NCERT Solutions Entrepreneurship Class 12 Chapter 15 Notes PDF

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Entrepreneurship Class 12 Chapter 15 Notes PDF, NCERT Solutions Entrepreneurship Class 12 Chapter 15 Notes PDF

Entrepreneurship Class 12 Chapter 15 Notes PDF

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Download PDFEntrepreneurship Class 12 Chapter 15 Notes PDF


Discipline is essential for entrepreneurial success. Entrepreneurship is considered a symbol of progress and prosperity. An adventurer or entrepreneur always keeps an eye on changes and tries to take advantage of every opportunity. 

Social responsibility is the responsibility of business towards various communities of the society. Along with the objective of earning profit in business, the businessman also fulfills his responsibilities towards the society. Humanization alone determines the limits of social responsibility.

NCERT Solutions Entrepreneurship Class 12 Chapter 15 Notes PDF

Arguments are presented in favor of social responsibility and it is said that it is necessary to have social responsibility of business properly, but arguments are also given against social responsibility and it is said that to fulfill social responsibility, various measures are taken. There are obstacles

There is a co-relation between ecosystem and environment. The production process does cause some pollution. This may be in the form of noise, smoke and smell. Some enterprises create disturbance from biological point of view and cause pollution in the environment. Pollution of the environment is harmful. 

Therefore, the adventurer should fulfill his responsibility towards pollution. And proper attention should be paid to the control of pollution. Because pollution has a bad effect on humans. An entrepreneur should work with courageous discipline and try to keep the environment clean. 

There are various causes of environmental pollution, such as natural pollution like storm, forest fire, lightning, volcanic eruption etc. The environment gets polluted. 

Similarly, smoke from motor vehicles, smoke from factory chimneys and noise etc. cause pollution. Pollution also increases due to increased population. Pollution occurs due to waste from factories, animal excreta, dung etc. which makes the environment dirty.

Therefore it is necessary to control pollution. The health profession has various responsibilities towards its employees. Under this responsibility, workers and employees should be given fair wages. There should be job security. A sympathetic environment should be created and there should be scientific selection of employees. Employees should have the opportunity for promotion. 

Similarly, business also has responsibilities towards society and general public. No business work should be done in such a way that the balance of the society gets disturbed. Apart from this, the business also has responsibilities towards the consumer or customer. Business should create an environment of increased user satisfaction. Goods should be available to customers at reasonable prices. Business must be accountable to the government for the planned development of a country. The adventurer must maintain his reputation in the market. 

Due to increase in credibility and reputation, the work of the enterprise runs smoothly. In fact, the discipline of an adventurer is measured by how quickly he is able to pay his dues. It is the duty of the entrepreneur to fulfill his legal obligations smoothly. He must follow the business laws of the country. In this regard he

The duty of discipline must be performed. Nowadays, there is a lot of competition in the field of commerce, business and industry. In this competitive era, an entrepreneur should run his business in such a way that he can survive in the market. An adventurer should pay proper attention to the arrangement of business work, only then he can be successful in his business work.


1. Define social responsibility.

Ans. Koontz O. While giving the definition of social responsibility, Donal has said that social responsibility is the personal responsibility of every person. As the employee works for the boss. At the same time, care should also be taken that the interests of other parties are not adversely affected. 

2. Write the arguments given in favor of social responsibility of business. 

Ans. The arguments given in favor of social responsibility of business are as follows. (i) Public need (ii) In favor of business (iii) Moral justification (iv) Social and cultural bond (v) Correlation of rights and duties (vi) Good image in public and government regulation etc.

3. Write the views of Jai Prakash Narayan regarding social responsibility. 

Ans. Expressing his views regarding social responsibility, Jai Prakash Narayan has said that in order for business to fulfill its responsibility well, it should take care of human welfare with new ideas and new spirit. Along with this, consciousness of social responsibility should also be awakened.

4. Write the responsibility of business towards the consumer.

Ans. Business has various responsibilities towards the consumer, which are as follows – (i) To follow the rules (ii) Not to bribe government officials (iii) To run a good business system (iv) To provide employment to the destitute people etc.

5. Write a short note on biology and environment.

Ans. The production process definitely causes some pollution. It can be in the form of noise, smoke or even smell. Some activities cause disturbance from biological point of view and there are other reasons too, like erosion, which is not good for humans and animals. 

