990. Women’s commissions have also been established in the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Odisha, West Bengal, Tripura, Delhi, Punjab, Karnataka, Assam and Gujarat.

(v) Women’s Reservation Women are about 50 percent of the total population but their number is very less in government offices, parliament, state legislatures etc. By the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments of 1993, one-third of the seats in Panchayati Raj institutions and municipalities have been reserved for women. 

3. Write an article on the recommendations of the Mandal Commission report, their implementation and their results.

Years.

 I. Appointment Under Article 304 (1) of the Indian Constitution, in 1978, on the recommendation of the Janata Party government headed by Morarji Desai, the Backward Classes Commission was again headed by the former Chief Minister of Bihar Shri Bindeshwari Prasad Mandal by the President of the country (remember the first Backward Classes Commission appointed under the chairmanship of Kaka Kalelkar) was constituted. It also had five other members.

The Mandal Commission considered caste as the proper basis for the identification of backward classes. To identify the backward classes in Hindu society, the commission has created 11 indicators – four establish social caste-based backwardness, three educational backwardness and four economic backwardness. Giving different importance to these grounds, the commission counted a large part of the total population of India, ie 52 percent, in other backward castes, that is, other than scheduled castes and tribes.

II. Recommendations of the Mandal Commission Concessions to be given to backward castes was not an easy task. It was easy to implement reservation for backward castes and poor classes in some states, but it also exposed the opposition generated by the opponents of reservation. In 1978, there was a violent protest in Bihar between the ‘forward block’ and the ‘backward castes’. This was the case in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and even Uttar Pradesh in 1980. That is why, in 1978, the Janata government constituted a commission under the chairmanship of Mandal to get information about the condition of backward castes. by this commission

The following recommendations were made-

 (i) Backward castes should be given 27 percent reservation in government jobs.

(ii) 27 percent seats should be reserved for backward castes in all scientific, technical and professional institutions run by the Central and State Governments.

(iii) Separate financial institutions should be set up by the government to provide financial assistance to the backward classes.The Government of India announced the implementation of these recommendations on 7 August 1990.

III. Announcement and response to the implementation of the recommendations of the Mandal Commission The Mandal Commission submitted its report in 1980 and was placed before the Parliament in April 1982. The Congress Government neither rejected nor accepted this report clearly. In fact it was quietly kept in the cupboard.

The National Front government, which came to power in January 1990, took steps to implement the recommendations of the commission. It asked all the state governments for their views and finally Prime Minister B.R. P. Singh announced on August 7, 1990 and formal orders were issued on April 17, 1990 to implement the Mandal Commission recommendations of 27% reservation in jobs.

IV. Opposition to Mandal and reservation- The report of the Mandal Commission created a fierce controversy. One strange thing is that the dispute is not being waged between the right wing and the left wing; But on both sides of the controversy, both types of people are present. 

4. Throw light on the history of labor movement before independence.

Ans. By the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, the British rule had brought a lot of changes in the Indian society and economy. Railways, industries, tea plantations, etc. were developed in India as a medium for the achievement of industrial interests of the British imperial rulers and as means of their capital investment, which essentially gave rise to the proletariat.

Considering the working class movement before the First World War, it becomes clear that the nascent working class started raising its voice and fighting against exploitation and oppression in the nineteenth century itself. In the 20th century, this voice turned into struggle, examples of which are found in battles like the 1907 railway strike and the 1908 Mumbai strike.

In the year 1907, there was a railway strike in the whole country, through which the workers were able to increase their wages and reduce the atrocities of the owners, but the most important strike of the first decade of the twentieth century was – Tilak was given 6 years on July 22, 1908. Bombay workers strike against the imprisonment of In fact, the laborers of Mumbai, together with the laborers and patriots of the city, had started the trial on Tilak from the time itself. This was his political strike.

 In this he fought with the British Army on the streets of Mumbai. This struggle of the workers of Mumbai was a glorious chapter in India’s freedom struggle. The working class was not untouched by the wave of national movement in the first decade of the twentieth century. Bengal at that time was the center of strong political agitation due to the partition of India.

 The working class here was also affected by this movement. Before the world war, the working class was basically unorganized. During their struggles, their organizations had definitely started to form, but they were still in their infancy, but the First World War and the socialist revolution of Russia together made a significant change in the working class of India and their movement. the war

Had a great impact on the working class. One result of the First World War was that the production of factories in India increased and industrial progress took place. This increase in production is due to the factories running day and night andIt was done by putting more burden on the laborers. During the war many new industries were opened and many limited capital investment companies were established.

 During this time there was rapid development of tea gardens, coal mines, textile mills, iron factories etc. and there was an unprecedented increase in the number of laborers working in it. This advancement was the result of war-generated circumstances. During the period mill owners made unlimited profit but instead of increasing the real wages of the laborers on an average decreased.

Another reason for the high profits earned by the mill owners was the sky-high difference in the price of raw materials. In other words, this profit was the result of exploitation of the farmers who produced the raw materials. This deteriorating condition of the workers and peasants led to a deepening of the differences between the working class and the British imperialists during the war period and thereafter.

5. Briefly throw light on the causes of the peasant movements before independence.

Ans. In the year 1920-21, the peasant movement also gained momentum in the country. The struggle of the peasants against the British rulers was almost as old as the British rule. The farmers were also becoming poorer and poorer under the British. The policy of Clive and Hastings to collect as much land revenue as possible from the very beginning of the British rule in Bengal had caused much devastation.

In permanent and temporary settlement zamindari areas, many were left at the mercy of zamindars who increased the rent to intolerable limits and forced them to pay revenue (mahsul) and do forced labor.Took place and fixed excessive land revenue. This proved to be one of the main causes of poverty and decline of agriculture in the nineteenth century. The government spent very little on agricultural reform.

The draconian method of collecting exorbitant land revenue made its harmful consequences worse. The practice of auctioning the land of peasants for failure to pay land revenue often deprived the peasants of their land or forced the peasants to take loans from moneylenders at higher rates, which eventually resulted in the farmer’s land becoming in the hands of moneylenders. Had to go.

Landless farmers, artisans and handicraftsmen were being forced to work as agricultural labourers on minimal wages due to loss of land, industrialization and lack of handicraft industry.

Thus the peasantry was being crushed under the triple burden of the government, the zamindars and the moneylenders. Thus, the beginning of the peasant struggle against British rule started in the initial years of the establishment of this rule. Peasants were the main force of the Sanyasi Revolt (1763-1800). Santhal Rebellion (1855-56), Great Rebellion of 1857, Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Kuka Rebellion (1871-72). Pawana Rebellion (1875).

CLASS 12 NCERT SOLUTION IN ENGLISHCLASS12 NCERT SOLUTION IN HINDI
Historyइतिहास
Geography भूगोल
Political science राजनीति विज्ञान
English SubjectResult
Hindi SubjectHistory answer keys
Sociology समाज शास्त्र

FAQs


Q, What has changed in the status of women after independence?

Ans. After independence, efforts have been made to bring the status of women from inequality to equality. In the present times, women have a status of equality with men. Women are free to choose any type of education or training,

Q. Differentiate between the status of men and women in education and employment.

Ans. There is a difference in the status of men and women in the field of education and employment. Women Bharata was 54.16 per cent in 2001 while the literacy of males was 75.85 per cent. of education Women in areas such as employment, training and access to health facilities due to impacts limited success.


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