The adventurer should accept his responsibility towards pollution and it is also necessary to pay attention to the control of pollution because pollution has a bad effect on human health. One should work with courage and discipline and should not try to spoil the environment.

6. Throw light briefly on healthy competition.

Ans. The courageous should always strive to move towards growth and perfection. In this process the adventurer will also have to compete with others. Trying to get over others involves belittling and harming others. The second way is by increasing work efficiency, increasing productivity, improving quality, improving design, quick delivery of products or providing new products and services. 

In courageous discipline, emphasis is always on improving efficiency. Due to this, they have to face competition from others. Social responsibility emphasizes on self-development. This is the basis of all competitions. Competition in form does not harm others.

7. What is the work arrangement?

Ans. To create a system of discipline among the adventurers, this can be done through lectures and discussions. In this, the present day adventurers get their views published in national newspapers. This is the working arrangement.


1. Describe biology and environment.

Ans. There is a deep connection between biology and environment. Similarly, the environment is also affected to a great extent by industries. The production process causes environmental pollution. This pollution can occur in various forms such as noise, smoke and foul smell. 

Some activities are dangerous from biological point of view. There are some other reasons also, like deforestation, excessive use of motor vehicles etc. which are proving fatal for humans and animals. Therefore, the adventurer should accept his responsibility towards this monster of pollution and should play his role in controlling it because pollution badly affects human health.

Keeping in mind the harmful effects of pollution, the adventurer should perform his work within a completely disciplined manner and make every possible effort to keep the environment clean and unpolluted.

. Discuss the responsibilities of a business towards its consumer/customer.

Ans. In a modern democratic system, one should be conscious of the welfare of the nation. Efforts should be made to utilize all the resources of the nation towards the development of the nation. Business must be accountable to the government for the planned development of a country. The responsibilities of business towards the consumer are as follows-

(i) Law abiding – Business should be in the form of a legal entity. The business must strictly follow the regulations of that country. He should be bound by the Constitution and should also be loyal to other rules. 

(ii) Do not give bribe to government officials – It is not appropriate to bribe government officials to get work done in the interest of a country, a businessman should get his work done with sincerity and honesty and should avoid bribery. 

(ii) Promoting Fair Trade practices – SAI should work with honesty and integrity while running its business. Society

Good things should be given. Businessmen should not pull each other’s legs. Good business practices will increase credibility in national and international business.

(iv) Rehabilitating Disabled Persons – It is the duty of the businessman to provide employment to handicapped and destitute people and also make arrangements for their accommodation as much as possible.

3. Write an article on the discipline and social responsibility of entrepreneurship. 

Ans. Entrepreneurship is considered a symbol of progress and prosperity. An adventurer always keeps an eye on changes and tries to seize every opportunity. To convert an opportunity into a venture, an entrepreneur needs a variety of sources which may be in the form of capital, technology, utility, manpower and market. Social responsibility is the responsibility of business towards various communities of the society. The businessman considers his responsibility towards the society above the objective of making profit. Humanization alone determines the limits of social responsibility.

(1) Koontz O. According to Donal, “Social responsibility is the personal responsibility of every person, the employee works for the employer and at the same time it should be kept in mind that the interest of other parties is not adversely affected.” (Social Responsibility is the personal obligation of every one, as he acts for his owner’s interest, to assure that right and legitimate interest of all others are not impaired.)

(ii) According to Jai Prakash Narayan, “For business to fulfill its responsibility well, it should do human welfare/progress with a new idea, a new spirit. “Consciousness of social responsibility should also be awakened.” (Business in order to play its proper role and contribute to the totality of human progress must be informed with a new spirit, and new outlook. It must come to be made conscious of social respon- sibilities.)

4. Write a short note on Credit Creditability. Ans. In business, credibility is an important and commendable endeavor for any entrepreneur. credit

Based on this, financial institutions and entrepreneurs are loyal to each other. This confidence is built only on the basis of the discipline of the adventurer. It is a highly desirable step for every adventurer to make the payment on the due date. Failure to do so will affect the fund flow of the fund manager.

Good reputation is built with great difficulty and cannot be repaired if it is broken. The greater the transparency of the reputation, the better the reputation. The discipline of an adventurer is judged by how quickly he is able to make his payments.

5. Tell us which legal responsibilities the adventurer fulfills.

Ans. It is the moral responsibility of every adventurer to fulfill all his responsibilities within the limits of the rules. These rules and obligations relate to the following-

Must follow regulations regarding registration and licensing fees, payment of taxes, health and safety procedures, compensation and workers’ insurance, wages, working conditions and hours, pollution control, and consumer protections.

Social responsibility tells the businessman how he should plan his business so that he can fulfill his social responsibilities. They should be disciplined, collect information and try to ensure that money, time, inhuman treatment does not happen and many legal claims do not get entangled.


1. Present arguments in favor of social responsibility .

Ans. (i) Public Requirements – Business can run only with the help of the public. Business must meet the needs of the society. This is also an argument regarding social responsibility. At this time, public expectations from business have also increased considerably. That is why if the business has to run for a long time then the business should keep in mind the needs of the society and give them only those things which the society wants. 

Business should be done keeping in mind the expectations of the society. Products and services are demanded by customers who are a part of the society. Business is an important part of the society, hence business should pay attention to its responsibility.

(ii) Favorable for Business – Social responsibility of business is not only useful to the society but it is also equally useful for the business which provides good quality goods and services to the society. Their respect and trust in the society increases.

Good health of humans, good environment, good education will create good customers. Besides this, good employees will also be obtained, labor turnover and labor absenteeism will be significantly reduced. Society will not even care about a businessman who does not understand the importance of human welfare and social welfare. As a result of social awareness, crimes will also decline. 

(iii) Moral Justification – Due to the formation of big companies in the modern era, many complex social problems have come to the fore. It is the moral responsibility of these big companies to find solutions to these problems. Business also uses the resources of the economy, hence it is the duty of business to spend some part of those resources on the development of the society.

(iv) Socio-cultural Norms – In a country like India where social and cultural heritage is very rich, income equality comes only through business, good labor and capital relations, consumers get good social respect. . When a businessman deviates from the standards mentioned above, he will definitely be criticized in the society. 

(v) Business can shoulder Responsibility – Many such organizations which are involved in solving social problems, when they failed in their efforts, then every business was taken to solve those social problems. In such a situation, it has become the duty of the business to fulfill the expectations of the public. Fulfill and fulfill your social responsibility.

(vi) Responsibility Must Corre espondence with power – Business uses a lot of social powers whose impact affects the economy, lower class communities and other social problems. Business must fulfill its social responsibilities just like the powers it takes from society. If the business does not do this then the business is not fulfilling its responsibilities. Which will result in hindering the development of nature.

(vii) Public Image – Only those business units will have a good image in the public which are conscious of their social objective. Every organization tries to build its image among the public so that they can get more and more customers, get good employees and get additional finance from the public at the time of need. This is possible only when businessmen also fully understand their responsibilities as a result of which the demand and value of shares and debentures will increase in the market.

(viii) Government Regulations – Whenever the business disobeys the government orders (does not pay attention to the needs of the society), then the government

Being a laborer, she is forced to act according to her rights and rules. Businesses must fulfill their responsibilities towards society before the government extends its long arm. The government has to run the business in the interest of the public.

“(ix) Indebted to Society – Business units enjoy many benefits from the society. Business also has some responsibilities towards the society. How many vast resources of the business society, including humans, machines, money, capabilities, are used in business. Rules are also made by the society like the citizens. For this reason, business also has the duty and responsibility to do some good work for the welfare of the society. 

2. Argue against social responsibility. (Give Arguments Against Social Responsibility.)

Ans. (i) Deviation from main objective – The main objective of business is to earn maximum profit. Financial efficiency of the business is also the first priority. When the businessman deviates from this, the objective of the business is not achieved.

Employees and shareholders benefit from increased profitability. Fulfilling social responsibilities has a negative impact on profits; a lot of resources are spent on social welfare. Anyway, the function of business is economic and not social. Economic values ​​mean earning more profit and earning this profit is also the test of business success.

(ii) Increase in values ​​– The cost of social responsibilities is passed on to the society and product prices are increased. When a business house spends money on social welfare, then the businessmen recover this money from the consumer by increasing the price of goods and services. Therefore, it is right that the consumer pays the cost of social responsibility. 

(iii) Excessive Concentration of Power – By combining social activities and economic activities, business will get more power and the result will be that by giving more social power, they will control the society’s education, housing, government and Will be successful in making more impact on the market and the society will become dependent on business. The impact of this type of business will give rise to many socio-economic and political problems for the society.

(iv) Lack of Social Skill – Businessmen who are successful in business cannot be successful in solving social problems. A businessman devotes all his energy to making his business successful and he has no time left to solve social problems. Solution to many social problems: Xavier Institute of Rural Management, Anand, Gujarat has done commendable work in this direction in which students are trained in rural social problems.

(v) Lack of Accountability – The businessman does not have direct relation with the public. It also does not seem right that the businessmen should be given the work for which they are not responsible. The management of a business is responsible to its owners. Management will not be responsible for social responsibilities.

(vi) Contract – The adventurer sometimes undertakes some work for the customers, fellow adventurers and also for the employees, which involves providing and receiving services and goods which he gives in a certain quantity and quality at a certain time. It is also not necessary for such obligations to be in writing. If this does not happen, there may be a possibility of loss to the society. If the adventurer does not complete the tasks he had promised, there will be losses in many businesses in the future.

3. Describe the various causes of pollution. (Describe the various causes of pollution.) 

Ans. (i) Natural Pollution – Nature itself is responsible for a large amount of pollution such as storms, forest fires, lightning strikes, volcanoes, due to which chemicals fall on vegetation and spoil the environment. According to an American survey, volcanoes in Java erupted thrice in the last 150 years in 1883. 

(ii) Deforestation – Cutting of wood from forests has had a negative impact on pollution. Wood is cut from forests for burning or for agricultural purposes. Trees are being cut from 1.3 million hectares of land every year. In industrialized countries, pollution has also increased significantly due to industrial smoke.

(iii) Motor vehicles and traffic – Pollution also increases due to running of motor vehicles. There are 1.4 million vehicles registered in Delhi. 120,000 more vehicles are added every year. 800 tons of gas escapes into the atmosphere. Every day 1500Kg Carbon Mono Oxide flies into the air which has a bad effect on health.

(iv) Standard of Living – Not only poor people but also rich people increase pollution, the more they buy, the more paper-packing is required, resulting in increased wastage. Rich men buy more for good standard of living. According to an estimate, rich men buy 85% of metals, 70% of fuel, 90% of motor car oil, 85% of chemicals. More purchases lead to more pollution, poor people also promote pollution.

(v) Population – Pollution increases with increase in population. According to an estimate, the world population doubles in 35 years. Rivers dry up with the birth of every new person. Green areas are drying up, air is becoming bad because many chemicals and dust in the air are produced due to increase in population.

(vi) Heavy Irrigation – Pollution increases as a result of excessive irrigation. For example, the Aswan Dam, which is built on the Nile River, was built to protect the people of Egypt from floods and to provide water to agricultural lands. Due to presence of bright chemicals in lakhs of hectares of land, people have started suffering from many diseases.

(vii) Agriculture – Use of fertilizers has led to more crops but it has affected the environment, polluted the water, use of fertilizers has affected the fertility of the land, as a result of which fish and wild animals are dying. And has influenced humans. Thus, dust from fields, chemical fertilizers, medicines and waterlogging are some of the ways that are caused due to agricultural pollution.

4. What is the responsibility of business towards its employees? (What are the responsibilities of Business towards Workers.)

Ans. In any business, its workers are active and emotional elements, the businessman has the following responsibilities towards them-

(i) Fair Wages – It is the social and moral responsibility of the business owner to pay fair wages to the workers. Providing them with fair wages and salaries will increase their working capacity. The enterprise will have to pay the workers the wages as prescribed by the government.

(ii) Security of the Job – The work of workers in an organization should be safe and secure. Only when this happens will the workers be dedicated to the organization and will be able to prove themselves to be a good asset for the business.

1 If workers fear losing their jobs, they will not be able to work with full dedication. The organization should tell the worker at the time of his appointment that once he is appointed, he will not be fired from the job without proper reason.

(iii) Creating congenial atmosphere of work – Working conditions should be healthy and enjoyable. The work place should be very clean, well lit, free from dust and suffocation. There should be proper arrangements to prevent accidents. It would be even better if there is provision of good parks. And in such an environment workers will not experience fatigue.

(iv) Scientific Selection of Employees – Selection and appointment of employees should not be done on the basis of emotions. The selection should be made after great consideration. Employees were selected as per the requirement of the work.

That is, the right employee should be selected on the basis of right work. (v) Promotional Avenues – Every employee should aspire for promotion. When an employee sees opportunities for promotion, he will do the work wholeheartedly. Promotion opportunities provide a constant source of motivation for the employee. Promotion should be done on humanitarian basis only. Employees where there are few opportunities for professional development

They stay at a certain place and beyond that their salary does not increase, in such a situation the employee will give up the desire to work more.

5. Describe the responsibilities of business towards society and general public. (Discuss the responsibilities of business towards Community (Society) and general public.)

Ans. A businessman should have the qualities of an ideal citizen, only then he will be able to fulfill his responsibilities towards the society.

(i) Employment to local community – The first responsibility of business towards the society is to provide employment to the people of the place where the industry is set up.

(ii) Promoting Social Schemes – The business should make arrangements for education, health and housing at the same place for that society. Business should also cooperate with those institutions which can provide suitable services to the society.

(iii) Control on Atmosphere – A business unit should manage the remaining clippings, smoke, dust, dirt etc. in such a way that it does not have a bad effect on the health of the society.

(iv) Helping the helpless – The business should give employment to the poor, handicapped and economically backward among the permanent people in the business in a sympathetic manner. Provide them work and training as well. It is the social responsibility of business to provide work to such destitute people.

(v) No alteration in goods – If the business sells adulterated products, counterfeit products and defective products, then it will be considered contrary to nationalistic sentiments. Besides, it will be considered a social crime which will have a negative impact on the lives of the citizens.

(vi) Negative Political Support – As far as possible, do not use political support to achieve business objectives. Such assistance will not be in the interest of the nation.

6. Briefly describe the causes of pollution.

Ans. The main causes of pollution are as follows-

(i) Motor vehicles and traffic – Problems arising from motor vehicles and traffic are the main reasons giving rise to pollution. The problem of severe pollution arises due to running of motor vehicles. According to statistics, 1.4 million vehicles are registered in Delhi while the number increases by about 1,20,000 vehicles every year. Due to the use of these vehicles, 800 kg of gas is released into the atmosphere. 1500 kg per day Carbon monoxide dissolves in the air which has a bad effect on human health.

(ii) Establishment of Factories – In the present era of globalization, every country is setting up factories on a large scale with the aim of moving ahead in the race of development, as a result of which a large amount of poisonous gases are released into the atmosphere. Due to which the problem of pollution is becoming more acute.

(iii) Natural Causes – To a large extent, nature itself is responsible for pollution. For example, occurrence of storms, forest fires, lightning strikes, volcanic eruptions are such natural causes due to which chemicals are sprayed on vegetation and thereby pollute the environment. According to a US survey, volcanoes in Java erupted three times in the last 150 years, which became the cause of pollution.

(iv) Deforestation – The ruthless cutting of forests has had a very bad effect on the environment. Wood is harvested from forests for fuelwood or agricultural purposes. According to the data received, forests are being destroyed from 1.3 million hectares of land every year due to which the prevalence of rainfall is decreasing and pollution is increasing day by day.

(v) Increasing Population – With the increase in population, pollution also increases. According to some scholars the population doubles in about 25 years. Due to increase in population, various types of chemicals start being produced in the air due to which the atmosphere starts getting polluted.

(vi) Use of fertilizers in agriculture – To increase the productivity of agriculture, chemical fertilizers are being used on a large scale today. At present, the yield definitely increases due to the use of fertilizers, but its effects are very dangerous. The use of fertilizers has adversely affected human health, the fertility of the land (in the long run), fish and wild animals have been affected. These have been adversely affected by agricultural pollution.

(vii) Heavy Irrigation- Heavy irrigation also increases pollution. For example, the Aswan Dam which is built on the Nile River, the main purpose of its construction was to save the people of Egypt from the havoc of floods and to provide water supply for agriculture, but due to the bright chemicals produced in the ground, people started suffering from many types of diseases. Are.

(viii) Standard of Living – At present, every person is trying to raise his standard of living. As the standard of living increases, their purchasing also increases in the same proportion. According to an estimate, 78% of fuel, 90% of motor vehicle oil, 85% of chemicals are purchased by people with high standard of living which promotes pollution.

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